Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Online ISSN : 1347-5215
Print ISSN : 0918-6158
ISSN-L : 0918-6158
Volume 47, Issue 6
Displaying 1-25 of 25 articles from this issue
Review
  • Mikako Ogawa
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1066-1071
    Published: June 01, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2024
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    Both nuclear and optical imaging are used for in vivo molecular imaging. Nuclear imaging displays superior quantitativity, and it permits imaging in deep tissues. Thus, this method is widely used clinically. Conversely, because of the low permeability of visible to near-IR light in living animals, it is difficult to visualize deep tissues via optical imaging. However, the light at these wavelengths has no ionizing effect, and it can be used without any restrictions in terms of location. Furthermore, optical signals can be controlled in vivo to accomplish target-specific imaging. Nuclear medicine and phototherapy have also evolved to permit targeted-specific imaging. In targeted nuclear therapy, beta emitters are conventionally used, but alpha emitters have received significant attention recently. Concerning phototherapy, photoimmunotherapy with near-IR light was approved in Japan in 2020. In this article, target-specific imaging and molecular targeted therapy utilizing nuclear medicine and optical technologies are discussed.

  • Yuji Yamada
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1072-1078
    Published: June 01, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2024
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    In previous studies, my group developed cell-adhesive peptide–polysaccharide complexes as biomaterials for tissue engineering. Having a wide variety of cell-adhesive peptides is important as the biological functions of peptide–polysaccharide complexes are highly dependent on the biological activity of peptides. This paper reviews the biological activities of two types of recently characterized cell-adhesive peptides. The first is peptides rich in basic amino acids originating from octaarginine. We analyzed the relationships between the amino acid composition of basic peptides and cell adhesion, elongation, and proliferation and identified the most suitable peptide for cell culture. The second was arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-containing peptides that promote the adhesion of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We identified the RGD-surrounding sequences necessary for iPSC adhesion, clarified the underlying mechanism, and improved cell adhesion by modifying the structure–activity relationships. The novel cell-adhesive peptides identified in our previous studies may aid in the development of novel peptide-based biomaterials.

  • Shigeki Aoki
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1079-1086
    Published: June 01, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2024
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    Idiosyncratic drug toxicities (IDTs) pose a significant challenge; they are marked by life-threatening adverse reactions that emerge aftermarket release and are influenced by intricate genetic and environmental variations. Recent genome-wide association studies have highlighted a strong correlation between specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms and IDT onset. This review provides an overview of current research on HLA-mediated drug toxicities. In the last six years, HLA-transgenic (Tg) mice have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of these underlying mechanisms, uncovering systemic immune reactions that replicate human drug-induced immune stimulation. Additionally, the potential role of immune tolerance in shaping individual differences in adverse effects highlights its relevance to the interplay between HLA polymorphisms and IDTs. Although HLA-Tg mice offer valuable insights into systemic immune reactions, further exploration is essential to decipher the intricate interactions that lead to organ-specific adverse effects, especially in organs such as the skin or liver. Navigating the intricate interplay of HLA, which may potentially trigger intracellular immune responses, this review emphasizes the need for a holistic approach that integrates findings from both animal models and molecular/cellular investigations. The overarching goal is to enhance our comprehensive understanding of HLA-mediated IDTs and identify factors shaping individual variations in drug reactions. This review aims to facilitate the development of strategies to prevent severe adverse effects, address existing knowledge gaps, and provide guidance for future research initiatives in the field of HLA-mediated IDTs.

  • Masamitsu Maekawa
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1087-1105
    Published: June 01, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 01, 2024
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    Analysis of endogenous metabolites in various diseases is useful for searching diagnostic biomarkers and elucidating the molecular mechanisms of pathophysiology. The author and collaborators have developed some LC/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods for metabolites and applied them to disease-related samples. First, we identified urinary conjugated cholesterol metabolites and serum N-palmitoyl-O-phosphocholine serine as useful biomarkers for Niemann–Pick disease type C (NPC). For the purpose of intraoperative diagnosis of glioma patients, we developed the LC/MS/MS analysis methods for 2-hydroxyglutaric acid or cystine and found that they could be good differential biomarkers. For renal cell carcinoma, we searched for various biomarkers for early diagnosis, malignancy evaluation and recurrence prediction by global metabolome analysis and targeted LC/MS/MS analysis. In pathological analysis, we developed a simultaneous LC/MS/MS analysis method for 13 steroid hormones and applied it to NPC cells, we found 6 types of reductions in NPC model cells. For non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), model mice were prepared with special diet and plasma bile acids were measured, and as a result, hydrophilic bile acids were significantly increased. In addition, we developed an LC/MS/MS method for 17 sterols and analyzed liver cholesterol metabolites and found a decrease in phytosterols and cholesterol synthetic markers and an increase in non-enzymatic oxidative sterols in the pre-onset stage of NASH. We will continue to challenge themselves to add value to clinical practice based on cutting-edge analytical chemistry methodology.

