The results of Sport Test in TOCHIGI Prefecture in 1964 and 1968 showed the definite and consistent inclination that rural pupils recorded significantly better performance than urban ones in endurance run. This also implies that circulorespiratory capacity, which plays an important role in endurance type of exercise, is much influenced by the environmental conditions necessarily accompanied with each district. In the present study PWC170 kpm/kg as an index of circulorespiratory capacity were measured by means of MONARK bicycle ergometer and ECG in the two couples of urban and rural groups of pupils aged from 12 to 15 years, and the comparisons of urban and rural indicated that rural pupils had considerably better than urban ones with significant difference. In one couple of the two the pupils of the school surrounded with commercial streets and the ones in mountaneous farm village were contrasted in order to design the ecological research, because the latter was the best and the former the worst in endurance run 85.6% of the pupils in the mountaineous farm village go to school far from home by pedaling bicycle ascending or descending the slopes, and on the other hand all the pupils in the commercial streets walk to school along the horizontal and flat streets nearer than in the mountaineous farm village In Japan an amount of intraschool physical activities are almost the same in all schools and therefore the differences of daily physical activities, the degree of which brings about the circulorespiratory improvement, depend on the work of attending school long through the years. In this study the extent of the work load in attending school was estimated by heart rate-oxygen uptake curve on the basis of the mean heart rate derived from telemetering heart beats all through the courses between school and home. This procedure reveals the evidence that mountaineous farm pupils by bicycle are given the work load equivalent to 40% or more of the maximal oxygen uptake, which means the stroke volume reaches its peak and becomes the adequate training stimulus for circulorespiratory improvement, but for the pupils in commercial streets vice versa. And furthermore it was also found that the farther from school, the better the circulo-respiratory capacity in the mountaineous farm district Though there was found to be the significant difference between them in PWC170 as submaximal test, no significant difference was indicated in maximal oxygen uptake (ml/kg, STPD) . This may be due to the fact that in pedaling in step wise method of increasing brake resistance distress or fatigue in leg muscles proceeds the circulorespiratory one.
The body-type of members of the Japanese Olympic ice hockey team was studied and compared with that of the members of the Polish goodwill ice hockey team that came to Japan early this year (1971) . Sheldon, Cureton, and Yokobori's classification of body-type was used in the study, and with regard to measurements of body-type and indeces, methods deviced by the authors were adopted. Results obtained were as follows: 1. As shown in Table 5 the body-type of the Japanese players as represented by indeces, belong to type 445, and that of the Polish players to 467. A graphic representation of the indeces when applied to the triangular body-type chart is shown in Fig. II. From the illustration it may be understood that the Polish players have superior physique and muscle factors. 2. Table 8 shows individual body-type classified into 10 classes according to Cureton's method. The Table shows that 68.7% of the Polish athletes belong to the superior class of A+ mesomorph and that only 17.5% of the Japanes players belong to this class, indicating the superior body-type of the Polish players. 3. The Polish and Japanese players are compared with regard to their respective positions in the team in Tables 6 and 7. The Tables show that 80% of the Polish forwards consist of mesomorph and 26.3% of the Japanese forwards consist of mesomedials indicating that the Polish forwards are superior from the standpoint of body-type. No significant difference in the body-type of the defence and goalkeepers of the two teams was found. 4. Table 5 compares the body-type of the Japanese ice-hockey players with that of athletes of other sports. The high level of the fat factor in the Japanese ice-hockey players is noteworthy, while the Polish ice-hockey players even when compared to the athletes of other sports show superiority in the physique and muscle factor.
Healthy 51 men and 67 women aged from 35 to 49 years old were attended in this tests. We measured their height, weight, skinfold, grip strength and blood pressure. Their performance concerning with running distance in 5 minutes, backward flexibility, forward flexibility, vertical jump, side step, Zig-Zag drible were tested too. The results were as follows. 1) In men the skinfold was rather thin, than that of estimated from relation of height-weight, on the contrary in women it was rather thick. 2) The running distance in 5 minutes of who have thinner skinf old was larger than that of who have thicker skinfold. It was also decreased with aged. 3) The backward flexibility was excelled in the group have thicker skinfold. 4) Excellent tendency of forward flexibility was shown in the case of thicker skinfold group. 5) High level vertical jump was observed over them and it was more high in thinner skinf old group than another. 6) Rather lower level of side step test records were obtained in all, especially in men that was remarkable. 7) Better records of Zig-Zag drible tended to be observed in the group have thicker skinfold. From the above mentioned facts. I presume that the body fat might have more physical usefulness than we knew up to the present and as one of these usefulness it might be effective to privent the maturity of skeletalmuscle or to hold immature state of it. Finaly, I would like to claim we should have the body fat 12% of body weight in man, and 25% in woman, as the lower limit.
We investigated the relationship between the electrical and the mechanical responses of the frog sartorius in situ in isometric reflex contraction. All the thigh muscles other than the sartorius were dennervated. Mechanical stimulations were applied mainly on the dorsal skin of the ipsilateral foot. The electrical response led from the surface electrode was integrated by means of the Miller integrator. The mechanical response was recorded by the mechano-electric transducer, and its impulse was measured by the planimeter. A very high positive correlation was found between the integrated value of the EMG and the mechanical impulse. It was found that the quantitative measurement of the electrical response of the muscle could be made in more accurate and efficient way by the Miller integrator than the other methods discussed in this paper.
10 male and 8 female skillful tester on physical fitness measurements were attended. They were measured one another the body girth and blood pressure of themselves. The result obtained on the same person by the different tester were not always coincident. The following issues were obtained. (1) Mean value of individual error finding on the systolic pressure was about 4mmHg, on the diastolic pressure was about 6mmHg. Mean value of the difference between the maximum and minimum value of the systolic pressure reported on the same person was 15.4mmHg in male group. That of the diastolic value was 21.4mmHg in male group. For the female group, that of the systolic pressure was 17.0mmHg, that of the diastolic pressure was 23.0mmHg. (2) Mean value of individual error (as under, be showed by“error”) obtained on the chest girth was 1.43cm in male group, 1.05cm in female group. Mean value of the difference between the maximum and minimum value (as under, be showed by“breadth”) was 5.99cm in male, 4.08cm in female. (3) “Error”observed on the overarm extended girth was 0.73cm in male, 0.79 cm in female, “breadth”was 2.96cm in male, 2.99cm in female. (4) “Error”finding on the overarm flexed girth was 0.60cm for both sex, “breadth”was 2.81cm in male, 2.43cm in female. (5) For the forearm girth, “Error”was 0.40cm in male. 0.24cm in female, “breadth”was 1.81cm in male, was 1.35cm in female. (6) For the thigh girth, “Error”was 0.90cm in male, 0.69cm in female, “breadth”was 3.91cm in male, 2.93cm in female. (7) On the calf girth measurement, in male and female group, “Error”was 0.44 and 0.40cm, “breadth”was 1.51 and 1.48cm respectively. From above mentioned findings, we considered that“Error”is possible to regard as unavoidable error, “breadth”might be probable error.