Early childhood is an important period of life during which children grow remarkably and establish basic health-related lifestyle habits. However, factors contributing to an unbalanced diet, such as picky eating, can be a cause for concern. This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with picky eating and to build a causal model using path analysis to improve food education in Japan. This cross-sectional study involved a questionnaire survey sent to 580 parents of kindergartners. A total of 408 parents (70.3%) responded to the questionnaire, which comprised items on topics such as lifestyle and eating habits in early childhood and parents' awareness of healthy lifestyles during early childhood. The respondents indicated that their children disliked vegetables, seaweed, seafood, and dairy products. The results of the path analysis revealed negative correlations between “my child dislikes many kinds of food” and the following: “enjoyment of eating,” “my child has a good appetite,” “my child likes vegetables and seaweed,” and “the number of food types my child eats at breakfast.” These results suggest that promoting enjoyment of eating, having a good appetite, and serving many kinds of food at breakfast might be effective in improving picky eating behavior in kindergartners.
The “acid-base neutralization theory in cleaning” is the theory that (1) stains can be classified into acidic stains and alkaline stains, and (2) acidic stains and alkaline stains can be neutralized and removed with alkali and acid, respectively. The theory is widespread among Japanese consumers, but it contains scientific errors. Therefore, in this study, we collected and analyzed related information from the Internet and investigated the process by which false information was created and spread. As a result, it was confirmed that there was a problem in the method of classifying acid stains and alkaline stains, and that excessive acidification and alkalization were expressed as neutralization. The reason for the dissemination of this information is that various definitions of neutralization originally existed and that it is difficult to strictly understand the terms related to acids and bases. It is also involved that acid and oxidation as Japanese terms are easily confused. The expression “neutralization of acid and alkali” may have been accepted by many because it is simple and easy to understand.
We investigated the contents of 86 research papers published between 2001 and 2019 to capture international trends regarding studies on food literacy. The number of research papers whose titles included the words “food literacy” increased every year from 2016 onward. Studies on food literacy were mainly produced in Australia, Canada and the United States. Research papers on food literacy were categorized into six types. From 2001 to 2019 studies shifted from a focus on establishing definitions and implementing educational programs to an examination of how food literacy actually permeates individuals' lives, and other societal factors. Very little research was conducted regarding the development of assessment tools, implementation, and evaluation of educational programs. Although a research paper written by Vidgen & Gallegos in 2014 was cited most often, there are various definitions of food literacy. The components of food literacy are various and highly interconnected. The results of this study also point to a need for developing more systematic instructional methodologies on food literacy.
We focused on university students who have received handmade products and researched what they thought about handicrafts and sewing activities as well as how they might feel as parents. As a result, we obtained the following findings. The percentage of the students surveyed who received handmade products was 56.8%. Most of the students received them from their mothers, followed by their grandmothers. Only three students received handmade products from their fathers. There was a significant relationship between “experiences of receiving handmade products” and “thinking as a parent regarding handicrafts and sewing activities.” Those who received handmade products thought that handmade products were an expression of love between parents and their children, and that handicrafts and sewing techniques should be passed on to the next generation. It was suggested that the experience of receiving handmade products as a child may affect the consciousness of future parents.