Regular Article
  • Risako Morishita, Ayaka Onishi, Maresuke Oya, Hirotsugu Karashima, Mis ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1106-1112
    Published: June 05, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 05, 2024
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    Ultrafine bubbles (UFBs), which are bubbles with diameters of less than 1 µm, are widely recognized for their ability to exist stably in liquid as a result of the effects of Brownian motion. In this study, we focused on hydrogen, known for its antioxidant potential, and explored the function of H2-filled UFBs, which encapsulate hydrogen, to determine their potential use as oral carriers for the delivery bioactive gases to living organisms. To this end, rats were orally administered ethanol to induce hepatic oxidative stress, and the effects of drinking H2-filled UFBs (H2 NanoGAS®) water for two weeks were evaluated to assess the reduction of oxidative stress. Continuous alcohol consumption was found to significantly increase the blood lipid peroxidation levels in the control group, confirming the induction of oxidative stress. An increase in blood lipid peroxidation was significantly inhibited by the consumption of concentrated H2 NanoGAS® (C-HN) water. Furthermore, the measurement of mitochondrial activity in the liver revealed that drinking H2 NanoGAS® water helped to maintain at a normal level and/or boosted the functional activity of the electron transport system in mitochondria affected by ethanol intake. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence for the use of orally ingested UFBs as carriers for the delivery gases to tissues, thereby exerting their physiological activity in the body. Our findings highlight the potential for the application of UFBs to various physiologically active gases and their utilization in the medical field in the future.

  • Kotoku Kawaguchi, Suzuka Tsuji, Takuya Hirao, Yixin Liu, Zhao Boshi, S ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1113-1118
    Published: June 05, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 05, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Motile cilia in the ependymal cells that line the brain ventricles play pivotal roles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in well-defined directions. However, the substances and pathways which regulate their beating have not been well studied. Here, we used primary cultured cells derived from neonatal mouse brain that possess motile cilia and found that adenosine (ADO) stimulates ciliary beating by increasing the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in a concentration-dependent manner, with the ED50 value being 5 µM. Ciliary beating stimulated by ADO was inhibited by A2B receptor (A2BR) antagonist MRS1754 without any inhibition by antagonists of other ADO receptor subtypes. The expression of A2BR on the cilia was also confirmed by immunofluorescence. The values of CBF were also increased by forskolin, which is an activator of adenylate cyclase, whereas they were not further increased by the addition of ADO. Furthermore, ciliary beating was not stimulated by ADO in the presence of a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors. These results altogether suggest that ADO stimulates ciliary beating through A2BR on the cilia, and activation of PKA.

Note
  • Yuto Moriya, Sho Kubota, Yuta Iijima, Nobumasa Takasugi, Takashi Uehar ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1119-1122
    Published: June 05, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 05, 2024
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    DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression and determines cell fate; however, the triggers that alter DNA methylation levels remain unclear. Recently, we showed that S-nitrosylation of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) induces DNA hypomethylation and alters gene expression. Furthermore, we identified DBIC, a specific inhibitor of S-nitrosylation of DNMT3B, to suppress nitric oxide (NO)-induced gene alterations. However, it remains unclear how NO-induced DNA hypomethylation regulates gene expression and whether this mechanism is maintained in normal cells and triggers disease-related changes. To address these issues, we focused on carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), which is upregulated under nitrosative stress in cancer cells. We pharmacologically evaluated its regulatory mechanisms using human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) and DBIC. We demonstrated that nitrosative stress promotes the recruitment of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha to the CA9 promoter region and epigenetically induces CA9 expression in SAECs. Our results suggest that nitrosative stress is a key epigenetic regulator that may cause diseases by altering normal cell function.

