Among the data on physical fitness (records of side step test, vertical jump, back strength, grip strength, trunk extention, trunk flexion and modified Harvard Step Test) and motor ability (record of 50m dash, running broad jump, ball throw, chinning and endurance running) of school children in Kyoto City, those for children of 10, years old were analysed to reveal the interrelations among body build, physical fitness and motor ability. 1) The correlation matrix among variables concerning body build, physical fitness and motor ability, 2) the multiple regression equation of each variable concerning physical fitness and motor ability on variables concerning body build, 3) the multiple regression equation of each variable concerning motor ability on variables concerning body build and physical fitness, 4) the canonical correlations between body build and physical fitness, between body build and motor ability and between physical fitness and motor ability were calculated. The results were as follows. 1) Any of correlations and multiple correlations calculated among variables concerning body build, physical fitness and motor ability was not very large, even though most of them were statistically significant at 1% level. Besides, it was found on boys and girls of every age that there were more than two significant canonical correlations between body build and physical fitness, between body build and motor ability and between physical fitness and motor ability, but even the maximum canonical correlation was not necessarily large. The above findings indicate that the ability which is summarized as physical fitness or motor ability consists of various abilities which are relatively independent each other, and accordingly none of the relations between body build and physical fitness, between body build and motor ability and between physical fitness and motor ability is not represented by a simple relation between two linear combinations of variables. 2) The multiple regression equations calculated in this study may make it possible to estimate how each aspect of body build is contributing to each aspect of physical fitness and motor ability and how each aspect of body build and physical fitness is contrbuting to each aspect of motor ability. But in these estimations, it must be always kept in mind that the multiple correlation coefficients were not necessarily very large in every case. 3) Relatively large differences by age and sex were found on interrelations among variables concerning body build, physical fitness and motor ability. This fact probably indicates that various aspects of body build, physical fitness and motor ability do not necessarily grow or develope at the same rate.
To evaluate overall general endurance, endurance of both the upper and lower limbs should be considered. The Step Test was used for the test of endurance of lower extremi ties, while the Arm Test as previously reported was utilized for testing endurance of the upper extremities. Studies on the reliability and practical aspects of this method gave the following results. 1. The frequency of exercise loading appears adequate. 2. In the Arm Test as well as in the Step Test, participation of cardiovascular function was presumed. In these tests, a factor of endurance of muscles in the lower extremity and a similar factor in the upper extremity was found to be present. Con sequently, the Step Test apparently expresses the endurance of muscles in the lower extremity while the Arm Test expresses the endurance of muscles in the upper extremity. 3. Since the stage and time of measurement of the pulse rate appeared adequate as long as the Step Test was used as the standard, the score for the Arm Test was calculated according to the standard of the Step Test, as described subsequently. 4. The combined use of the Step Test and Arm Test was called the Nippon Medical School Test (for sportsman) . For the evaluation of this test, general endurance was expressed as ST value+AT value, while the balance between the endurance of upper and lower extremity was expressed as AT value/ST value, in order to grasp the characteristics of various sporting events. These results were also utilized for the preparation of tailor-made prescriptions for individual training. 5. The Nippon Medical School General Endurance Test (for sportsman) (abbreviated as NTs) consists of the following. a. Method of measurement 1) Method of measuring the endurance of lower limbs ; Step Test (ST) Method of exercise loading : General method of walking up and down the steps according to the standards of the Education Ministry. Test subjects were made to walk up and down a step of 40 cm in height for males and 35 cm in height for females, at a rate of once per 2 seconds over a period of 3 minutes. After this, the subjects are made to sit still and the pulse rate was measured 3 times as follows. P1: 1-1.5 minutes after the end of exercise loading P2 : 2-2.5 minutes after the end of exercise loading P3 : 3-3.5 minutes after the end of exercise loading Calculation of index : ST=180 (number of second for loading) / (P1+P2+P3) ×2×100 2) Method of measuring the endurance of upper limbs ; Arm Test (AT) Method of exercise loading : floor push-ups for males Flexion and extension of the arms is continued for 30 times in all at a rate of once per 2 seconds over a period of 60 seconds (the command for motion is given every second when the elbow joint changes from the flexed to extended position in order to avoid rebound power.) The subjects are subsequently placed in a sitting position and the pulse rate was measured at 3 intervals as follows : P1 : 30-45 seconds after the end of the exercise P2: 1-1.25 minutes after the end of exercise P3: 1.5-1.75 minutes after the end of exercise Calculation of index AT=60 (second of loading) ×3/ (P1+P2+P3) ×4×100 b. Method of evaluation General endurance= ST value+ AT value Ratio of endurance between upper and lower extremities = AT value/ST value.
The Kyudo (Japanese archery) is a most popular sport among Japanese as the Judo and Japanese fencing. Even some their athletes had complains of neck pain, joint pain and back pain, the investigations in the orthopaedic aspect were rare as compared with the Judo and Japanese fencing. The orthopaedical questionnaire were made to one hundred twenty-two athletes from eighteen to seventy-eight years old, average forty-three old, and the analysis by roentgenological and clinical findings were made to thirty athletes who were had severe troubles. The results were as follows : 1) Because of most disorders were localized about the upper-extremity as main action were using of arm muscles, there were discovered the osteoarthritis and osteochondro-matosis of the elbow joint, periarthritis of the shoulder joint, atrophy of the deltoid and supra-infraspinatus muscles, injury of the hand and back pain. 2) To prevent these disorders, we emphasized the necessity of warming-up and other systematic exercise as usually. 3) We had obtained the conclusion that the periodical examination was most important for early diagnosis and procedures of over ten years experienced athletes.
Luge and bobsleigh game, which are stirring but dangerous winter sports, have had only a short history in Japan and little study have been done on them from the viewpoints of sports medicine and physical fitness. It is very important and urgent for safety to elucidate the physiological effects of centrifugal acceleration upon the game players, which may be generated when the sleigh descend with high speed along a steeply curved ice course. Upon this, human G tolerance and physical fitness were tested and discussed in total of 48 Japanese subjects, including 4 females, who are candidates for the Olympic team of luge and bobsleigh game. Main results are as follows. 1. Grayout threshold (+Gz tolerance) was determined in each subjects using human centrifuge apparatus. Averaged tolerance limits were +5.67±0.56 Gz and +5.80±0.43 Gz in luge and bobsl eigh players, respectively. All subjects showed appropriate physiological responses in blood pressure and heart rate during exposure to G. 2. The results of anthropometric measurements and physical fitness test were thought to be reasonable as the value for trained athletes. 3. About 30% of subjects showed a decreased or mistaken stick performance when Coriolis stimulation were given to them in mild centrifugal G field. 4. It is thought for maintaining safety in the games that all the players should have appropriate G tolerance and physiological responses to G load and should be trained to prevent them from causing spatial disorientation by Coriolis stimulation during the game. For this, it is recommended that they should be given G load test with absolutely safety maneuver by human centrifuge.