This article concludes the underlying responses of
inflammation in temporomandibular disorder(TMD), a complex and common oral
dentofacial disease. One of the most involved inflammatory cytokines--TNF-α, has effects on TMD and
its inflammation. These effects are summarized comprehensively and explicitly
as triggering immune responses, degenerating bone and cartilage and mediating
pain of temporomandibular joint. This review gives an insight into this
connection between TNF-α and TMD, which may
highlight TNF-α as a new therapeutic
target for TMD treatment and therefore provide new insight for therapeutic
intervention for TMD.
The signal-transducing adaptor protein (STAP)
family, including STAP-1 and STAP-2, contributes to a variety of intracellular
signaling pathways. STAP proteins bind to IκB kinase complex, BRK, STAT3, and STAT5, during
tumorigenesis and inflammatory/immune responses. STAP proteins positively or
negatively regulate critical steps in intracellular signaling pathways through
individually unique mechanisms. In this review, the authors describe that STAP proteins are involved in
the development and/or progression of some types of malignancies. The
authors further describe the possible therapeutic applications of targeting STAP
proteins in cancer.
has antioxidant properties similar to those of glutathione (GSH) and acts as
its precursor in mammals. In this paper, the reaction conditions of the
phytochelatin synthase-like enzyme derived from Nostoc sp. (NsPCS) which hydrolyzes GSH to g-EC was optimized, resulting that high yield conversion from 100 mM
GSH to g -EC was achieved in the absence of ATP and other
additives. These results suggest that the NsPCS reaction has great potential
for the low-cost industrial-scale production of g-EC from GSH.
Acetylcholine (ACh) stimulates the production of cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which activate large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channels. The article by Mori et al. provides evidence suggesting that ACh-induced hyperpolarization of endothelial cells transmits to adjacent smooth muscle cells via myoendothelial gap junctions. ACh can also facilitate gap junctional communication between endothelial cells and/or between smooth muscle cells. These pathways contribute to the hyperpolarization and relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells in rat retinal arterioles.
Diastolic dysfunction is a
major cardiac deficit underlying heart failure accompanying hypertension,
coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus and is partly mediated by
impaired myocardial relaxation and Ca2+ handling. Therapeutic agents targeting
diastolic dysfunction are not yet clinically available. Quercetin is one of the
major flavonoid compounds contained in fruits and vegetables. The authors
examined the lusitropic effect of quercetin on isolated ventricular myocardial
tissue preparations from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and
showed that quercetin accelerated myocardial relaxation through activation of
the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. This finding may lead to the
development of novel therapeutic agents of natural origin.