  • Haruki Higashino, Corey Francis Develin, Chie Higashino, Tyler Chae-Ho ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1123-1127
    Published: June 05, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 05, 2024
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    This study aimed to validate the In vitro Dissolution Absorption System 2 (IDAS2) containing a biological barrier of Caco-2 or Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer through dose sensitivity studies. Metoprolol and propranolol were selected as Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Class I model drugs, and atenolol as a Class III model drug. The IDAS2 is comprised of a dissolution vessel (500 mL) and two permeation chambers (2 × 8.0 mL) mounted with Caco-2 or MDCK cell monolayer. One or two immediate-release tablet(s) of the model drug were added to the dissolution vessel, and the time profiles of dissolution and permeation were observed. Greater than 85% of metoprolol and propranolol (tested at two dosing concentrations) were dissolved by 15 min, and all drugs were fully dissolved by 30 min. All three drugs were more permeable across Caco-2 cells than MDCK cells with a linear increase in permeation across both cells at both dose concentrations. Thus, the dose sensitivity of the IDAS2 was demonstrated using both cell barriers. These results indicate a successful qualification of IDAS2 for the development/optimization of oral formulations and that MDCK cells can be utilized as a surrogate for Caco-2 cells.

Regular Article
  • Junko Tomida, Chihiro Wasa, Masahiro Hirata, Mao Ichihara, Tetsushi Ka ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1128-1135
    Published: June 12, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 12, 2024
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    Medication waste may be caused by medication oversupply; however, the degree of medication oversupply in Japan is unclear. This study aimed to quantify the degree of oversupply of chronic disease medications per patient, the proportion of oversupplied patients, and the excess days and costs of the oversupplied medications in Japan. This retrospective nationwide cohort study using a large insurance claims database from Japan was conducted in patients aged ≥55 years who received one or a combination of the following five classes of medications dispensed in FY 2019: third-generation calcium antagonists, angiotensin 2 receptor blockers, statins, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and biguanides. Medications with the same ingredient having the same specification were treated as the same medication. Medication oversupply was defined as a medication possession ratio (MPR) during persistence >1.0. The proportions of oversupplied patients and excessively oversupplied patients with ≥30 excess days/year were approximately 16 and 1–2% for all drug classes, respectively. Three-quarters of the oversupplied patients had fewer excess day (≤14/year), and the median oversupplied medication cost was less than 1000 yen/year for all classes. However, there was a patient with oversupplied medication estimated as 983 excess days per year and a patient with oversupplied medication costs of nearly 90000 yen per year. Using the MPR and excess days as indicators, it is necessary to accelerate estimation of the oversupply per patient, as well as the development of patient intervention strategies and a national system to reduce medication oversupply.

  • Yasuhiro Hayashi, Takehiro Suzuki, Naoto Horioka, Naoshi Dohmae, Takas ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1136-1143
    Published: June 12, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 12, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Ceramide (Cer) is synthesized de novo in the bilayer of the endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the cytosolic leaflet of the trans-Golgi apparatus for sphingomyelin (SM) synthesis. As the active site of SM synthase (SMS) is located on the luminal side of the Golgi membrane, Cer translocates to the lumen via transbilayer movement for SM synthesis. However, the mechanism of transbilayer movement is not fully understood. As the Cer-related translocases seem to localize near the SMS, the protein was identified using proximity-dependent biotin identification proteomics. Phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1), which is thought to act as a scramblase for phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, was identified as a protein proximal to the SMS isoforms SMS1 and SMS2. Although five isoforms of PLSCR have been reported in humans, only PLSCR1, PLSCR3, and PLSCR4 are expressed in HEK293T cells. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that PLSCR1 and PLSCR4 partially co-localized with p230, a trans-Golgi network marker, where SMS isoforms are localized. We established CRISPR/Cas9–mediated PLSCR1, PLSCR3, and PLSCR4 single-knockout cells and PLSCR1, 3, 4 triple knockout HEK293T cells. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed that the levels of species with distinct acyl chains in Cer and SM were not significantly different in single knockout cells or in the triple knockout cells compared to the wild-type cells. Our findings suggest that PLSCR1 is localized in the vicinity of SMS isoforms, however is not involved in the transbilayer movement of Cer for SM synthesis.

