Lipid rafts are liquid ordered membrane domains enriched with sphingolipids and cholesterol. After 20 years since the proposal of the original concept, the structure and function of lipid rafts are still obscure. Recently new tools to study lipid rafts have been developed. Lysenin is a sphingomyelin binding protein that specifically recognizes the lipid clusters. Poly(ethyleneglycol)-derivatized cholesterol ether (PEG-Chol) is a non-toxic cholesterol probe. These probes have revealed the heterogeneity of lipid rafts. The heterogeneity of lipid rafts is further supported by the discovery of a new lipid component, phosphatidylglucoside. Metabolic inhibitors are another useful tool. Sulfamisterin is a new addition to the serine palmitoyltransferase inhibitors. Recent findings have uncovered a previously unrecognized activity of a glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitor, D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (D-PDMP).
Membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) are now recognized as critical for proper compartmentalization of insulin signaling, but their role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance has not been investigated. Detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs), isolated in the low density fractions, are highly enriched in cholesterol, glycosphingolipids and various signaling molecules. TNFα induces insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. We have found a selective increase in the acidic glycosphingolipid ganglioside GM3 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TNFα, suggesting a specific function for GM3. We were able to extend these in vitro observations to living animals using obese Zucker fa/fa rats and ob/ob mice, in which the GM3 synthase mRNA levels in the white adipose tissues are significantly higher than in their lean controls. In the DRMs from TNFα-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, GM3 levels were doubled, compared to results in normal adipocytes. Additionally, insulin receptor (IR) accumulations in the DRMs were diminished, while caveolin and flotillin levels were unchanged. GM3 depletion was able to counteract the TNFα-induced inhibition of IR accumulation into DRMs. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that in insulin resistance the insulin metabolic signaling defect can be attributed to a loss of IRs in the microdomains due to an accumulation of GM3.
Virus entry, assembly, and budding are important processes in the replication cycle of a virus. Viruses are dependent on host living cells for their replication. Viruses use the proliferative mechanism of host cells for replication of viral components. Lipid rafts, specific membrane microdomains play a critical role in virus replication because localizing and concentrating viral components in the microdomains for entry, assembly, and budding of various types of virus. In this review, we describe the involvement of membrane lipid rafts in the virus replication cycle with our current findings for understanding the role of membrane lipid rafts in virus infection.
Biological membranes are composed of lipid bilayers. Major lipid components of the eukaryotic plasma membrane include glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol. Lipids are irregularly distributed between the two leaflets, thus causing lipid asymmetry, or within the same leaflet, forming a lipid microdomain. Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids both contribute to the lipid asymmetry, whereas cholesterol and sphingolipids form lipid microdomains. Maintenance of proper lipid asymmetry is required for the mechanical stability of the membrane and for vesicular transport. On the other hand, local or global changes in lipid asymmetry are important for cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and platelet coagulation. Three classes of lipid translocases, P-type ATPases, ABC transporters, and scramblases, are known to be involved in the regulation of lipid asymmetry. In this review, we describe the physiological and pathological functions of lipid asymmetry and the current knowledge of lipid translocases.
In eukaryotic cells, the biological membrane is characterized by a non-uniform distribution of membrane lipids, vertically as well as laterally. The paradigm for the vertical non-random distribution is the plasma membrane, where phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), and glycosphingolipids are primarily located on the exoplasmic leaflet, while aminophospholipids, including phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), are generally enriched in the cytoplasmic leaflet. Other minor phospholipids, such as phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol (PI), are also enriched on the cytoplasmic face. Such asymmetrical distribution is related to each lipid regulating various biological events through interaction with other molecules. The clarification of the regulatory mechanism of the distribution and movement of membrane lipids is crucial to understanding the physiological roles of lipids. Here we focus on PS, which has been reported to be involved in apoptosis, blood coagulation and other biological phenomena, and summarize the present understanding of the dynamics of this phospholipid, including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport, and transbilayer movement. We also refer to diseases that have been reported to be related to phospholipid asymmetry.
Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is common among above 50 years age group, interfere with normal activities of lower urinary tract function and reduce the sense of well being. It can also be progressive, with a lost of urinary retention, bladder infection, bladder calculus and renal failure. Although many men with mild to moderate symptoms to well without therapy, others have gradually increasing symptoms and require medical therapy or surgery. BPH is the non-malignant, uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate gland. This cell growth usually occurs in the tissue that surrounds the urethra as it passes through the prostate gland to the bladder. As BPH progresses, the gland constricts the urethra and obstructs the urine outflow. The bladder no longer empties completely, creating an environment in which infections, bladder stones, and chronic prostatities may develop. If left untreated, chronic obstruction can lead to the back up of urine into the ureters and compromise kidney function. In hyperplastic prostate tissue, the prostate capsule, and the bladder neck are blocked, by using α-adrenergic antagonist drugs; the smooth muscle tone of these structures is decreased. As a result, resistance to urinary flow through the bladder neck and the prostatic urethra decreases and urinary flow increases. A variety of α-adrenergic antagonists with distinct properties have been investigated as possible treatments for benign prostate hyperplasia.
Paraoxonase (PON1, EC 188.8.131.52) is an esterase protein which plays multifunctional role in metabolism. Therefore, in this study the effects of commonly used antibiotics, namely sodium ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, rifamycin SV and clindamycin phosphate, on human PON1 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Human serum paraoxonase (PON1) was separately purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The in vitro effects of the antibiotics in purifying human serum paraoxonase was determined using paraoxon as a substrate, and the IC50 values of these drugs exhibiting inhibition effects were found from graphs of hydratase activity % by plotting the concentration of the drugs. It was determined that sodium ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin phosphate were effective inhibitors on human serum PON1, and the inhibition kinetics of interaction of sodium ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin phosphate with the human serum PON1 was also determined, with the Ki of sodium ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin phosphate being 0.00714±0.00068, 6.5×10−6±4.59×10−7, 0.0291±0.0077 mM, respectively. The in vivo effects of the antibiotics on paraoxonase enzyme activity in mouse serum and liver PON1 were also investigated. Mouse liver PON1 activity showed a statistically significant change at 2, 4 and 6 h of drug appliciation in vivo. Sodium ampicillin and clindamycin phosphate exhibited about 80% mouse liver PON1 at 2 or 4 h (p: 0.034, 0.003 and 0.021, respectively). In addition, ciprofloxacin and rifamycin SV only showed inhibition at 4 h incubation. Sodium ampicillin (17.12 mg/kg) lead to a significant decrease in mouse serum PON1 after 4 h drug administration. Ciprofloxacin (3.2 mg/kg), rifamycin SV (3.56 mg/kg) and clindamycin phosphate (2.143 mg/kg) did not exhibit any inhibition effect for the mouse serum PON1, in vivo.
