Effects and related factors of learning in ECEC among junior high school students were examined quantitively by using scales. Moreover, student's expectations, anxiety, enjoyment, and complaints about learning were examined using the free description method. A questionnaire was conducted with 126 junior high school students before and after learning. The questionnaire conducted before learning consisted of the interest in young children scale (IYCS), and free descriptions on expectations and anxiety about learning. The questionnaire conducted after learning consisted of IYCS, the scale of feelings when having contact with infants, and free description about learning. The results of statistical analysis indicated; student's interest in children was diversified by learning. Moreover, the feelings students had during learning affected the level of interest in young children after learning. Furthermore, analysis of the content of free descriptions indicated that many students expected to play with infants. They did it in learning settings and they enjoyed it. Effects and related factors of learning in ECEC are discussed quantitatively and qualitatively.
Due to the increase of dual-earner couples, a great deal of research has been conducted on the division of household labor between husbands and wives. However, few studies have investigated children's involvement in housework.
This study investigates the determinants of children's involvement in housework. Using the data from the Survey of Nuclear Families in Japan (2008), this study focuses on children aged between 9 and 18, their fathers and mothers living in Tokyo and its suburbs. Path analyses based on theoretical concepts revealed that the determinants of sons' and daughters' housework were different. Fathers' greater involvement in housework, a higher level satisfaction of mother-son relationship, and mothers' higher educational level encouraged sons' involvement in housework. On the contrary, daughters' involvement in housework was reduced when they returned home late, or their mothers had liberal gender ideology.
These findings suggest that sons are likely to be involved in housework due to parental encouragement, and daughters involve themselves autonomously. Moreover, they imply that mothers who are highly educated or take gendered division of labor negatively promote gender equality in housework by encouraging sons and fathers to do more.
The possibility using of Silver Human Resources Centers for the maintenance and management of vacant houses was examined. A questionnaire on the maintenance of vacant houses was mailed to 1,328 Silver Human Resources Centers throughout the country, and 720 effective answers were obtained. Currently, there are 265 centers that maintain and manage vacant houses, and the number of members is relatively large, and there are many centers that hold workshops and lectures for members, as well as centers that cooperate with regional community general support centers and Societies of Commerce and Industry. In addition, regardless of the current status of involvement in vacant house maintenance and management, it is possible that many centers will be involved in the maintenance and management of vacant house in the future. Furthermore, securing and training people to perform vacant house maintenance and management, standardizing and formalizing vacant house maintenance and management, and providing information to vacant house owners are required, along with the cooperation between Silver Human Resources Centers and administration or local resident organizations, building and real estate experts, and so on.
There is a lack of information on controlling food allergen residues on cookware. In this study, we investigated the residual properties of wheat allergen on three types of bowl material: glass, stainless steel, and polypropylene. Batter (0.5 g), consisting of wheat flour and water, was applied and attached to each bowl. Sequentially, the bowls were rinsed with water, scrubbed with a detergent-soaked sponge, rinsed with water to remove detergent, and finally, swabbed. Each swabbed solution was evaluated using immunochromatography or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kits. Despite scrubbing with a detergent-soaked sponge, wheat allergen residues were detected at a positive rate of about 50%, and there was no difference (p＜0.05) among bowl materials in terms of detection. These high residual levels are important considering hygiene management during cooking. To prevent contamination of wheat allergen, further studies using wheat allergen residues should be conducted to clarify the effects of complicated shapes of cookware and complete cleaning methods.