Note
  • Yuka Yagi, Rina Abe, Hidenori Tani
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1144-1147
    Published: June 12, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 12, 2024
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    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are sequences longer than 200 nucleotides, but they do not encode proteins. Nevertheless, they have significant roles in diverse biological functions. It remains unclear how viral infections trigger the expression of lncRNAs. In our previous research, we revealed a distinct type of lncRNAs with a lifespan under 4 h in human HeLa cells. These short-lived lncRNAs might be associated with numerous regulatory roles. Given their potential impact on human physiology, these short-lived lncRNAs could be key indicators to measure polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) stimulation. In our recent work, we discovered three lncRNAs: IDI2-AS1, OIP5-AS1, and LITATS1. After exposure to poly I:C, imitating viral assault in human A549 cells, IDI2-AS1 levels dropped significantly while OIP5-AS1 and LITATS1 levels rose markedly. Our results indicate that short-lived lncRNAs respond to poly I:C stimulation, exhibiting substantial changes in expression. This indicates that the understanding the role of lncRNAs in the host response to viral infection and the potential for these molecules to serve as novel therapeutic targets.

Communication to the Editor
  • Kiyomi Nigorikawa, Yu Fukushima, Chinatsu Shimada, Daisuke Matsumoto, ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1148-1153
    Published: June 14, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 14, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Transcriptional activation, based on Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and known as CRISPR activation (CRISPRa), is a specific and safe tool to upregulate endogenous genes. Therefore, CRISPRa is valuable not only for analysis of molecular mechanisms of cellular events, but also for treatment of various diseases. Regulating autophagy has been proposed to enhance effects of some therapies. In this study, we upregulated genes for phosphoinositide phosphatases, SACM1L, PIP4P1, and PIP4P2, using CRISPRa, and their effects on autophagy were examined. Our results suggested that TMEM55A/PIP4P2, a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 4-phosphatase, positively regulates basal autophagy in 293A cells. Furthermore, it was also suggested that SAC1, a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphatase, negatively regulates basal autophagic degradation.

Regular Article
  • Tsugumi Takeo, Masateru Miyake, Hideya Mizuno
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1154-1162
    Published: June 14, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 14, 2024
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    Probucol is a hyperlipidemic drug with antioxidant properties. It has been reported to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, reduce oxidative stress, and suppress neurotoxicity in neurodegenerative disease models, including Parkinson’s disease models. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of probucol have been not examined yet. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether probucol can alleviate the effects of a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, rotenone, on a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). We evaluated the cell viability and cytotoxicity and apoptosis rates of SH-SY5Y cells treated with rotenone and probucol or edaravone, a known free-radical scavenger. Subsequently, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the cells were evaluated to determine the effects of probucol on mitochondrial function. We found that rotenone caused cytotoxicity, cell apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction, enhanced ROS generation, and impaired MMP. However, probucol could inhibit this rotenone-induced decrease in cell viability, MMP loss, intracellular ROS generation, and apoptosis. These results suggest that probucol exerts neuroprotective effects via MMP stabilization and the inhibition of ROS generation. Additionally, this effect of probucol was equal to or greater than and more persistent than that of edaravone. Thus, we believe probucol may be a promising drug for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.

  • Kozo Takeuchi, Osamu Yasuhiko
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1163-1171
    Published: June 14, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 14, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    The vital role of bile canaliculus (BC) in liver function is closely related to its morphology. Electron microscopy has contributed to understanding BC morphology; however, its invasiveness limits its use in living specimens. Here, we report non-invasive characterization of BC formation using refractive index (RI) tomography. First, we investigated and characterized the RI distribution of BCs in two-dimensional (2D) cultured HepG2 cells. BCs were identified based on their distinct morphology and functionality, as confirmed using a fluorescence-labeled bile acid analog. The RI distribution of BCs exhibited three common features: (1) luminal spaces with a low RI between adjacent hepatocytes; (2) luminal spaces surrounded by a membranous structure with a high RI; and (3) multiple microvillus structures with a high RI within the lumen. Second, we demonstrated the characterization of BC structures in a three-dimensional (3D) culture model, which is more relevant to the in vivo environment but more difficult to evaluate than 2D cultures. Various BC structures were identified inside HepG2 spheroids with the three features of RI distribution. Third, we conducted comparative analyses and found that the BC lumina of spheroids had higher circularity and lower RI standard deviation than 2D cultures. We also addressed comparison of BC and intracellular lumen-like structures within a HepG2 spheroid, and found that the BC lumina had higher RI and longer perimeter than intracellular lumen-like structures. Our demonstration of the non-destructive, label-free visualization and quantitative characterization of living BC structures will be a basis for various hepatological and pharmaceutical applications.