Sandhoff disease (SD) is an autosomal recessive GM2 gangliosidosis caused by the defect of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase (Hex) β-subunit gene associated with neurosomatic manifestations. Therapeutic effects of Hex subunit gene transduction have been examined on Sandhoff disease model mice (SD mice) produced by the allelic disruption of Hexb gene encoding the murine β-subunit. We demonstrate here that elimination of GM2 ganglioside (GM2) accumulated in the fibroblastic cell line derived from SD mice (FSD) did not occur when the HEXB gene only was transfected. In contrast, a significant increase in the HexB (ββ homodimer) activity toward neutral substrates, including GA2 (asialo-GM2) and oligosaccharides carrying the terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues at their non-reducing ends (GlcNAc-oligosaccharides) was observed. Immunoblotting with anti-human HexA (αβ heterodimer) serum after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE) revealed that the human HEXB gene product could hardly form the chimeric HexA through associating with the murine α-subunit. However, co-introduction of the HEXA encoding the human α-subunit and HEXB genes caused significant corrective effect on the GM2 degradation by producing the human HexA. These results indicate that the recombinant human HexA could interspeciesly associate with the murine GM2 activator protein to degrade GM2 accumulated in the FSD cells. Thus, therapeutic effects of the recombinant human HexA isozyme but not human HEXB gene product could be evaluated by using the SD mice.
Significant research effort is currently focused on Protein Transduction Domains (PTDs) as potential intracellular drug delivery carriers. However, the application of this technology is limited because the transduction efficiencies are often insufficient for therapeutic purposes, even using HIV-1 Tat peptide. Here we describe a high-throughput screening method based on a phage display system for isolating novel PTDs with improved cell penetration activity. The screening method involves using protein synthesis inhibitory factor (PSIF) as cargo of PTD. Using this method, several Tat-PTD mutants of superior cell-penetrating activity were isolated. Interestingly, the amino acid sequence of the PTD mutants contained some characteristic residues, such as proline. Thus, our screening method may prove useful in determining the relationship between protein transduction and amino acid sequence.
To investigate involvement of cellular glycosphingolipids in the propagation of influenza viruses in host cells, MDCK cells were treated with inhibitors for sphingolipid biosynthesis, fumonisin B1 and d,l-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. Continuous treatment of the cells with either inhibitor during pre- and post viral inoculation, but not the pretreatment alone, significantly reduced viral infection, but not viral attachment to the cells. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that cellular distribution of hemagglutinin, a viral glycoprotein, was drastically altered when the cells were continuously treated with the inhibitors during pre- and post viral inoculation, but not the pretreatment alone. Our findings strongly suggest that cellular sphingolipids play important roles in the events after viral adsorption to the host cells.
Dectin-1 is a C-type lectin receptor that recognizes fungal β-glucan, and mediates the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines. Thus Dectin-1 is thought to be essential for anti-fungal immune responses. Murine Dectin-1 mRNA is alternatively spliced and generates two isoforms (isoform A and B). Human Dectin-1 mRNA is also alternatively spliced and its functional isoforms (isoform A and B) are structurally similar to each of the mouse isoforms. One of the major differences among the four murine and human isoforms is the position and number of N-linked glycosylation motifs. But the significance of the glycosylation to the recognition of β-glucan is not known. In this paper, using various glycosylation consensus sequence mutants, we demonstrated that the N-linked glycosylation of Dectin-1 affects the cell surface expression of the molecule. The expression levels on the cell surface influence the ligand-binding and the collaboration with TLR2 in the activation of NF-κB. These results suggest that N-linked glycosylation on Dectin-1 is essential for the recognition of fungal β-glucan and subsequent activation of NF-κB.
Facilitative glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is the molecule responsible for the entry of glucose into the brain, and its mutation is known as GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) in humans. To clarify the effect of GLUT1 gene deficiency, we have produced GLUT1-deficient mice, and investigated the developmental expression of GLUT1, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and MCT2 in the brains of these mice. Since the homozygotes were found to be embryonically lethal and the heterozygotes exhibited no abnormalities, GLUT1deficiency was examined using heterozygote mice. GLUT1 deficiency did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of GLUT1 at P0, P7 and in adults, or the levels of MCTs at P7, P14 and in adults. The GLUT1 level at P14 was reduced by 46.9%, although this was not statistically significant. The MCTs levels at P0 were increased about 2.0-fold in the deficient mice compared with the wild type. Furthermore, at P0, GLUT1 mRNA levels in wild type females were 1.91-fold higher than in wild type males. These results suggest that GLUT1 deficiency affects GLUT1 mRNA expression in the infant brain, and that of MCT1 and MCT2 in the neonatal brain. Furthermore, a compensatory effect of GLUT1 expression was observed in the brain of adult deficient mice. These effects of GLUT1 deficiency in the brain provide a molecular basis to assist in our understanding of the symptoms of GLUT1DS.
Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, which were established by culturing on feeder cells, have usually been cultured without feeder cells in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor. However, proliferating rate of ES cells in the condition is often lower than that with feeder cells. Here, we found that conditioned medium (CM) from feeder cells (STO cells) increased the number of undifferentiated cells in a culture dish by promoting attachment of ES cells. The attached cells were increased in 4 h after replating ES cells in the presence of CM from STO cells, and they formed flat colonies composed of undifferentiated cells. This culture system with CM from feeder cells is useful in preparing a large number of well-defined ES cells. In addition, from present experiments we found that the dish double-coated with gelatin and CM was extremely useful for culturing ES cells.
Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) strains are frequently associated with bacteremia and hospital-acquired infections. 293 CNS strains were isolated from 744 samples from a dialysis center in S. M. de Tucumán, Argentina, from hemocultures, catheters and urine and identified as S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. saprophyticus, S. hominis and S. cohnii. 13 antibiotics were tested for antibacterial resistance. 75% of S. saprophyticus, 66% of S. epidermidis and 57% of S. haemolyticus was resistant to erythromycin and 50% of S. haemolyticus was resistant to ciprofloxacin. OXA resistance was found in 43% of S. haemolyticus. Presence of PBP 2a in OXA-R strains was confirmed with the modified agglutination assay (MRSA) and presence of the mecA gene. 15 strains with intermediate halos for vancomycin and teicoplanin showed a MIC in solid and liquid medium ≤1 μg/ml and ≤4 μg/ml respectively, which means that they were susceptible. 30% of the CNS strains produced biofilms: 42% of S. haemolyticus and 40% of S. epidermidis. 76% of the S. epidermidis and 59% of the S. haemolyticus biofilm-producing strains were isolated from catheters. The disc-diffusion technique together with the agglutination assay proved to be fast and reliable, which is of essential importance in intensive care units. Rapid identification of CNS strains, detection of resistance to methicillin and biofilm production are decisive for a prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy and limited use of inappropriate glycopeptides.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common non-skin cancers in men. Amygdalin is one of the nitrilosides, natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of plants of the prunasin family that have been used to treat cancers and relieve pain. In particular, D-amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-β-D-gentiobioside) is known to exhibit selective killing effect on cancer cells. Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is an important mechanism in cancer treatment. In the present study, we prepared the aqueous extract of the amygdalin from Armeniacae semen and investigated whether this extract induces apoptotic cell death in human DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. In the present results, DU145 and LNCaP cells treated with amygdalin exhibited several morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Treatment with amygdalin increased expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein, decreased expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, and increased caspase-3 enzyme activity in DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Here, we have shown that amygdalin induces apoptotic cell death in human DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells by caspase-3 activation through down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax. The present study reveals that amygdalin may offer a valuable option for the treatment of prostate cancers.
The goal of this study was to determine the effects of Rhus verniciflua stokes (RVS) on the radical scavenging activities and H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in macrophage 264.7 cells. An 80% ethanol extract of RVS was purified by ion exchange chromatography (IEC). Purified RVS extract contained a high amount of phenolics (55.5 g/100 g of extract) and flavonoids (5.9 g/100 g of extract) and its antioxidant activities, such as DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, was higher than the unpurified RVS extract. Purified RVS extract significantly reduced intracellular ROS formation caused by H2O2. Purified RVS extract also prevented the cell death of macrophage RAW 264.7 cells induced by H2O2. Interestingly, co-treated purified RVS extract effectively reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) formation, and attenuated catalase depletion at concentration of 100 μg/ml (p<0.05). Study using PDA-HPLC analyses have found that the purified RVS extract contains six major low molecular compounds as p-coumaric acid, fustin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, sulfuretin, butein and kaempferol. These results indicate that purified RVS extract, tested in this study, could contribute to the antioxidant activities and inhibition of intracellular ROS level.
The flower buds of Buddleja officinalis MAXIM (Loganiaceae) are used to treat headache and inflammatory diseases in traditional Korean medicine. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of the methanolic extract of B. officinalis (BOME) and of its hexane fraction (BOHF) were investigated in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo, 120 min occlusion, 24 h reperfusion) Sprague–Dawley rat model. BOME or BOHF (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was twice administered 30 min before the onset of MCAo and 2 h after reperfusion. BOME and BOHF treated groups showed infarct volumes reduced by 33.9% and 68.2%, respectively, at 2 h occlusion. In BOHF treated animals, cyclooxygenase-2 and iNOS inductions were inhibited in ischemic hemispheres at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that BOME and BOHF both inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide production in BV-2 mouse microglial cells. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and the microglial activation inhibitory effects of B. officinalis extract may contribute to its neuroprotective effects in brain ischemia.
The reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ overload play a critical role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. MCI-186 has potent effects in the brain as a free radical scavenger in ischemia-reperfusion. Acute glucose–oxygen deprivation and subsequent reoxygenation were used to model ischemia/reperfusion injury in cultured hippocampal cells. MCI-186 reduced malondialdehyde level and raised the SOD activity when applied upon reoxygenation in a dose-dependent manner compared with the untreated group. The peak neuroprotective effects occurred at 100 and 300 μM. Intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was significantly reduced in the 100 μM MCI-186-treated group compared to the untreated group (32.5±4.0 versus 50.2±3.6, p<0.01). Treatment with 100 μM MCI-186 significantly inhibited the decrease of mitochondria membrane potential after simulated ischemia/reperfusion (204±11.6% compared with the untreated group, p<0.01). Cell apoptotic rate was significantly decreased following MCI-186 treatment from 33.7±2.3% (untreated group) to 16.6±1.4% (100 μM MCI-186 treated group). There was no significantly protective difference between 100 and 300 μM MCI-186. MCI-186 effectively protects neuron injury after simulated ischemia/reperfusion by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, reducing Ca2+ overload, elevating mitochondria membrane potential, and decreasing apoptosis.
Effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen (APAP) were examined using male mice. A dose of DMSO (1 ml/kg, i.p.) inhibited the induction of APAP hepatotoxicity almost completely as indicated by changes in serum hepatotoxic parameters. Quantification of major APAP metabolites in plasma showed that APAP-glutathione (GSH), a conjugate generated via metabolic activation of APAP, was reduced significantly while APAP-sulfate and APAP-glucuronide, detoxified metabolites both produced directly from the parent drug, were increased in mice pretreated with DMSO. However, microsomal CYP2E1 activity measured with p-nitrophenol and p-nitroanisole as substrates was increased by DMSO treatment. Generation of APAP-GSH in microsomes from control mice was inhibited by DMSO in a dose-dependent manner. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition pattern produced by DMSO was competitive in nature. A 10000 g supernatant was reconstituted with the cytosolic fraction and microsomes from DMSO- or saline-treated animals. APAP-GSH production was increased significantly when the cytosolic fraction from saline-treated mice and/or microsomes from DMSO-treated mice were used. The results indicate that DMSO induces the enzyme activity responsible for oxidative metabolism of APAP, but its direct inhibitory effect on the enzymatic interaction with this drug decreases the overall production of a reactive metabolite, resulting in reduction of the hepatotoxicity. It is suggested that DMSO effects on metabolism of a xenobiotic would vary depending on its potential to inhibit the interaction of enzyme(s) and the xenobiotic.
Recently, we showed that a combination of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and that this leads to the apoptosis of G361 human melanoma cells. In the present study, flow cytometric analysis confirmed that H2O2 is involved the IAA/HRP-induced apoptotic process. We also found that IAA/HRP increases cell surface CD95 (Fas/APO-1) expression, and that this is blocked by catalase treatment. Furthermore, blocking CD95 with a neutralizing antibody significantly restored IAA/HRP-induced apoptosis. In addition, the IAA/HRP-induced activations of CD95 downstream molecules, i.e., caspase-8, Bid, and caspase-3, were also inhibited by catalase. Moreover, a caspase-8 inhibitor significantly blocked IAA/HRP-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that IAA/HRP-induced apoptosis involves a CD95-initiated death receptor signaling pathway initiated by hydrogen peroxide.
The effect of paeoniflorin (PF), a major constituent isolated from Paeony radix, on N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a selective adenosine A1 receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, induced antinociception was examined in mice. In the tail-pressure test, CPA (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. PF (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, s.c.) alone failed to exhibit any antinociceptive effect in mice; however, pretreatment of PF (20 mg/kg, s.c.) could significantly enhance CPA-induced antinociception. Additionally, pretreatment of 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.25 mg/kg, s.c.), a selective A1 receptor antagonist, could antagonize the antinociceptive effect of combining CPA with PF. Furthermore, in the competitive binding experiments, PF did not displace the binding of [3H]-8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine ([3H]-DPCPX) but displaced that of [3H]-2-Chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine ([3H]-CCPA, a selective A1 receptor agonist) to the membrane preparation of rat cerebral cortex. These results suggested that PF might selectively increase the binding and antinociceptive effect of CPA by binding with A1 receptor.
Physiological and pathophysiological conditions often affect the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochromes P450 (P450s). Diabetes is one such factor and it is of great interest to understand its effects on drug metabolism, since diabetic patients generally have increased need for pharmacotherapy. We have recently reported the coordinated reduction of CYP2B1/2 and their transcriptional regulator constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, in the liver of genetically obese/diabetic Zucker fatty rats (Xiong, H., Yoshinari, K., et al., Drug Metab. Dispos., 30, 918—923, 2002). In this study, we investigated the expression of P450s and liver-enriched nuclear receptors in the liver of genetically diabetic db/db mice. Surprisingly, both CYP2B10 and CAR levels were increased in db/db mice. CYP4A expression was also increased at both mRNA and protein levels in db/db mice, while those of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, a key regulator for the transcriptional activation of CYP4As, were comparable to those in age-matched C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrate that db/db mice and Zucker fatty rats exhibit different expression profiles of P450s and nuclear receptors despite their similar characteristics for obesity and diabetes resulting from a defect in the leptin signaling pathway.
Uncarinic acid E, an active component isolated from Gelsemium elegans BENTH, has been reported to exhibit antitumor effects, but little is known about its molecular mechanisms of action. In this study, the growth-inhibitory activity of uncarinic acid E for HepG2 cells is in time- and dose-dependent manner. HepG2 cells treated with uncarinic acid E exhibited several typical characteristics of apoptosis through photomicroscopical observation, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. The inhibitory effect of uncarinic acid E on HepG2 cells was partially reversed by the inhibitors of pan-caspase, caspase-3 and caspase-6. The protein expression ratio of Bcl-xL/Bax and Bcl-2/Bax was down-regulated and uncarinic acid E-induced apoptosis involves the initial phase mediated by the balance among Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, resulting in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. Uncarinic acid E significantly increased the expression of p53 proteins indicates that p53 plays a pivotal role in the initiation phase of uncarinic acid E-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis. The phoshatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) family inhibitor wortmanin and the MEK inhibitor (PD98059) rescued the viability loss induced by uncarinic acid E through the expression of p53. Taken together, uncarinic acid E induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells via accumulation of p53, alters the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activates caspases, resulting in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria.
Site-directed mutagenesis was used to investigate the molecular interactions involved in sarpogrelate binding to the human 5-Hydroxytryptamine(5-HT)2C receptor. Based on molecular modeling studies, Aspartic acid (Asp)155[3.32] in transmembrane region III and Serine(Ser)361[7.46] in transmembrane region VII of the 5-HT2C receptor were found to interact with sarpogrelate. Asp3.32 and Ser7.46 were mutated to alanine (Ala) and expressed in COS-7 cells. The radioligand [3H]mesulergine did not show any binding to Asp3.32Ala mutant of 5-HT2C receptor. Therefore, it was not possible to find any sarpogrelate affinity to the mutant using [3H]mesulergine. The mutation also abolished agonist-stimulated IP formation of [3H]myo-inositol. Introduction of dual mutation at position Ser7.46 (Asp3.32Ala–Ser7.46Ala) could not restore the function disrupted by the first mutation (Asp3.32Ala). On the other hand, the Ser7.46Ala mutant showed reduced binding affinity for [3H]mesulergine (Kd 3557 pM versus 573 pM for the wild-type receptor) and had reduced affinity for sarpogrelate. Moreover, the Ser7.46Ala mutant receptor also showed a great loss of potency for sarpogrelate in inhibiting 5-HT-stimulated IP formation of [3H]myo-inositol. The results provide direct evidence that Asp3.32 and less importantly, Ser7.46 are responsible for the interaction between 5-HT2C receptor and [3H]mesulergine as well as sarpogrelate. More interestingly, Ser7.46Ala increases the receptor expression (20-fold vs. wild-type) of the mutant receptors and basal [3H]myo-inositol formation (2.5-fold vs. wild-type), which indicates that the 5-HT2C receptor could be rendered constitutively active by mutating the amino acid serine at position 7.46 to alanine.
