A study was performed to investigate the validity of the derivative of the ear densitogram for measurement of left ventricular ejection time (LVET) . Nine male college students performed bicycle exercise at an initial work load of 0 watt (W), subsequently increasing by 60W every 3 min up to 240W. The LVET derived from the derivative of the ear densitogram (LVETe) was compared with that derived from the carotid pulse wave (LVETc) obtained at the same time. The results were as follows: 1. There was a high correlation coefficient, r=0.987 (P<0.01), between LVETe and LVETc. 2. At rest, LVETe showed a tendency to coincide with LVETc. In contrast, LVETe became longer than LVETc during exercise, and the higher HR became, the larger the difference between the two. 3. In the individual regression equations between LVETe and LVETc, the slopes and the intercepts were nearly identical. 4. The following equation was proposed for the correction of LVETe during exercise. LVET=-0.147⋅HR+ LVETe+ 8.3 From these findings, it was concluded that the validity of the derivative of the ear densitogram for estimation of LVET is sufficiently high. LVETe at rest is valid for the estimation of LVET without correction. During exercise, however, LVETe shows a tendency to be longer than LVETc, and thus it is desirable to correct LVETe using the above equation.
Evidence of an increased resting blood flow in the tendon against the adjacent muscle was confirmed in the in situ hindlimb preparation of a rabbit anesthetized with urethane. The tendon tissue blood flow was found to be modulated by nervous and mechanical factors. The effect of nervous control was demonstrated by the denervation of the sciatic nerve, which showed a gradual increase in the resting blood flow in the tendon and muscle after being severed. During local muscle exercise, the increase of tendon tissue blood flow observed was minimal in comparison with the adjacent muscle. The tendon surrounding tissue blood flow showed site-dependent characteristics along the longitudinal tendon bundles. Evidence of tendon vascular structure in the rabbit species was confirmed by observing capillaries in cross sectional fascicles and longitudinal and transversal vessels in the paratenon of the Achilles tendon. These results strongly suggest a physiological model of local tissue temperature regulation and fluid dynamics in the biological system.