  • Yuka Nishioka, Kana Hayashi, Katsuya Morito, Kentaro Takayama, Kazuki ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1172-1178
    Published: June 14, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 14, 2024
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    The increasing number of patients with depressive disorder is a serious socioeconomic problem worldwide. Although several therapeutic agents have been developed and used clinically, their effectiveness is insufficient and thus discovery of novel therapeutic targets is desired. Here, focusing on dysregulation of neuronal purinergic signaling in depressive-like behavior, we examined the expression profiles of ATP channels and ectonucleotidases in astrocytes of cerebral cortex and hippocampus of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)-susceptible BALB/c mice. Mice were exposed to 10-d CSDS, and their astrocytes were obtained using a commercially available kit based on magnetic activated cell sorting technology. In astrocytes derived from cerebral cortex of CSDS-susceptible mice, the expression levels of mRNAs for connexin 43, P2X7 receptors and maxi anion channels were increased, those for connexin 43 and P2X7 receptors being inversely correlated with mouse sociability, and the expression of mRNAs for ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrase 2 and ecto-5′nucleotidase was decreased and increased, respectively. On the other hand, the alteration profiles of ATP channels and ectonucleotidases in hippocampal astrocytes of CSDS-susceptible mice were different from in the case of cortical astrocytes, and there was no significant correlation between expression levels of their mRNAs and mouse sociability. These findings imply that increased expression of ATP channels in cerebral cortex might be involved in the development of reduced sociability in CSDS-subjected BALB/c mice. Together with recent findings, it is suggested that ATP channels expressed by cortical astrocytes might be potential therapeutic targets for depressive disorder.

  • Zenji Kawakami, Yosuke Matsubara, Keisuke Ogura, Sachiko Imamura, Seii ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1179-1188
    Published: June 14, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 14, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Secondary lymphedema occurs after cancer surgery involving lymph node dissection owing to the lymphatic system dysfunction. However, the pathophysiology of lymphedema and the molecular pathways involved remain unknown. This study aimed to develop a rat hindlimb lymphedema model and investigate the mechanisms that drive pathophysiology and the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine goreisan on lymphedema. The rat lymphedema model was induced by combination surgeries of popliteal lymph node dissection, skin cautery incision, and fascial ablation coagulation in the right hindlimb using male Wistar rats. The foot volume was significantly increased, and recovery was delayed by combination surgeries. Dermal thickness and dilated lymphatic vessels of the hindlimb were observed on postoperative day 2. The number of infiltrating leukocytes (CD45+ cells), including CD4+ T-cells, increased in the lymphedema group compared with that in the sham group. The relative mRNA expression and protein levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and Fms-related receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) were significantly higher in the lymphedema group than in the sham group. Foot volume was decreased by goreisan, furosemide, and prednisolone treatments. Goreisan diminished the increase in CD4+ T-cells, and the same trend was observed for CCL2 and FLT4 expression. In conclusion, the rat hindlimb lymphedema model in this study exhibited increased foot volume, skin-infiltrating cells, and pathological changes accompanied by inflammatory and fibrotic responses, suggesting that the model presented significant clinical features of lymphedema. Goreisan may exert a therapeutic effect on lymphedema by inhibiting CD4+ T-cell infiltration.

  • Tatsuhiko Sakamoto, Moeko Kado, Yoshitaka Saito, Kazuki Uchiyama, Ryot ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1189-1195
    Published: June 19, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 19, 2024
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    Although carboplatin (CBDCA) is classified as a moderately emetogenic agent, the majority of guidelines recommend the use of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in addition to a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist with dexamethasone (DEX) for CBDCA-containing chemotherapy because of its higher emetogenic risk. However, the additional efficacy of aprepitant (APR) in CBDCA-containing treatment remains controversial, and data on multiple-day treatments are limited. Etoposide (ETP) was administered on days 1–3 in the CBDCA + ETP regimen, and it is important to evaluate suitable antiemetic therapy for the regimen. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of additional APR in CBDCA + ETP. Patients were divided into two groups and retrospectively evaluated. One was the control group, which was prophylactically administered palonosetron (PALO) and DEX, and the other was the APR group, which received APR orally with PALO and DEX. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR) between the groups. The overall CR rates were 75.0 and 76.4% in the control and APR groups, respectively, with no significant difference (p = 1.00). In the acute phase, it was 88.9 and 97.2%, respectively, and 86.1 and 79.2% in the delayed phase, respectively, without significant differences (p = 0.10 and 0.38, respectively). The incidence and severity of nausea, vomiting, and anorexia were not significantly different between the two groups in the acute and delayed phases. Our findings suggest that combining APR with PALO and DEX does not improve the CR rate in CBDCA + ETP therapy.