The development of oral medications to help prevent liver injury is desirable, and some mushrooms contain chemicals that show promise as such a treatment. Here, we tested whether a hot-water extract (L.E.M.) of the cultured mycelia of an edible mushroom, Lentinus edodes, could protect primary cultured hepatocytes from D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced injury. GalN induced cell death in the hepatocytes, and this effect was completely suppressed by the addition of 0.5 mg/ml L.E.M. Polyphenolic compounds contained in the L.E.M. seemed to be responsible for the protective effect. We next examined the protective effect of L.E.M. in a GalN-induced liver injury model in rats. In rats that had been treated with L.E.M. given orally or intraperitoneally, GalN caused less leakage of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, markers for liver injury, and a lower decrease in serum protein content, than in non-L.E.M.-treated rats. Histological analysis of the liver also showed a protective effect of L.E.M. Our findings indicate that L.E.M. administration is a promising treatment for protecting the liver from acute injury.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genetic polymorphism in the CYP2D6 gene, which codes for the polymorphically expressed CYP2D6 drug-metabolizing enzyme. The common variants CYP2D6*2, *3, *4, *5, *10, *14, and *17 were studied in the populations (n=447) of the four South Indian states namely Tamilnadu (TN), Kerala (Ker), Karnataka (Kar) and Andhra Pradesh (AP). Genetic polymorphisms were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) based methods. Differences in frequencies of CYP2D6 polymorphism between each South Indian state were statistically compared, and also the frequency of South Indian population as a whole in relation to other major populations. The CYP2D6*2 allele was the most frequent variant (34.8%), followed by the *10 allele (10.2%). The *4 and *5 alleles occurred at 7.3% and 1.9% respectively. The *3, *14 and *17 alleles were not detected in the study. The *1/*2, *1/*1 and *2/*2 genotypes were the most common CYP2D6 genotypes, representing 32.7%, 19.4% and 11.8% of the South Indian population. Genotypes that predict poor metabolizer phenotype i.e.*4/*4 and *4/*5 were found at 0.6% in South Indian population. The genetic composition at the CYP2D6 locus in South Indians is distinct from Caucasian, African and even other Asian (Chinese and Japanese) populations.
Sortases are a family of Gram-positive transpeptidases responsible for anchoring surface protein virulence factors to the peptidoglycan cell wall layer. In Staphylococcus aureus, deletion of the sortase isoforms results in marked reduction in virulence and infection potential, making it an important antivirulence target. We examined the effects of naturally occurring flavonols on recombinant sortase A (SrtA) and B (SrtB) prepared from S. aureus ATCC6538p and found that these compounds inhibited the activity of sortases, without exhibiting antibacterial activities. Among the flavonols tested, morin, myricetin, and quercetin exhibited strong sortase inhibitory activities (SrtA IC50: 37.39—52.70 μM, SrtB IC50: 8.54—36.89 μM). The fibrinogen cell-clumping activity data highlight the potential of flavonols for the treatment of S. aureus infections via inhibition of sortase.
Conventional noninvasive blood pressure in conscious rats or mice are typically measured using the tail-cuff method after heating the animal. The goal of this study was to assess the validity of a novel tail-cuff method without animal heating when compared with the conventional heating tail-cuff method (unanesthetized rats with heating), telemetry method (unanesthetized restrained rats without heating), or carotid arterial catheter method (anesthetized rats, carotid arterial cannulation). The blood pressure and heart rate of spontaneously hypertensive rats were measured at 13:00—17:00 h for all experiments. Experiments demonstrated similar systolic blood pressure measurements when comparing the unheated-animal tail-cuff method and the telemetry method. Further, values obtained by both methods were lower than those obtained by the heated-animal tail-cuff method. Systolic blood pressure measurements obtained through carotid arterial cannulation were lower than those obtained by any other method. The heart rate was highest using the unheated-animal tail-cuff method when compared with the other methods. These data suggest that the novel unheated-animal tail-cuff method is a sensitive and accurate approach for the noninvasive measurement of blood pressure in conscious rats.
We investigated how soyasaponins (SS), which had been isolated from soybeans (Glycine max Merrill, seeds), influenced lipid peroxidation. The in vivo reduction in hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice intraperitoneally injected with total soyasaponins (TSS) was comparable to that which has been observed for α-tocopherol (VE). However, TSS and its five main constituent saponins (I, II, III, A1, and A2) had a much weaker in vitro inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation induced by NADPH in mouse liver microsomes than VE. Therefore, we were not able to explain the in vivo effect of SS on lipid peroxidation level through direct antioxidative effects. We also demonstrated that TSS increased the levels of serum thyroid hormones. The effect of serum thyroid hormones on in vitro lipid peroxidation was much stronger than that observed for VE. Furthermore, the effects of TSS on levels of serum thyroid hormones and LPO were markedly decreased by propylthiouracil, an antithyroid drug. These results indicate that the effects of SS on lipid peroxidation levels appear to be mediated through the secretion of thyroid hormones.
Lutein is a carotenoid and it has antioxidant effects. Lutein may have a protective effect on ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by free radical species. However, little is known about the protective effect of lutein on I/R injury in vivo. The present study was undertaken to clarify the protective effects of lutein on I/R injuries in the rat small intestine. Administration of lutein before intestinal I/R attenuated the damage to villi and deciduation of enterocytes and suppressed the increase in lipid peroxide.
