An attempt was made to estimate the migration pattern in recent Japan using surnames as migration markers. As an analogy of genes, a mutated surname is transmitted generation to generation to produce its offsprings, and incidentally these decendants migrate from the original population to other ones. From the geographical distribution of surnames at the present time, the migration pattern of Japan in historical age can be estimated. A small city in the Hokuriku District (Takefu) was selected and it was compared with other 53 cities in Japan with respect to the surname distribution. Data were obtained from telephone books and 409 surnames were detected from the A-series of the telephone book of Takefu city. Numbers of these surnames at other 53 cities were counted and analyzed by using four kinds of statistics. A positive correlation is found between the total size of a surname and the number of cities where this surname is distributed. A negative correlation is found between the total size of a surname and the coefficient of variation of the surname size for cities. The affinity of Takefu city with other cities in relation to the surname distribution was computed under four indices, including KENDALL'S rank correlation coefficient and PENROSE's shape distance. In general, we can see the negative correlation between the affinity and the geographical distance from Takefu city. To obtain the valid estimate of the migration pattern from the surname distribution, it is important to assume the monophyletic origin of surnames. If we exclude surnames with extremely large total size from migration markers, this assumption might hold better. The more accurate relationship between the affinity of the surname distribution and the migration pattern remains to be studied.
An ethology-based catalogue of twenty five items of facial behavior patterns is presented based on a research of Japanese day nursery children. Comparisons are made between the published and this catalogue in order to make clear the differences in ways to list facial behavior patterns and culturally influenced behavior patterns. It can be concluded that there is no developmental change in facial behavior patterns from one to five years old, though some cultural differences can be observed in other body patterns among preschool children, that the measurements of hedonic tone of facial behavior patterns seem to be the same cross-culturally, and that it is necessary to do research on the general meaning of the 'reassurance' behavior caused by the facial display observed in this research.
Correlations of the length, width and cortical thickness and some indices calculated from these measurements between the second and the third metacarpals were examined, based on 1072 radiographs of 88 male and 91 female twins aged 12 to 18 years. Although most correlations tended to be significant, the magnitude of correlation is higher in the length, followed by the width, than in the cortical thickness. However, heritability is almost the same between the second and the third metacarpals in both sexes. Both metacarpals probably show the same usefulness as an indicator of compact bone mass, though the value is somewhat greater in the second than in the third. However, since both metacarpals do not always show signigicant correlations for the cortical thickness, it seems to be reasonable to use both bones, at least, to estimate an exact compact bone mass for an individual.
Growth of musculo-skeletal system of Japanese macaques was analysed, on the supposition that the system may grow in concordance with a functional necessity such as locomotion. Growth of bone length shows that the limbs of macaques are not specialized for running or leaping. Growth of muscle weight is remarkable, and the alteration in the weight distribution can be related to the change of locomotor pattern to some extent. Muscle growth of upper and lower limbs differs in their characteristics: growth of lower limb muscles is oriented solely to development for propulsion (pushing the body forward); that of upper limbs is oriented not only to the development of propulsion but also of control, such as rotation. Postnatal growth of muscles in man resembles that of macaque, which suggests that the function is very similar. A large difference in muscle development between man and macaque is in the magnitude of growth, that is, muscle growth in man is more remarkable than in macaque. The difference may be related to the fact that the newborn of man is less mature than that of macaque and/or that changes in the functional necessities of man are greater than those of macaque.
Three distance runners and three oarsmen were subjected to the prediction of maximum local energy metabolic rates of main seven muscle groups. Total energy metabolic rates and integrated bipolar surface electromyograms of the seven muscle groups were simultaneously measured during fifteen static resting and exercising items. The measurements of electromyograms were also performed during maximum voluntary contraction. Oarsmen had higher mean maximum energy metabolic rates than distance runners and non-athletes in the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall, the erector spinae muscles, the anterior femoral muscle group and the posterior crural muscle group. The muscle groups, of which mean value was higher in distance runners than in oarsmen and non-athletes, were the muscles of the buttock, the posterior femoral muscle group and the anterior crural muscle group. Nonathletes showed the least mean value in each muscle group except the posterior femoral muscle group. The present results confirmed that the maximum local muscle energy metabolic rates reflected daily prolonged heavy exercises.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of air temperature on maximal oxygen intake. Ten adult males were used as subjects. The maximal oxygen intake was measured at 10°C, 20°C, 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C of air temperature, all at 50% of relative humidity. The largest value of maximal oxygen intake was obtained at an air temperature of 30°C and was significantly greater than the value at 20°C and 40°C. A polynomial equation was used to calculate the critical temperatures. The lower critical temperature was 23.6°C and the upper 36.7°C. The critical temperatures for maximal heart rate and maximal work time were calculated by the same method.
Fingernail specimens were taken from 339 Japanese subjects assigned to one of six age groups. Red chromogen was obtained by the reaction of nail samples with a 66% aqueous solution of sulfuric acid in a boiling water bath. Although the structure of the red chromogen was unidentified, the content of chromogen was found to be correlated with the age of the subject. The values for the concentration were remarkably high in newborns, infants and children (group I), but decreased gradually by the age of 10(group II). There was no appreciable difference between values in adults.
Distribution of Hp, Tf, Gc and Pi systems was studied in 225 serum samples from a Japanese population in the central region of San-in District of Japan. The frequencies of Hp1, TfC1 and PiM1 alleles were found to be somewhat but not significantly low as compared with other Japanese populations. A new variant type of Gc was observed to be located between the Gc 1S and 1C2 bands. The obtained gene frequencies are as follows: Hp1=0.2183, Hp2=0.7817; TfC1=0.7448, TfC2=0.2456, TfVar=0.0096; Gc1F=0.4411. Gc1S=0.2823, Gc2=0.2645, Gc1A2=0.0121; PiM1=0.6742, PiM2=0.2793, PiM3=0.0465.
This paper is a report of a program for calculating the geometrical properties of a body which is represented by a moiré photograph. The geometrical properties include centroid, volume, surface area, moment of inertia of volume, and principal axis. Three-dimensional measurements of specimens have sometimes been carried out in physical anthropology but when the information was obtained from the moiré topography of primate bones or human body surfaces, often it was not sufficiently analyzed because of lack of attempts to calculate 3-dimensional geometrical properties. This program can be used on an inexpensive system which includes digitizing unit and microcomputer. It is coded in BASIC language and based on comprehensive algorithm.