  • Hirokazu Hara, Aki Manome, Tetsuro Kamiya
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1196-1203
    Published: June 19, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 19, 2024
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    Microglia, resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), play a critical role in maintaining CNS homeostasis. However, microglia activated in response to brain injury produce various inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokines, leading to considerable neuronal damage. NO generated by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) rapidly reacts with superoxide to form a highly toxic product, peroxynitrite. Therefore, iNOS is considered to be a putative therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia. Here, we examined the effects of panobinostat (Pano), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS expression using rat immortalized microglia HAPI cells. Pano inhibited LPS-induced expression of iNOS mRNA and NO production in a dose-dependent manner; however, it had little effect on the LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 or nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The interferon-β (IFN-β)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is essential for LPS-induced iNOS expression in macrophages/microglia. We also examined the effects of Pano on LPS-induced IFN-β signaling. Pano markedly inhibited LPS-induced IFN-β expression and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1. However, the addition of IFN-β restored the decreased STAT1 phosphorylation but not the decreased iNOS expression. In addition, Pano inhibited the LPS-increased expression of octamer binding protein-2 and interferon regulatory factor 9 responsible for iNOS expression, but IFN-β addition also failed to restore the decreased expression of these factors. Thus, we conclude that the inhibitory effects of Pano are due not only to the inhibition of the IFN-β/STAT axis but also to the downregulation of other factors not involved in this axis.

  • Kinuka Doi, Rintaro Sogawa, Yuko Eguchi, Muneaki Matsuo, Chisato Shima ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1204-1208
    Published: June 22, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 22, 2024
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    Guanfacine, used as a medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), leads to a high incidence of somnolence, in contrast to methylphenidate, which leads to a high incidence of insomnia. The impact of somnolence on continuing guanfacine treatment is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the reasons for discontinuing guanfacine and analyzed the factors associated with discontinuation caused by somnolence. We surveyed 96 patients under guanfacine from July 2017 to December 2021 at the Saga University Hospital. Patients who discontinued guanfacine by the end date of our study were divided into a median early and late group. We compared the reasons for discontinuation in both groups. Of all patients, 47 continued and 49 discontinued guanfacine. A higher percentage of patients discontinued guanfacine caused by somnolence for ≤70 d than for >70 d of treatment (44.0 vs. 8.3%; p = 0.008). When stratified by the concomitant use of other ADHD drugs, somnolence resulted in a higher discontinuation rate for ≤70 d than for >70 d of treatment without concomitant use (55.0 vs. 7.1%; p = 0.009). Nonetheless, concomitant use resulted in no difference. In conclusion, somnolence affects the early discontinuation of guanfacine as an ADHD drug. The combination of methylphenidate or atomoxetine may decrease withdrawal caused by somnolence.

  • Keisuke Tachibana, Lin Bai, Sayaka Sugimura, Hijiri Fujioka, Wataru Ki ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1209-1217
    Published: June 27, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 27, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    A major site for the absorption of orally administered drugs is the intestinal tract, where the mucosal epithelium functions as a barrier separating the inside body from the outer environment. The intercellular spaces between adjacent epithelial cells are sealed by bicellular and tricellular tight junctions (TJs). Although one strategy for enhancing intestinal drug absorption is to modulate these TJs, comprehensive gene (mRNA) expression analysis of the TJs components has never been fully carried out in humans. In this study, we used human biopsy samples of normal-appearing mucosa showing no endoscopically visible inflammation collected from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum to examine the mRNA expression profiles of TJ components, including occludin and tricellulin and members of the claudin family, zonula occludens family, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) family, and angulin family. Levels of claudin-3, -4, -7, -8, and -23 expression became more elevated in each segment along the intestinal tract from the upper segments to the lower segments, as did levels of angulin-1 and -2 expression. In contrast, expression of claudin-2 and -15 was decreased in the large intestine compared to the small intestine. Levels of occludin, tricellulin, and JAM-B and -C expression were unchanged throughout the intestine. Considering their segment specificity, claudin-8, claudin-15, and angulin-2 appear to be targets for the development of permeation enhancers in the rectum, small intestine, and large intestine, respectively. These data on heterogenous expression profiles of intestinal TJ components will be useful for the development of safe and efficient intestinal permeation enhancers.