It has been suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be partly due to their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), as well as to inhibit the respiratory burst of neutrophils triggered by various activating agents. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to evaluate and compare the potential scavenging activity for an array of ROS (O2−, H2O2, HO, ROO and HOCl) and RNS (NO and ONOO−) using in vitro non-cellular screening systems as well as a cellular screening system (human neutrophil oxidative burst), mediated by the arylpropionic acid derivatives (APAs) NSAIDs ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, fenoprofen, fenbufen, ketoprofen, naproxen and indoprofen. The results obtained in the present work demonstrate that under the present experimental conditions, many of the studied APA NSAIDs showed O2− scavenging activity (fenbufen<flurbiprofen<indoprofen<ketoprofen), H2O2 (ketoprofen<indoprofen<fenbufen>flurbiprofen>naproxen), HO (fenoprofen<ibuprofen>fenbufen<flurbiprofen>ketoprofen>indoprofen<naproxen), NO (indoprofen>naproxen), ONOO− (indoprofen>naproxen>fenoprofen<flurbiprofen<ibuprofen), as well as inhibit myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (indoprofen) and scavenge human neutrophil derived ROS (ketoprofen>indoprofen>fenbufen>flurbiprofen). The observed effects, if confirmed in vivo, may strongly contribute to the anti-inflammatory therapeutical activity observed with these NSAIDs.
Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) are a complex product prepared from green leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree. In the present study, the antidepressant effect of EGB was examined using two behavioral models, the forced swimming test (FST) in rats and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. EGB significantly reduced immobility time in the FST at a dosage of 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight after repeated oral treatment for 14 d, although no change of motor dysfunction was observed with the same dosage in the open field test. These results indicate that EGB might possess an antidepressant activity. In addition, EGB markedly shortened immobility time in the TST after acute inter-peritoneal treatment at a dosage of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The present study clearly demonstrated that EGB exerts an antidepressant effect in these two behavioral models.
The metabolic fate of hirsuteine (HT) and hirsutine (HS), the major indole alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla, was investigated using rats. On HPLC analysis, urine from rats orally administered HT were found to contain two metabolites (HT1 and HT2) together with unchanged HT. Similarly HS also was metabolized to two compounds (HS1 and HS2). Metabolite structures were determined to be 11-hydroxyhirsuteine-11-O-β-D-glucuronide (HT1), 11-hydroxyhirsuteine (HT2), 11-hydroxyhirsutine-11-O-β-D-glucuronide (HS1) and 11-hydroxyhirsutine (HS2), based on spectroscopic and chemical data. HT1 and HS1 were also detected in bile from rats administered HT and HS, respectively. Total cumulative urinary excretion within 72 h of oral administration was approximately 14% and 26% of the HT and HS doses, respectively, while total cumulative biliary excretion was 35% and 46%, respectively. HT and HS 11-hydroxylation were catalyzed by rat liver microsomes. This 11-hydroxylation activity was inhibited by addition of SKF-525A (a nonselective CYP inhibitor) or cimetidine (a CYP2C inhibitor). These results indicate that orally administered HT and HS are converted to 11-hydroxy metabolites in rats, and that the metabolites are predominantly excreted in bile rather than urine following glucuronidation. Furthermore, the results suggest that CYP2C enzymes are involved, at least in part, in the specific 11-hydroxylation of HT and HS.
The effect of sun ginseng (SG, heat-processed Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER at 120 °C) on diabetic renal damage was investigated using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The diabetic rats showed loss of body weight gain, and increases in food and water intake and urine volume, while the oral administration of SG at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight/d for 15 d attenuated water intake and urine excretion induced by diabetes. In addition, the diabetic rats given SG at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight showed significant decreases in serum glucose, serum glycosylated protein and urinary protein levels, suggesting that SG improves the abnormal conditions that lead to oxidative stress. Furthermore, SG significantly reduced advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels elevated in the kidneys of diabetic rats. This implies that SG would alleviate the oxidative stress under diabetes through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. SG also reduced the overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the kidney induced by hyperglycemia via deactivation the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. Furthermore, treatment with SG decreased the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, carboxymethyllysine and receptors for AGE which increase under diabetes. These findings indicate that oxidative stress is increased in the diabetic rat kidney and that SG can prevent renal damage associated with diabetes by attenuating the oxidative stress.
The complete amino acid sequence of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin from Panax ginseng (Araliaceae) has been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire S-carboxymethylcysteinyl protein and of the peptides obtained by enzymatic digestion. This ferredoxin has a unique amino acid sequence, which includes an insertion of Tyr at the 3rd position from the amino-terminus and a deletion of two amino acid residues at the carboxyl terminus. This ferredoxin had 18 differences in its amino acid sequence compared to that of Petroselinum sativum (Umbelliferae). In contrast, 23—33 differences were observed compared to other dicotyledonous plants. This suggests that Panax ginseng is related taxonomically to umbelliferous plants.
Eleven cis-clerodane diterpenes, seven labdane type diterpenes and one triterpene isolated from Cistus monspeliensis and the resin “Ladano” of Cistus creticus subsp. creticus were evaluated against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis. In addition, eleven semisynthetic manoyl oxide, seventeen labdane type derivatives and a triterpene were also evaluated for their antileishmanial activity. 18-Acetoxy-cis-clerod-3-en-15-ol, 15,18-diacetoxy-cis-clerod-3-ene and 13-(E)-8a-hydroxylabd-13-en-15-ol 2-chloroethylcarbamate exhibited the most potent and selective leishmanicidal activity with IC50 values of 3.3 μg/ml, 3.4 μg/ml and 3.5 μg/ml, respectively.
