The purpose of this study is to address issues on how to deal with food allergies during cooking practice by junior high school home economics teachers, and on the current organizational structures related to food allergies in schools.
A questionnaire survey was conducted by post between November 2019 and February 2020, targeting home economics teachers working at junior high schools in the Sapporo area. Of the 144 questionnaire surveys distributed to public and private junior high schools, 63 questionnaires were collected (collection rate: 43.8%).
The results were as follows: Only 30.1% of junior high schools had organizational structures related to food allergies in school. A total of 55.6% of home economics teachers were aware of the number of students with food allergy symptoms. Home economics teachers whose support in addressing food allergies during cooking practice had been solicited by students' parents tended to conduct cooking practice based on common menus that all students could eat, regardless of whether or not they had food allergy symptoms. A large proportion of home economics teachers (76.2%) felt that textbooks should include examples of cooking practice that take food allergies into consideration.
Currently, schools place a strong emphasis on addressing food allergies in school lunch programs; however, in order to protect the safety of students and to ensure equal opportunities in education, schools need to establish organizational structures related to addressing food allergies in home economics cooking practice. Thus, in the future, there is a need to reduce the burden on home economics teachers in cooking practice, and to develop and disseminate cooking practice topics that address food allergies.
Climate change is an urgent issue, and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change clearly states the importance of education. In order to establish energy-saving behavior as a social norm toward carbon neutrality in 2050, it is considered important to take measures in school education. However, it is not quantitatively clear whether these measures actually contribute to CO2 reduction at home.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to comprehensively clarify the effect of the actual measurement of energy consumption at home and the behavioral practice rate.
As a result, by introducing energy-saving education, the practice rate of energy-saving behavior at home improved by about 20% and a CO2 reduction effect of about 5% was obtained. Education for children influenced their behavior at home, and the educational effect could still be seen even one year later. It was suggested that energy saving education directly contributes to energy saving and CO2 reduction at home.
The purpose of this study was to compare ichijusansai and ichijuissai which was made by high school students, and to examine the possibility of a menu planning class using ichijuissai in high school home economics. The subjects of analysis were 118 high school first graders. The results were as follows:
(1) It was harder to use pulses, vegetables, potatoes and fruits in the ichijuissai menu than it was to put them in the ichijusansai menu, the ichijusansai menu used much more fish, mollusks and crustaceans, and meat than the ichijuissai menu. Both ichijuissai and ichijusansai tended to use less milk and milk products, potatoes, fruits, fats and oils and sugars, and more eggs and fish, mollusks and crustacean, and meat.
(2) When the menu contained all four food groups, there was almost no differences between ichijusansai and ichijuissai in terms of the amount used in each food group and their nutritional value. In terms of nutritional value, both ichijusansai and ichijuissai were very low in iron, dietary fiber, and vitamins B1 and B2.
(3) The average number of food items used was higher in ichijuissai than in ichijusansai.
(4) An analysis of the students' impressions revealed that it was difficult to think about nutritional balance for ichijuissai.
In conclusion, ichijuissai can be used in menu planning classes by considering the points mentioned above.
Questionnaires were sent out to middle and high school students and their parents in Kyushu, inquiring about their eating habits concerning dagojiru. The results were analyzed on a regional basis, and the factors associated with their preference were discussed. The survey areas where 100% of the students had eaten dagojiru and the areas where about 90% had eaten it were located within two approximately concentric circles described around the intersection of Kumamoto, Oita, and Fukuoka prefectures. It was observed that the rate of the students who had eaten dagojiru significantly correlated with students' preference rate, eating places/opportunities, and parents' preference rate. Three factors were found to affect individuals' preferences for dagojiru: the regionality of the local communities, their eating experiences and learning, and the characteristics of the cuisine.