In this paper, it was aimed to establish a multiple regression equation to predict total body water (TBW) from several anthropometric measurement. Total body water was determined by the analysis of the dilution of orally ingested deuterium oxide (D2O) in urine of 27 Japanese females in 20-39 yrs. old, who vol-unteerly participated in this experiment. The anthropometric measurements were taken for each subject on standing height, body weight and a total of 8 body sites, including 4 skinfold thickness, 2 diameters, and 2 circumferences of limbs on the same day. The method of forward stepwise regression analysis was adopted to establish the regression equation. The rule of stopping to select the variables was F-statistics (F enter=1.8, F remove=1.7) . The results obtained were as follows. 1) The mean value of TBW was 25.3 (l), which was less than the value of the American adolescent males reported by Schutte (1980) . 2) Entered variables in this equation were body weight (WT), femur breadth (B1), humerus breadth (B2), abdomen skinfold thickness (S4) and the other variables contributed little. 3) The regression equation obtained were as follows. y=8.70+0.189xWT+1.79xB2-0.092xS4+1.84xB1 4) The multiple correlation coefficient and standard error of estimates of this regression equation were 0.908, 1.271 (l), respectively. 5) An analysis of residuals by means of plotting of standardized residuals and predicted value showed that the defficiency of this equation was little recognized. We must pay most effort to establish the predictve equation on the samples which have been selected from populations defined on the basis of factors such as age, sex, or race alone or in combination.
A system for making prolonged measurements of oxygen uptake without the use of mask or mouthpiece is described. A subject wears a hood through which air is drawn by a exhaust pump located on the end of hoses. The flow rate of main stream is measured by a pulsed wire flowmeter located between flexible hose and rigid hose. The flow rate is essentially constant during a run. One sample pump bypasses small amount of mixed air from the main stream. The other pump draws the room air. Two sample pumps operate alternatively at 2 min interval. The sample gas is dried by passing through molecular sieve desiccant and is delivered to in-line oxygen analyzer. Both signals of flow rate and oxygen concentrations of room air and mixed air are converted to digital quantities and then stores in memory devices at 5 min interval. All measuring devices were assembled to small package which the subject carries on his back. The weight was about 7 kg. The memory chip is removed from the device after experiment and oxygen uptake is estimated by connecting the memory chip to a microcomputer. This measurement compared favorably with measurement with Douglas bag collection and gas analysis.
In order to obtain the physiological information during such outdoor exercises as cross-country running or skiing, mountain climbing or diving in the sea water etc, we developed a new device employing MEMORY IC. for monitoring and recording various biological information from the subjects during exercise with no restraint. The device is composed of detecting, data processing and recording units. The application of a semiconductor, CMOS MEMORY I.C. to the recording unit enabled us to construct the instrument, which is very compact (150g) and tolerant to the mechanical vibrations as well as the enviromental disturbances. The recorded data are read out by a microcomputor system. This device was applied to ten subjects during running, where the heart rate, respiration rate and body temperature were recorded. They covered a distance of 9 km within 60 minutes. The heart rate of five trained men was stabilized at nearly fixed level during running which was consistent results with those by the treadmill, but in the untrained men different results were shown from the trained. The heart rate of the untrained men showed that they encoutered the limits of the capacity on the way of running. These results showed wide applicability of this device for the physiological analysis of outdoor exercises.
Forearm blood flow in three male and one female subjects were determined with a mercury-in-rubber strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography before, during and after rhythmic hand-grip exercise. The hand-grip exercise was performed on a hand-ergometer with the load of 5, 10, 20 and 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of each subject, at the rate of 60 contractions/min as timed with a metronome. The following results were obtained; 1) The forearm blood flow during rhythmic exercise at the tension of 5% MVC increased as soon as the exercise started and reached a steady state in apporoximately 1 min. 2) The forearm blood flow during rhythmic exercise at the tension of 10% MVC did not reach a steady level during 3 min exercise. 3) The forearm blood flow during rhythmic exercise at tensions of 20 and 30% MVC were increased steadily throughout the hand-grip exercise. 4) The forearm blood flow determined immediately before stopping the exercise and immediately after exercise at tensions of 5 and 10% MVC were apporoximately the same. 5) The blood flow in the forearm determined immediately before stopping the rhythmic exercise at tensions of 20 and 30% MVC were lower than the blood flow immediately after exercise. 6) From these results, it was concluded that the blood flow requirement of muscles during the rhythmic hand-grip exercise at tensions up to 10% MVC can adequately be supplied. Therefore, the rhythmic exercise at tensions up to 10% MVC can keep up for a very long time without fatigue.