Chitosan in 0.5% w/v concentration enhanced the permeability of the isolated pig urinary bladder wall by desquamation of the urothelium as ascertained in our previous study. The aim of the present work was to determine the time and concentration dependence of chitosan's effect on the permeation of a model drug into the bladder wall and to establish if the mechanism of permeation enhancement depends on the concentration of chitosan used. In the permeability studies performed by the use of diffusion cells, transport of a model drug moxifloxacin into the isolated pig urinary bladder wall was determined. For morphological observations of the urothelium in response to chitosan treatment scanning and transmission electron microscopy were applied. Within 90 min the effect of chitosan on the tissue amounts of moxifloxacin gradually increased and approached its plateau. In one hour even 0.0005% w/v dispersion of chitosan significantly enhanced the permeability of the pig urinary bladder wall for the model drug and at 0.001% w/v concentration the maximal effect on the tissue permeability was achieved. All concentrations of chitosan that significantly enhanced the permeability of the bladder wall triggered necrosis of superficial cells or desquamation of the urothelium. However, at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times the damage of the urothelium was limited to the changes in tight junctions. Chitosan was ascertained to increase the permeation of moxifloxacin into the urinary bladder wall in a time and concentration dependent manner.
We have previously reported good correlations among serum aminotransferase (AST) activity, metabolic enzyme activity of CYPs, and total clearance (CLtot) of probe drugs in rats with acute hepatic failure induced by CCl4. In this study, we searched for new biochemical indicators that correlate with hepatic function and tried to simulate appropriate drug dosage in chronic hepatic failure. Model rats were prepared by administration of CCl4 (1 ml/kg, s.c., 3 times/week) and used at 48 h after the last administration. Serum albumin concentration was time-dependently decreased and correlated well with 3 major biologic determinants of drug clearance, hepatic blood flow (HBF), intrinsic clearance (CLint), and the unbound fraction of drugs in plasma (fp) after intravenous administration of cyclophospamide, tolbutamide, zonisamide, and chlorzoxazone (as probe drugs for low hepatic extraction) and propanolol and lidocaine (as high-hepatic extraction drugs). By calculating these parameters based on prediction equations by the level of albumin, CLtot was obtained. As a result of having evaluated this model using administration of cyclosporin, there was a statistically significant relationship between predicted CLtot and observed CLtot. In conclusion, the value of serum albumin level is a useful parameter that correlates well with chronic hepatic function. We have shown that this quantitative administering design using serum albumin level can predict appropriate dosages of hepatic metabolizing drugs in chronic hepatic failure.
A partially benzylated poly-L-aspartic acid (PBPA) was synthesized and investigated as a potential renal protective agent for the toxicity of amphotericin B (AmB) when the drug was administered as nanoparticular micelle. Nanoparticular AmB micelles were prepared by slow dialysis of the drug against distilled water at the elevated pH of 11.5 and subsequent sonication with the polymer solution. The resulting nanoparticular AmB micelles with PBPA showed an average diameter of about 20 nm and demonstrated significantly less damage to the tubular cells of the rat's kidney in terms of transmission electron microscopic study. There was little or no damage on the brush border of tubular cells 7 d after single intravenous dose of AmB 5 mg/kg in the rats when the drug was administered as nanoparticuar micelles with PBPA. The reduced renal toxicity appears to be due to the alteration of self-aggregation status of AmB. Molar absorptivity of AmB at 412 nm (a marker for the prevalence of non-aggregated AmB) was significantly higher in the nanoparticular AmB micelles with PBPA than those in AmB micelles without PBPA as well as in Fungizone®. This result indicates an association of the reduced nephrotoxicity and the prevalence of non-aggregated AmB. Mechanisms for the reduced renal toxicity may also include the formation of electrostatic complex between anionic groups of PBPA and hydroxyl groups of AmB.
The objective of this study was to propose the appropriate dosage regimen of micafungin for pediatric use, considering the effects of dose-linearity, age and other cofactors on the pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetic analysis of micafungin and its active metabolites (M1 and M2) after intravenous infusion at doses of 1 to 3 mg/kg was conducted for 19 Japanese pediatric patients (3 infants, 7 toddlers, and 9 pupils) with deep mycosis caused by either Aspergillus or Candida species. One patient was given the maximum dose of 6 mg/kg. The Cmax of micafungin increased in proportion to the dose. The mean values (S.D.) were 5.03 (2.33), 10.25 (4.45), 14.8 (5.52) and 21.1 μg/ml at 1, 2 , 3 and 6 mg/kg, respectively. These parameters were comparable to those seen in adults when the parameter was normalized by body weight. The elimination half life (t1/2) of micafungin over the dose range was apparently constant with the value of 13.1 h. There was no difference between the age groups observed. In fact, the metabolite concentrations were almost the same as those obtained for non-pediatric patients. Thus, micafungin showed the same dose-proportional pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients as it did in adults. No age dependent pharmacokinetics were observed in this study. It was concluded that the body weight adjustment was adequate for the treatment of micafungin in pediatric patients.
Polyethylenimine (PEI) is widely used for non-viral transfection in vitro and in vivo. Hepatectomy is an interesting and considerable factor modifying PEI-mediated gene expression. We investigated the gene expression in mice over time following partial hepatectomy after an intravenous injection of PEI/plasmid DNA (pDNA) complex. pDNA encoding firefly luciferase was used as the model reporter gene. The hepatectomized liver was rapidly regenerated until 72 h. After 168 h, the liver weight of hepatectomized mice was similar to that of control mice. Slight liver function impairment was only observed at 1—24 h after hepatectomy in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Luciferase activity in the liver of partial hepatectomized mice at 48 h after partial hepatectomy increased by 70 times compared with that of control mice; however, luciferase activities did not significantly differ between hepatectomized mice and control mice in the spleen, lung, kidney, and heart. Among the lobes, luciferase activity by gram of tissue was not significantly different, indicating that gene expression enhancement by partial hepatectomy occurred equally throughout the liver. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that liver resection is an influencing factor on PEI-mediated gene delivery in mice. These results indicate the necessity of considering cell division in PEI-mediated pDNA delivery.
