This study verified the hypothesis based on “multiple role hypothesis” in which mothers' commitment to their role at work as well as their role as parents drains their time and leads to an unhealthy effect on the sleep and eating habits of pre-school children. By issuing a questionnaire to 269 parents with pre-school children, we discovered the following. First, children whose mothers worked outside the home went to bed late and had fewer than 10 hours sleep per night. On the other hand, children whose mothers were homemakers went to bed early and slept longer. Second, the time that mothers returned home from work in the evening was a significant factor in late bedtimes for children which meant that they had less sleep. Third, for children whose fathers' came home from work early in the evening, it was easier to get the whole family together at mealtime. However, maternal as well as paternal employment were not significantly associated with eating habits and a balanced diet. Therefore, the multiple role hypothesis was partly supported. Taking into consideration the fact that maternal employment affects the lifestyle of children, gender equity in society and improvements in the work environment as well as parental education are required in order to improve the healthier behavior of children.
Oil-in-water emulsions are used in various industries, such as food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. In this study, we investigated the correlation between food-grade polysaccharide gelling agents and high-internal-phase emulsion (HIPE) gels with high liquid fat content (～85%) and the physical properties and internal structure of the gels.
To prepare stable, self-standing HIPE gels containing high liquid fat (～85%), we used appropriate food-grade gelling agents [e.g., xanthan gum (XG) and Locust bean gum (LBG) mixture gelling agent] at an optimal concentration. The relationship between physical properties and liquid fat content of the gels is correlated with the interaction between emulsion droplets, the gel matrix, and internal structure. Physical properties depended on liquid fat content and on how closely sequenced the small emulsion droplets were in the internal gel structure.
These results have significant implications for immobilization of high liquid fat content in the hydrophilic polysaccharide gel network, which can be applied to various industries.
The aging population is advancing every year in Japan. In order to effectively support independent living of the elderly residing in the community, it is vital to examine the differences in motivation and environment among the residents, in addition to their nutritional condition and physical functions. In a study of two groups of independent community residents aged 80 years or older, 85 individuals from N City of Hyogo Prefecture and 34 individuals from KT City of Kyoto Prefecture, the authors investigated their nutritional condition, physical and oral functions, and other conditions using a questionnaire, and obtained basic data that would be useful in offering them effective support. The bone density of women was significantly higher in KT City compared with N City, and the grip strength of men was higher in KT City compared with N City. The results suggested that there are a significant number people who are at risk of becoming malnourished in N City. The results also revealed the influence of differences in not only the living environment, but also in household composition, suggesting the increasing importance of understanding the environment surrounding the elderly as well as their needs, in order to provide them with effective support services and networks.
Imonbukuro, or Japanese comfort bags, are considered to have been first created during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and spread after the Manchurian Incident (1931). Yet, imonbukuro were produced and donated during the inter-war period and at times of disaster such as famines and severe earthquakes. This article explores Japanese imonbukuro in the first half of the 20th century by examining newspaper articles and advertisements, industrial papers, magazines published by associations, and reports on the activities of organizations. A way of providing soldiers or disaster victims with quantities of imonbukuro through collaboration between local governments, newspaper companies, private corporations, and local schools and communities was created during the wars and disasters of the 1910s, and was fully functioning immediately after the great Kanto Earthquake of 1923. The approach was actively employed during the Manchurian Incident, the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), and the Asia Pacific War (1941-1945). However, at the end of the last war, the use of imonbukuro declined because of the scarcity of commodities and transportation difficulties due to the disruption caused by the war.