Note
  • Yuto Fujita, Takahito Miyake, Xinyan Shao, Yuto Aoki, Emi Hasegawa, Ma ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1218-1223
    Published: June 27, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 27, 2024
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    Unknown interactions between drugs remain the limiting factor for clinical application of drugs, and the induction and inhibition of drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes are considered the key to examining the drug–drug interaction (DDI). In this study, using human HepaRG cells as an in vitro model system, we analyzed the potential DDI based on the expression levels of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. Rifampicin and omeprazole, the potent inducers for CYP3A4 and CYP1A2, respectively, induce expression of the corresponding CYP enzymes at both the mRNA and protein levels. We noticed that, in addition to inducing CYP1A2, omeprazole induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepaRG cells. However, unexpectedly, CYP3A4 protein expression levels were not increased after omeprazole treatment. Concurrent administration of rifampicin and omeprazole showed an inhibitory effect of omeprazole on the CYP3A4 protein expression induced by rifampicin, while its mRNA induction remained intact. Cycloheximide chase assay revealed increased CYP3A4 protein degradation in the cells exposed to omeprazole. The data presented here suggest the potential importance of broadening the current DDI examination beyond conventional transcriptional induction and enzyme-activity inhibition tests to include post-translational regulation analysis of CYP enzyme expression.

Regular Article
  • Ryuichiro Mochizuki, Naoyuki Fukumoto, Kenichiro Ise, Kohsuke Shibasak ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1224-1230
    Published: June 27, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 27, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    We prepared a supramolecular hydrogel composed of decanoic acid and arginine (C10/Arg gel) and evaluated its application to a transdermal formulation. C10/Arg gel adjusted to pH 7 with 1 M NaOH aq or 1 M HCl aq provided a translucent hydrogel with a lamellar liquid crystal structure in the concentration region of decanoic acid ≥12% and arginine ≤9%. Rheological measurements showed that C10/Arg gel is a viscoelastic material with both solid and liquid properties, with elasticity being dominant over viscosity in the low shear stress region. The skin permeability of hydrocortisone (HC) and indomethacin (IM) from C10/Arg gels was investigated in vitro using hairless mouse skin and compared to control formulation drug suspensions (IM or HC) in water. The cumulative permeation amount of HC and IM from the C10/Arg gel at 10 h after application was approximately 16 and 11 times higher than that of the control, respectively. On the other hand, the flux of IM decreased with increasing arginine concentration, likely due to the acid–base interaction between Arg and IM in C10/Arg gel. Adequate drug skin permeation enhancement by C10/Arg gel requires optimizing the gel composition for each specific drug.

  • Masahiko Tebakari, Yuki Daigo, Hiroaki Takemoto, Kiyomitsu Nemoto, Fum ...
    2024 Volume 47 Issue 6 Pages 1231-1238
    Published: June 28, 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: June 28, 2024
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    Supplementary material

    Porcine placental extract (PPE) is commonly used in various health foods and cosmetics. PPE use in cosmetics predominantly consist of the water-soluble fraction derived from the entire placenta. In this report, we examined the effect of the hydrophobic constituents of the PPE, specifically the sphingolipid-enriched fraction designated as the sphingolipid-enriched porcine placental extract (SLPPE), on the expression of genes associated with skin function in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, we found that SLPPE concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 µg/mL upregulated the gene expression of key components associated with the cornified envelope structure (filaggrin (FLG), involucrin (IVL) and loricrin (LOR)), cornification enzymes (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) and TGM5) and the desquamation enzymes (kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and KLK7). Additionally, KLK5p and FLG protein (FLGp) were detected in the culture supernatants of keratinocytes treated with SLPPE at these concentrations. These findings suggest that SLPPE is possible to promote the cornification and desquamation in epidermal keratinocytes, and it may offer potential benefits in cosmetics.

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