Recently, allergic diseases such as wheat have greatly increased. The present study evaluated bread-baking performance of gluten-free rice flour bread upon slow juicer residue powder addition, with respect to effects on bread structure and palatability. By adding the slow juicer residue powder, the viscosity of the batter increased, as did the specific volume of baked bread, and fine-grained bread could be prepared. However, the addition of 8% or more powder tended to inhibit the swelling of bread. The results of the sensory evaluation indicated that the samples with 4% to 6% slow juicer residue powder were significantly better in terms of their overall favorability. These results demonstrated that the addition of the slow juicer residue powder at 4% to 5% proportions improved baking performance of bread made with gluten-free rice flour. In making bread with gluten-free rice flour, the addition of an appropriate amount of slow juicer residue powder as a thickening and stabilizing agent may be effective, and the residue powder also serves as a gluten substitute.
Thermal and latent heat transfer rates through clothes were estimated with heat and mass transfer coefficients for air gap between clothes, cloth of clothes, lined material and boundary film within surrounding air, respectively. Four sets of clothes were examined – set A: underwear, a shirt-blouse, a sweater and a down coat, set B: underwear, a shirt-blouse, a sweater and a jacket, set C: underwear, a shirt-blouse and a jacket, set D: underwear and a shirt-blouse. The conditions for calculation were a temperature of 33℃ and humidity of 50％ at the skin surface and a temperature of －2～30℃ and humidity of 20～70％ within the surrounding air. Temperatures within the surrounding air at a humidity of 50％ corresponding to the heat transfer rate of 60 W/m2 were －2℃ for set A, 12℃ for set B, 17℃ for set C and 24℃ for set D. The ratio of latent heat transfer rate to the total heat transfer rate for set A was 0.18, which was small because of large mass transfer resistance of the cloth used for the down coat. The cloth was taffeta with a volumetric fiber fraction of 0.55 within the cloth. The tortuosity of the air channel within the cloth increased with the increase in the volumetric fiber fraction, and the mass transfer coefficient of the cloth became smaller. The ratios of latent heat transfer rate for set B, C or D were between 0.3 and 0.6, and decreased with the increase in humidity within the surrounding air. The volumetric fiber fraction of cloth used with sets B, C and D was smaller than 0.33, and the mass transfer resistance of cloth was very small in comparison with that of the air gap between clothes as well as the heat transfer resistance. The ratio of latent heat transfer rate for sets B, C and D was close to that for the air gap between clothes.
It is important to understand the movement of dust released from clothes in the living room for our health. For this investigation, a simple and small lidar system for such a room was developed using a laser pointer and a camera. Its performance was verified by comparing it to a commercial particle counter using man-made dust from such things as textiles, sprays, and chalk dust. The movement of dust released from clothes by several daily actions such as taking off clothes, hitting or wiping them, and moving around a room were visualized as a distribution image in time and height. In the case of taking off clothes, the greatest amount of dust occurred by the action of taking off pants. Hitting clothes also released a large amount of dust, but the spread area was limited. Conversely, wiping clothes caused smaller dust particle counts, but the dust floated longer in the air. Additionally, and of particular interest, the effect of walking indoors on the spread of dust was imaged numerically.
The effect of the difference between gas and induction heating (IH) on the finishes of frying and roasting cooking in terms of taste, physical properties, and tissue structure of fried rice, fried spinach, and thickly folded fried eggs was investigated. The heat was determined in a way that assured an approximately equal water temperature rising rate in the frying pan for both gas heating and IH. The bottom and side surface temperatures of the frying pan and the egg fryer were more uniform and higher when preheated on high heat using gas heating compared with IH. Fried rice and fried spinach were cooked on high heat for the same cooking time, respectively, and thick-fried eggs were cooked on medium heat so that the egg temperature was the same. The fried rice cooked using gas heating had higher salt equivalent and lower stickiness than its IH counterpart. The observation of rice in the fried rice cooked on a gas cooktop with a scanning electron microscope revealed a disruption of the surface area, which was not observed with the IH heater. The tissue structure of spinach cooked using gas heating was maintained better than its IH counterpart. The cooking time of the thickly folded fried eggs was shorter using the gas cooktop than it was with the IH heater. A thick and uniform mesh pattern was observed in the surface structure of the thickly folded fried eggs cooked on the gas cooktop, which may contribute to the high cohesiveness of the surface. Under the heating conditions in this study, the gas heating promoted more water evaporation from the ingredients and thermal protein denaturation compared to the IH, which might have influenced the finishes of frying and roasting cooking.
In this study, to determine the characteristics of Okayama coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), we investigated seasonal variations in nutritional components (common ingredients, minerals, and vitamin C) and change in content of vitamin C during cooking. The variation in composition was dependent on the part of the plant analyzed (leaf, stem, or root). The leaves tended to have low moisture content and high nutrient levels (protein, lipids, ash, carbohydrates, vitamin C, zinc, manganese, and magnesium) in winter. The nutrient levels of the stems and roots were not affected by season compared to those of the leaves. According to the standard tables of food composition in Japan, OKAPAKU has a high content of proteins, carbohydrates, minerals (except for potassium and copper), and vitamin C. In particular, the content of vitamin C was considerably high. OKAPAKU also has a high content of calcium and iron. During cooking, the loss rate of vitamin C was different for each part.