Skin permeation of formoterol fumarate (FF) and irritation with ethylene–vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer matrix patches was investigated using rat and human skin in vitro and different species of experimental animal, respectively. Skin permeation of FF increased remarkably without addition of ethylcellulose (EC) and was remarkably enhanced by incorporation of 2-octyldodecanol (OD) instead of hydrogenated rosin glycerol ester (Ester Gum H). Effects on skin permeation of FF with EVA matrix patches were similar in rat and human skin, but rat skin was 1000 times more permeable than human skin after 24 h. The primary irritation indices for matrix patches without EC and with EC (OD-0), EC and 0.5 mg OD per square centimeter (OD-0.5), and EC and 1.0 mg OD per square centimeter (OD-1) were 1.46, 1.13,1.29 and 1.38. The results suggested that the irritation induced by these patches was rather mild, but significantly greater than the 0.21 observed with the control. No significant effects were noted for either EC or OD alone. Skin irritation intensity with EVA matrix patches was observed to be in the order of rabbits, guinea pigs, rats and miniature swine.
The stability of flavin adenin dinucleotide (FAD) in plasma was studied under a low-intensity light and FAD was found to be converted to flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and riboflavin (RF) in both human and rat plasma. The hydrolysis rates of FAD in plasma at 4 °C were lower than those at 37 °C. In addition, the hydrolysis rates were markedly inhibited when EDTA, known as an anticoagulant, was added to plasma. These results indicated that plasma samples in pharmacokinetic studies should be pretreated with EDTA, extracted at the earliest convenience and lower temperature like 4 °C to keep a high stability. The pharmacokinetic study after intravenous administration of FAD at a dose of 500 nmol/kg as FAD in rats was performed with plasma samples after addition of EDTA under strict light and temperature control. A measurable amount of FAD in plasma together with rapid conversions of FAD to FMN and RF were observed in rat plasma. The AUC values (mean±S.D. of 4 rats) for FAD, FMN and RF were 707±378, 3643±958 and 30095±3544 nmol·min/l, respectively. Using excess EDTA under strict temperature and light control may be useful for assessment of vitamin B2 in the in vivo study.
The study of the antigenicity of pathogenic Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea cells grown in BACTEC fungal medium (BFM) is useful for clinical analysis so as accurately to diagnose candidiasis. When C. albicans NIH A-207 was grown in BFM and fetal bovine serum-added BFM at the high temperatures of 36 and 40 °C, the cell density increased, with a mixture of yeast cells, pseudohyphae, and hyphae and with full hyphal development in the cultures compared with cultivation (mostly cells in yeast form) at 27°C in both media. The mannans produced when cells were grown at these high temperatures were less reactive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with factor sera 4, 5, and 6 in the commercially available kit ‘Candida Check’ than were the mannans obtained following growth at 27 °C. Based on 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, the mannans from cells grown at high temperatures had lost a phosphate group and a β-1,2-linked mannopyranose unit, and had increased the number of non-reducing terminal α-1,3-linked mannopyranose units. We obtained similar results for mannans produced by C. albicans J-1012, C. albicans NIH B-792, C. albicans JCM 9061, C. stellatoidea ATCC 20408, and C. stellatoidea ATCC 36232 strains cultivated in BFM at 36°C. These results suggest that both C. albicans and C. stellatoidea cells cultured at high temperatures, irrespective of the medium and shape of the cells, alter their antigenicity and chemical structure of cell wall mannans.
The recombinant Sendai virus vector is a promising tool for human gene therapy, capable of inducing high-level expression of therapeutic genes in tissue cells in situ. The target tissues include airway epithelium, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, retina and the central nervous system, but application to hepatic tissues has not yet been achieved, because direct intraportal injection of the vector is not feasible. We report an efficient and harmless procedure of gene delivery by recombinant Sendai virus into rat parenchymal hepatocytes, based on isolated hepatic perfusion with controlled inflow. Critical parameters for successful hepatic gene delivery are a brief preperfusion period (25 °C, 5 min); appropriate vector concentration in the perfusate (107 pfu/ml); moderate portal vein pressure (12 mmHg) and a brief hyperthermic postperfusion period (42 °C, 5 min). Under these optimized conditions, marker genes were expressed in most parenchymal hepatocytes without significant damage to hepatic tissues. Furthermore, expression of the marker genes was undetectable in nonhepatic tissues, including the gonads, indicating that this approach strictly targets hepatic tissues and thus offers good clinical potential for human gene therapy.
In order to develop new anti-photoaging agents, we examined the inhibitory effects of 29 seaweed extracts on transcriptional activities of NF-κB and AP-1, and MMP-1 expression. The extracts from 3 species of Alariaceae, Eisenia bicyclis, Ecklonia cava and Ecklonia stolonifera, have showed strong inhibition of both NF-κB and AP-1 reporter activity, which were well correlated with their abilities to inhibit MMP-1 expression. In addition, MMP-1 expression was dramatically attenuated by treatment with eckol or dieckol which were purely isolated from E. stolonifera, indicating that these compounds are active principles to inhibit MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Taken together, our data demonstrate the inhibitory effect of eckol and dieckol from Ecklonia species on MMP-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts and provide a possibility to develop as an agent for the prevention and treatment of skin aging.
Effects of 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol on fatty acid composition of lipid in the liver of rats were investigated. Feeding of male rats with a diet that contained 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol at concentrations of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% (w/w) for 14 d caused a significant increase in proportion and content of oleic acid (18 : 1 (n-9)) in the liver. The treatment of rats with 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol increased activities of palmitoyl-CoA chain elongase (PCE) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and mRNA expressions for rat fatty acid elongase 2 (rELO2) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), but neither rat fatty acid elongase 1 (rELO1) or stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 (SCD2), in the liver in dose-dependent manners. Multiple regression analyses, which were performed to estimate relative contribution of PCE and SCD for determination of the proportion or the content of 18 : 1 (n-9), revealed that the three parameters were significantly correlated and that standardized partial regression coefficient of PCE was higher than that of SCD. These results suggest that 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol caused considerable changes in the composition and the content of fatty acid, especially 18 : 1 (n-9), in the liver by inducing PCE and SCD, and that PCE plays a crucial role in the increased proportion of 18 : 1 (n-9) in the liver of the rats given fluorotelomer alcohol.