This study investigated changes in plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in decapitated mice in response to the variable stresses of restraint, restraint and water immersion, and foot shock. DOPAC levels, but not norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) levels, increased upon exposure to these stresses. Plasma DOPAC levels measured using the decapitation method in rats were then compared with those measured using the catheter method. The NE and EPI levels in plasma measured using the decapitation method were much higher than those using the catheter method under basal conditions. In contrast, differences in the levels of DOPAC in plasma were smaller than those of NE and EPI under basal conditions using in both methods; furthermore parallel changes in plasma DOPAC levels occurred during restraint and water immersion stresses. These results indicate that the plasma DOPAC levels measured in mice using the decapitation method were clearly increased by the different stresses. Furthermore, in rats there were correlations between the decapitation and catheter methods for plasma levels of DOPAC. Thus the change in plasma DOPAC levels measured using the decapitation method is a good indicator of stress responses involving sympathoneural activity.
Shikonin (β-alkannin), a naphthoquinone compound, was found to induce apoptotic features such as chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and activation of caspase 3 in HL60 cells. The mechanism was examined in terms of oxidative stress in the cells. Exposure of the cells to shikonin greatly reduced the total thiols, protein thiols, and glutathione levels, however, lipid peroxide levels were enhanced. The depletion of thiol levels in the cells was thus thought to induce lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation. An electron spin resonance study revealed that shikonin reacts directly with glutathione and other oxidative stress-relevant compounds in the lysate of HL60 cells. Pretreatment of such cells with N-acetylcysteine before shikonin treatment completely inhibited the DNA fragmentation. From these results, it was proposed that the chemical reaction between shikonin and cellular thiols such as glutathione and protein thiols induces apoptosis in HL60 cells.
A novel alkaline phosphatase (S-ALP) was found in the culture filtrate of Streptomyces hiroshimensis IFO 12785. Purification was achieved on Sephadex G-75 column, palmitoylated gauze column, and Superdex 75 HR column chromatographies. The molecular weight of S-ALP was estimated to be 14200 by sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The isoelectric point is 9.2. S-ALP had maximum enzyme activity at pH 9.5. S-ALP efficiently catalyzed both p-nitrophenyl phosphate and p-nitrophenyl phosphorylcholine substrates, particularly the latter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (25 residues) of S-ALP was 60 to 72% identical to that of Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor-like proteins. S-ALP exhibited trypsin inhibition in addition to a strong inhibition of subtilisin.
Phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan (OpZ) particles by differentiated cells of the human leukemic cell line HL-60 induced transient periphagosomal association of p57, a coronin family actin-binding protein, and F-actin with dissociation from the phagosomes after ingestion was completed. Coincident with OpZ ingestion, p57 phosphorylation increased transiently and peaked with its dissociation from phagosomes. Since p57 contains several putative sites for protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, we examined the effect of PKC on p57 phosphorylation and association with the phagosome. Purified p57 was phosphorylated in vitro by PKC isoforms α and δ, and PMA, an activator of PKC, induced p57 phosphorylation in HL-60 cells. Furthermore, chelerythrine, a specific PKC inhibitor, blocked p57 phosphorylation and the dissociation of p57 and F-actin from phagosomes, whereas wortmannin, genistein, and H-89 did not. Chelerythrine also inhibited the translocation of LAMP-1, a marker protein of lysosomes, to the OpZ-containing phagosomes, indicating that PKC-mediated phosphorylation is required for phagosome-lysosome fusion. Taken together, these data suggest that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of p57 triggers its dissociation from phagosomes, an event that may be necessary for the fusion of phagosomes with lysosomes.
