The purpose of this study is to clarify the combination of button and buttonhole types suitable for arm function. Six persons with physical disabilities and fourteen normal females tested six combinations of three kinds of buttons (flat button, flat button with shank, tuck button) and two kinds of buttonholes (horizontal, vertical), and the physical load on their hands was evaluated by surface electromyogram. As a result, when normal persons were fastening buttons, the muscle activity of the first dorsal interosseous muscles of both hands ranged from 17% to 19% MVC, and that of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscles ranged from 14% to 15% MVC, which were more than the muscle activity required when unfastening them. Muscle activity for a vertical buttonhole was less than for a horizontal buttonhole, and a flat button with shank was evaluated as showing easier buttoning. In addition, there was a negative correlation between muscle activity and sense evaluation. On the other hand, when the persons with disabilities, except those with heavy paralysis, were fastening buttons, the muscle activity of the first dorsal interosseous muscles was mostly less than in normal persons, and for most of the persons with disabilities, that of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle was over 15%MVC. The sensory evaluation with a flat button with shank was high in persons with light paralysis, and the sensory evaluation with the tuck button, which requires little muscle activity, was high in persons with heavy paralysis.
We examined carefully the present condition of teaching about housing in junior high school and high school home economics classes. We then considered a method of teaching that would be beneficial to the students' future lives after looking at how the field of housing was taught and determining whether it was meaningful to their everyday lives. As a result, we learned that insufficient time was spent educating students about the field of housing. However, we found that the classes raised the students' interest in housing and housing environments because they had direct implications to their lives. It became clear that the students' genuine interest in and responsible attitude towards the housing field influenced their consciousness and behavior. It is thought that discussions and visits by guest lecturers are effective in showing the importance of learning about housing. Given the limited class time, we concluded that this approach is the best way to teach students about the importance of housing and how it affects their lives.
Objective: As a preventive measure against osteoporosis among mothers, we examined the relationship between maternal bone mass and dietary/lifestyle habits during health examinations of 3-year-old children.
Methods: We conducted a self-administered questionnaire of 269 mothers, who had brought their children to a healthcare center conducting health examinations for 3-year-old children in Tokyo, to examine their physical conditions and dietary/lifestyle habits. We also measured their calcaneal bone mass using ultrasonography.
Results: The percentage of mothers who did exercise was significantly higher in the group having Stiffness Index values above the median, representing their bone mass, compared to mothers who did not do exercise (p＝0.026). Mothers who exercised also showed a lower meal-skipping rate (p＝0.031), with a higher rate of consuming more than 200 mL of milk daily (p＝0.018), when compared with the dietary habits of the mothers who did not exercise. Furthermore, the history of fractures was significantly higher in the lower bone mass group than in the higher bone mass group (p＝0.006), and the frequency of outdoor sun exposure was lower among mothers with a history of fractures than it was among those without a history (p＝0.006). In contrast, mothers with a history of fractures answered “Rarely” more often than those without a history when asked about the frequency of eating green and yellow vegetables (p＜0.006).
Conclusion: The results suggest the importance of appropriate physical activities and diets for bone mass maintenance and fracture prevention during the postnatal period, when maternal bone mass is restored.
Our research focuses on clothing education in home economics classes in Cambodia. We conducted research at Bayon junior high school in Siem Reap province. Based on past experience, ICT teaching materials were added to group learning, and the effects were examined. From the result of our research, in clothing education in Cambodia, it was revealed that language did not negatively affect the classes, however, few teachers could conduct clothing education using ICT or improve the ICT teaching materials. On the other hand, it was a good self-study learning experience, despite the collaboration itself not being successful. Finding a way to achieve a successful collaboration in the future is one of the goals.