Several novel A-ring modified analogs of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] have been synthesized in order to investigate the structure–function relationships of 1α,25(OH)2D3. We synthesized A-ring modified analogs which contain a methyl group on C-2 of the A-ring. There are eight 2-methyl diastereomers, which differ in the stereochemistry of the methyl group on C-2 and the hydroxyl groups on C-1 and C-3. Further our biological activity studies of the 2-methyl diastereomers indicated that the potency of each analog is highly dependent on the stereochemistry of the A-ring substituents [Konno et al., Biorg. Med. Chem. Letts. 8(2), 151—156 (1998); Nakagawa et al., Biochem. Pharmacol. 60(12), 1937—1947 (2000)]. For example, the VDR binding affinities exhibited by the 1α-isomers are significantly higher than those exhibited by the 1β-isomers. Furthermore, out of all the 1α-isomers, the 2α-methyl isomers, when compared to the corresponding 2β-methyl isomers, showed much higher potency in inducing cell differentiation of HL-60 cells, but failed to stimulate apoptosis. In contrast the 2β-methyl isomers strongly stimulated apoptosis. At present it is unknown how the addition of the 2-methyl modification to the hormone, 1α,25(OH)2D3 alters its metabolism in target tissues. Previously, we reported that 1α,25(OH)2D3 is metabolized in rat osteosarcoma (UMR 106) cells via both the C-24 oxidation and the C-3 epimerization pathways. Therefore, we studied the metabolism of the four 1α,2-methyl diastereomers in UMR 106 cells. Our results indicated that in UMR 106 cells, all four diastereomers were metabolized into several polar metabolites via the C-24 oxidation pathway. Thus, the presence of the 2-methyl group on the A-ring did not inhibit the metabolism of the analogs via the C-24 oxidation pathway. However, it is significant to note that the 2-methyl group prevented the metabolism of the analogs via the C-3 epimerization pathway. In summary, we report that the 2-methyl group interferes with the action of the enzyme(s) involved in C-3 epimerization, but not with the enzyme 1α,25(OH)2D3-24-hydroxylase, which is responsible for C-24 oxidation pathway.
DJ-1 was first identified as an activated ras-dependent oncogene product and was later also found to be an infertility-related protein affected by sperm toxicants such as ornidazole (OR) and epichlorohydrin. These findings suggest that DJ-1 has functions in both somatic cells and sperm. In this study, to determine the relationship between DJ-1 and an endocrine disrupter and to determine the functions of DJ-1 in sperm, in vitro fertilization experiments were carried out using eggs and sperm extracted from mice that had or had not been treated with OR. We found that the amount of DJ-1 in sperm and the efficiency of fertilization decreased with the increasing dose of OR to which the mice were exposed. The addition of an anti-mouse DJ-1 serum to sperm solution before the in vitro fertilization reaction with eggs resulted in a decrease in the efficiency of fertilization to about one-third of that when pre-immune serum was added to sperm solution, indicating that DJ-1 participates in the fertilization.
In the present study, B16 melanoma cells were found to produce inhibitory and cytotoxic substances with a molecular weight lower than 3000 Da against macrophages in a conditioned medium. The B16 melanoma-conditioned medium suppressed nitric oxide (NO) production only by mouse peritoneal macrophages and the mouse macrophage-like cell line, RAW264.7 cells, but not by rat peritoneal macrophages. In addition, it showed cytotoxicity against mouse peritoneal macrophages and mouse macrophage-like cell lines, RAW264.7 and J774A.1 cells, but not against rat cells (peritoneal macrophages, 3Y1, hepatocytes), human cells (HeLa, KB, MCF-7), or mouse 3T3-L1 cells. The inhibitory activity of NO production was not affected by trypsin treatment or arginine supplementation, but it was abolished by heat treatment at 95 °C for 3 min. On the other hand, the cytotoxicity was not influenced by these treatments. Inducible NO synthase induction following lipopolysaccharide stimulation was reduced by treatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with B16 melanoma-conditioned medium. These results suggest that metastatic B16 melanoma cells produce two distinct substances: to suppress NO production by macrophages and to kill macrophages and macrophage-like cell lines. We propose that these activities may help metastatic B16 melanoma cells to escape a host immunosurveillance system and to metastasize to target organs.
DnaA is the initiator of chromosomal DNA replication in E. coli. We previously reported that conserved hydrophobic amino acid residues in the N-terminal region of DnaA (I26 and L40) are essential for DNA replication in vivo and in vitro using mutant DnaA proteins (DnaAI26S and DnaAL40S). In this study, we introduced further random mutations to find intragenic suppressors for dnaAI26S or dnaAL40S. By direct DNA sequence, a mutation which causes substitution of the Ser (Ile, in the wild-type DnaA) with Phe (DnaAI26F or DnaAL40F) was found in all of the suppressors. Site-directed mutational analysis showed that DnaAI26L, and DnaAL40I, but not DnaAI26S or DnaAL40S, were active for oriC DNA replication in cells. Furthermore, purified DnaAI26F but not DnaAI26S was active for oriC DNA replication in a crude extract. These results strongly suggest that hydrophobic amino acid residues in these positions of DnaA (I26 and L40) are important for the function of this protein as an initiator of DNA replication both in vivo and in vitro.
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, YM358 (2,7-diethyl-5-[[2′(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]-5H-pyrazolo [1,5-b] [1,2,4]triazole potassium salt monohydrate), on cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI). One day after the coronary ligation, rats were randomized, and administered YM358 or vehicle for 2, 4 or 8 weeks. In MI rats, mean blood pressure, left ventricular (LV) systolic pressure, and the first derivative of LV pressure significantly decreased, and LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) markedly increased after 2 to 8 week treatment of YM358. From 2 weeks after the ligation, ratios of cardiac weight and lung weight to body weight (BW) significantly increased, which indicated the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and lung congestion in MI rats. Two weeks after the ligation, YM358 did not improve LV function, although it decreased the elevated LVEDP and cardiac weights/BW ratios 8 weeks after the ligation. These results indicated that long-term treatment with YM358 improves the reduced cardiac function and reduces cardiac hypertrophy after MI, and may be useful for the treatment of congestive heart failure.
Ginsenosides, the glycosides of Panax ginseng, are metabolized (deglycosylated) by intestinal bacteria after oral administration. 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol (M4) is the main bacterial metabolite of protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides and mediates their antitumor effects. To clarify the mechanism of the M4-mediated antitumor effect, the antitumor activity and metabolism of M4 was examined, using the C57BL/6 mice implanted with B16-BL6 melanoma. The chronic oral administration of M4 inhibited the growth of B16-BL6 melanoma at the implanted site. Analyses using TLC, HPLC, MS and NMR suggest that orally administered M4 was absorbed from the small intestine into the mesenteric lymphatics followed by the rapid esterification of M4 with fatty acids and its accumulation in the tissues including the liver and lung. The administration of M4 prior to the intravenous injection of B16-BL6 cells abrogated the enhanced lung metastasis in the mice pretreated with 2-chloroadenosine more effectively than in those pretreated with anti-asialo GM1. The esterified M4 (EM4) did not directly affect tumor growth in vitro, whereas it stimulated splenic NK cells to become cytotoxic to tumor cells. These results indicate that the antitumor activity of M4 is based on the NK cell-mediated tumor lysis enhanced by EM4.
The simultaneous measurement of several volatile organic compounds and water released from the human skin can be achieved successfully by using a modified gas chromatographic system. After the thumb of each subject was dipped in aqueous solution containing acetone, diethyl ether, ethanol, and toluene, it was dried in the air. Then the thumb attached to the sampling probe for measuring the released gases. It is found that 90% of all these chemical substrates were desorbed after 20 min. The initial exhalation rate factor for each chemical substrate was determined in every subject. Correlation factors of the linear relationships between the initial exhalation rate for hydrophilic substrates (acetone and ethanol) and the total amount of water (TAW) released from the skin were 0.94 and 0.92, respectively. However, the rate of hydrophobic toluene was not dependent on the TAW. Therefore, the exhalation rate of substrates is greatly influenced by both their hydrophilicity and TAW. Additionally, an interesting personal specific character among the 6 subjects was observed on plotting the exhalation rate of organic substrates and water during the elapsed time. With the released water mostly due to insensible perspiration, the exhalation rate of all simultaneous organic substrates decreased monotonically over the elapsed time. On the contrary, when subjects sweated emotionally, the exhalation rate of organic substrates showed some variation, namely a higher of exhalation rate compared to the case of mostly due to insensible perspiration. Therefore, emotionally-induced sweating can enhance the release of organic substrates.
A series of carbamate derivatives of Hoechst 33258 was prepared as potential anticancer agents. These new compounds (1—4) were readily prepared in good yields by addition of chloroethyl, bromoethyl, chloropropyl or 4-(chloromethyl)phenyl isocyanates to Hoechst 33258. Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated on human breast cancer MCF-7. Compounds 1—4 were more cytotoxic than Hoechst 33258. In particular derivative 4, the most active of the series, is up to 3 times more potent than Hoechst 33258. The DNA-binding ability of these compounds was evaluated by an ultrafiltration method using calf thymus DNA. These data show that in broad terms the cytotoxic potency of 1—4 in cultured breast cancer MCF-7 cells increases, in accord with their increases in DNA affinity, as shown by the binding constant values.
There are many important considerations in the interactions among the herbal constituents in a prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Ephedra Herb (Eph) is described a warm and acrid agent in TCM. The combination of Eph and Gypsum (Eph–Gyp) shows specific actions in patients with different body temperatures. Previous reports suggested that Gypsum prevents the thermogenesis effect induced by ephedrine at an ambient temperature of 22 °C. In this investigation, the properties of Eph–Gyp in hyperthermal rats were studied in detail. It was shown that Gypsum Extract (GyE) enhanced the thermogenesis of Eph in hyperthermal rats, although not in normal rats. The results support not only the opposite actions of Eph–GyE but also the clinical differences in the symptomatic patterns of body temperature for Makyo-Kanseki-To and Dai-Seiryu-To.
The flavonoid fraction from the leaves of Lantana montevidensis BRIQ. (Verbenaceae) showed antiproliferative activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1, GI50: 12 μg/ml), human uterus carcinoma (HeLa, 5 μg/ml), and murine melanoma (B16F10, 5 μg/ml) cells in vitro. Bioactivity-guided chemical investigation of the fraction has resulted in the isolation of apigenin (10) and ten 5,6,7-oxygenated flavones: cirsilineol (1), eupatorin (2), 5,4′-dihydroxy-6,7,3′,5′-tetramethoxyflavone (3), 5,6-dihydroxy-7,3′,4′-trimethoxyflavone (4), 5,6,4′-trihydroxy-7,3′,5′-trimethoxyflavone (5), 5,6,3′-trihydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone (6), 5,3′,4′-trihydroxy-6,7,5′-trimethoxyflavone (7), cirsiliol (8), hispidulin (9), and eupafolin (11). Antiproliferative activity of the isolated flavones, some other related flavones (luteolin, baicalein, 6-hydroxyluteolin, pectolinarigenin, jaceosidin, desmethoxycentaureidin, eupatilin, and chrysin) from other plant materials, and synthetic 6- and 7-methoxyflavones was evaluated, and the structure–activity relationships were examined.
Shichimotsu-koka-to (SKT) is a Kampo (traditional Japanese herbal) medicine, which is used in Japan to treat hypertension and atherosclerosis. We investigated the inhibitory effect of SKT on experimental pulmonary metastasis of B16 melanoma cells. The intake of SKT at a dose of 430 mg/kg for 6 weeks from 2 weeks before tumor inoculation significantly reduced the number of metastatic surface nodules in the lung and extended the life span. When the duration of SKT intake was examined, survival time was not affected by preintake before B16 melanoma cell inoculation and was slightly extended by postintake after B16 melanoma cell inoculation, although the life span was prolonged by intake throughout the experiment. To address the mechanism underlying the antimetastatic effect of SKT, we studied whether SKT modulated macrophage function, which is involved in killing tumor cells. The intake of SKT for 6 weeks dose dependently increased nitric oxide (NO) production by macrophages following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. The elevated NO was found to serve as a cytotoxic mediator against B16 melanoma cells in co-culture with macrophages. On the contrary, B16 melanoma-conditioned medium reduced NO production by macrophages. However, SKT treatment reversed the reduction in NO production by the conditioned medium significantly. These findings may suggest that macrophage function-modulating activity by SKT appears to underlie its antimetastatic activity, which leads to a decrease in the number of lung metastatic surface nodules and the extension of life span.
The antiproliferative constituents in the MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of Lippia dulcis TREV. and Lippia canescens KUNTH (Verbenaceae) were investigated. Activity-guided chemical investigation of the MeOH extracts resulted in the isolation of the three bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes [(+)-hernandulcin (1), (−)-epihernandulcin (2), and (+)-anymol (3)] and four phenylethanoid glycosides [acteoside (4), isoacteoside (5), martynoside (6), and a new diacetylmartynoside (7)] from the former, and four phenylethanoid glycosides [acteoside (4), isoacteoside (5), arenarioside (8), and leucosceptoside A (9)] and three flavones [desmethoxycentaureidin (10), eupafolin (11), and 6-hydroxyluteolin (12)] from the latter. Antiproliferative activity of the isolated compounds against murine melanoma (B16F10), human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1), and human uterine carcinoma (HeLa) cells was estimated. (+)-Anymol (3), acteoside (4), isoacteoside (5), arenarioside (8), eupafolin (11), and 6-hydroxyluteolin (12) had GI50 values of 10—16 μM against B16F10 cell. Desmethoxycentaureidin (10) and eupafolin (11) showed high inhibitory activity against HeLa cell growth (GI50 9 μM, and 6 μM, respectively).
We investigated whether the uptake of a specific antipsychotic agent, sulpiride, in Caco-2 cells is mediated by a carrier-mediated system. Caco-2 cell monolayers were cultured in plastic culture dishes and uptake and efflux studies were conducted. The determination of sulpiride was performed by HPLC. At 37 °C, sulpiride uptake in pH 6.0 was twice as much as in pH 7.4. At 4 °C, however, no significant difference was observed between pH 6.0 and 7.4. The uptake at 4 °C was markedly lower than that obtained at 37 °C. The subtraction of the uptake at 4 °C from the uptake at 37 °C indicated a saturable process, and the result of the Eadie–Hofstee plot analysis indicated that the uptake consists of two or more saturable components. The uptake was significantly inhibited by uncoupler, protonophore, amino acid modifying agent and proteinase. Sulpiride efflux was temperature-dependent and was significantly inhibited by uncoupler and amino acid modifying agent. These findings indicate that sulpiride uptake and efflux in Caco-2 cells are carrier-mediated. Furthermore, the uptake was significantly decreased by some substrates and inhibitors of peptide transporter, PEPT1, and organic cation transporters, OCTN1 and OCTN2, and was significantly increased by preloading with them. The uptake was also significantly increased by a typical substrate of P-glycoprotein. From these findings, we presumed that peptide transporter PEPT1 and organic cation transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 are involved with this uptake. P-glycoprotein may also contribute to the efflux of sulpiride.
In anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy using omeprazole and antimicrobials, the efficacy can be related to the CYP2C19 genotype groups; the eradication rates were 83% in extensive metabolizers and 100% in poor metabolizers. The present study was undertaken to help predict the optimal dosage of omeprazole for extensive metabolizers in this therapy. Seven healthy Japanese subjects, classified based on the CYP2C19 genotype into extensive metabolizers (n=4) and poor metabolizers (n=3), participated in this study. Each subject received a single oral dose of omeprazole 20, 40, and 80 mg, with at least a 1-week washout period between each dose. Plasma concentrations of omeprazole and its two metabolites were monitored for 12 h after each dose of medication. After each dose was administered, the pharmacokinetic profiles of omeprazole and its two metabolites were significantly different between extensive metabolizers and poor metabolizers. The area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) of omeprazole in extensive metabolizers was disproportionally increased 3.2- or 19.2-fold with dose escalation from 20 to 40 or 80 mg omeprazole, respectively. In contrast, the AUC of omeprazole was proportionally increased with the higher dose in poor metabolizers. The AUC of omeprazole after 20 mg administration to poor metabolizers was almost equal to the AUC in extensive metabolizers after 80 mg administration. In anti-H. pylori therapy, the recommended dose of omeprazole for extensive metabolizers is suggested to be a maximum of 80 mg×2/d based on pharmacokinetic considerations.
The present study was undertaken to elucidate the kidney- and site-selective delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) utilizing the absorption on the kidney surface in rats. An experimental system utilizing a cylindrical diffusion cell attached to the right kidney surface was established. After intravenous administration of 5-FU, the concentration of 5-FU in the right and left kidneys was almost the same and was rapidly eliminated. After right kidney surface application of 5-FU, however, the concentration of 5-FU in the right kidney was significantly higher than in the left kidney and other tissues. The 5-FU concentration in four sites of the right kidney after intravenous administration was almost the same. In contrast, 5-FU was site selectively delivered in the kidney after kidney surface application. The blood concentration of 5-FU was low (<1.7 μg/ml) until 120 min after kidney surface application. The maximum blood concentration of 5-FU after kidney surface application was much lower than after intravenous administration.
Non-viral gene transfer into a wide range of human cells was examined in order to clarify the factors that affect the efficiency and safety of non-viral vectors and to optimize the conditions so that high efficiency and low toxicity could be achieved. Six non-viral vectors (Lipofectin, LipofectAMINE PLUS, SuperFect, Effectene, DMRIE-C and DOTAP) were used to transfect a mammalian expression plasmid pCMVβ into 16 types of human primary cells and cultured cell lines. Transfection efficiency was quantified using a galactosidase assay. Cytotoxic effects were measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and WST-8 assay. In serum-free conditions, LipofectAMINE PLUS, Effectene and SuperFect, on average, transfected DNA more successfully than Lipofectin, DMRIE-C, and DOTAP, although the levels of gene expression with these vectors varied remarkably in different cells. The most effective vector also differed depending on the cell type. Serum was found to inhibit gene transfer and reduce the cytotoxicity of all of these vectors except Effectene. The efficiency and toxicity of the non-viral vectors used depended on the type of vector, the DNA/vector ratio, the type of cell, and the presence of serum. These results provided useful information for the optimization of transfer conditions of these non-viral vectors.
The preventive effects of Shengmai San (SMS), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM), was studied on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats as a model of antioxidant-based composite therapy. Two biochemical indicators of oxidative damage, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) formation and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) loss were measured in the brain after forebrain ischemia-reperfusion treatment and both were inhibited in all rats administered SMS (15 g original herbs/kg) 2 h before the ischemia-reperfusion. Histochemical study of the brain slice using TTC staining revealed that the SMS effectively reduced infarct area caused by the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The antioxidant potentials of SMS preparations were determined in vitro by five different assay methods and were related to the in vivo effectiveness of SMS in protection against brain damage. Inhibitory effect on TBARS formation in vivo showed better correlation with superoxide radical scavenging and DPPH quenching activity in vitro rather than with the other in vitro antioxidant indicators. On the other hand, the in vivo prevention of GPX activity loss showed better correlation with in vitro crocin bleaching inhibition than with the other in vitro antioxidant indicators. It was also suggested that the in vitro TBARS inhibitory activty of SMS is not a good indication to predict the in vivo effectiveness of SMS on inhibition of either TBARS formation or GPX activity loss.
Novel peptides homing to angiogenic vessels were recently isolated from a phage-displayed random pentadecapeptide library, and peptides having WRP sequence showed tumor growth suppression. In this study, we observed that another novel sequence, PVVLFPLH, suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Through the study of tumor growth suppression by the 5-mer peptides derived from this sequence, we determined the epitope sequence to be LFPLH. LFPLH, but not the shuffled peptide FHLLP, suppressed the migration of vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Interestingly, growth suppression of LFPLH against the cells as well as tumor cells was not observed in vitro. Therefore LFPLH may function to induce tumor dormancy through inhibition of angiogenesis.
Sparassis crispa Fr. is an edible mushroom recently cultivable in Japan. It contains a remarkably high content of 6-branched 1,3-β-D-glucan showing antitumor activity. Using ion-exchange chromatography, a purified β-glucan preparation, SCG, was prepared. In this study, we examined the hematopoietic response by SCG in cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced leukopenic mice. SCG enhanced the hematopoietic response in CY induced leukopenic mice by intraperitoneal routes over a wide range of concentrations. SCG enhanced the hematopoietic response in CY-treated mice by prior or post administration. Analyzing the leukocyte population by flow cytometry, monocytes and granulocytes in the peritoneal cavity, liver, spleen and bone marrow (BM) recovered faster than in the control group. The ratio of natural killer cells and γδ T cells in the liver, spleen and peritoneal cavity was also increased. In contrast, CD4+ CD8+ cells in the thymus were temporarily significantly decreased by the administration of SCG. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production of CY+SCG-treated peritoneal exdated cells (PECs), spleen cells and bone marrow cells (BMCs) were higher than that of the CY-treated group. By in vitro culture of CY-treated PEC and spleen cells, IL-6 production was enhanced by the addition of SCG. These facts suggested the possibility that IL-6 might be a key cytokine for the enhanced hematopoietic response by SCG.
One strain each of Arxiozyma telluris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and S. kluyveri showed lethal activity in cyclophosphamide (CY)-treated mice. Accumulation of these yeast cells in the kidneys and elevation of the levels of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1α in the sera were recognized in the CY-treated infected-debilitated mice.
The aim of the paper was to study the effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and ethanol on the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the brain, liver, lungs and blood serum of inbred albino BALB/c mice. Sixty male mice divided into 4 groups were used for the study; the mice in each group were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.): Group 1 - control, saline; Group 2 - H2O2 and FeSO4; Group 3 - ascorbic acid (AA); Group 4 - AA and ethanol. The level of TBARS in the investigated tissues of the mice in all of the groups was statistically significant higher than in the control group. The highest content of TBARS in blood serum, brain, liver and lung tissue was observed in mice which were given ascorbic acid and ethanol.