A study was conducted to clarify the influence of water immersion at different levels on pulmonary response. The subjects, ten healthy men (mean age, 26.2±7.9 years), subjected to measurement of static lung volumes and maximum expiratory flow-volume curves while sitting immersed in water at the level of both the neck and diaphragm. TLC, VC, ERV and FRC for water immersion at the diaphragm level were significantly decreased in comparison with those measured in air. These lung volumes were further decreased upon water immersion to neck level. However, RV did not change significantly upon immersion at either water level. Significant decreases of FEV1⋅0, FEV1⋅0%, V50 and V25 were observed upon water immersion at the diaphragm level as compared with those obtained in air. Water immersion to neck level produced further decreases in pulmonary functional parameters. Although peak flow and V75 did not change significantly upon water immersion at either level, V50 and V25 were decreased markedly in comparison with the values obtained in air. A tendency for a marked decrease in pulmonary function parameters was observed upon water immersion to neck level. The changes observed upon water immersion to diaphragm level may have resulted from compression of small airways induced by both an increase of blood volume in the thorax and hydrostatic pressure against the abdomen. The changes induced by water immersion to neck level may have been exacerbated by the two mechanisms described above, in addition to hydrostatic pressure on the chest wall. The present results suggest that the significant reduction of pulmonary functional parameters caused by water immersion may be due to compression of small airways induced by an increase of blood volume in the thorax and hydrostatic pressure on the chest wall and abdomen.
The present study was primarily designated as “Chino-Japanese cooperative study on physical fitness of junior track and field athletes” (1989) . The participants were male and female track runners of both countries ranging in age from 13 to 17 years. Skeletal age and stature for each sex and athletic event for the present series were compared between the two countries. The data of the present series were then compared with the earlier series, that is, the reference data derived from “Chino-Japanese cooperative study on physical fitness of children and youth” (1986) . Regarding the mean skeletal age of reference data (13 to 17 yrs.), the Japanese are more advanced (0.6 years in boys; 0.5 years in girls) than the Chinese, respectively. On the other hand, for the mean stature, the Chinese are taller (1.92cm in boys; 2.16cm in girls) . In the present series, the mean differences for skeletal age between the two countries show a tendency to be smaller than those in the reference data (0.38 years for boys and 0.39 years for girls in 100m runners; 0.15 years for boys in 1500m runners and girls in 800m runners), respectively. Although the mean differences of skeletal age between the two countries are becoming smaller, the stature of the Chinese boys and girls are getting taller than the Japanese (6.9cm in boys and 5.60cm in girls in 100m runners) . The mean differences are not so great as in 100m runners, however, it is 2.50cm in boys of 1500m runners and 4.05cm in girls of 800m runners. Comparison of the athletic records between the two countries was made and in general little difference was found. The Chinese records are more complete than the Japanese and show statistically significant difference particularly in 17 years old. In conclusion, the Chinese junior track runners seem to mature later skeletally or biologically than the Japanese, even though they are already taller than the Japanese. As a natural result, more gain in stature and more improvement in the athletic records will be expected for them. Otherwise some differences between the two countries in the process of sampling of the present study could be questioned.
The purpose of this study was to establish a simplified questionnaire test for evaluating the ability of daily living activity in elderly women. The subjects were 159 Korean elderly women, aged 60 to 91 years, all of whom were participants in an elderly school program managed by the Seoul City. Physical activities related to independence in daily living must be selected from various components. The first questionnaire test was designed to classify various activities of daily living. As a result, 50 items were considered available. The second questionnaire test was applied to extract subareas of daily living activities in elderly women. Degree of performance achieved in each physical activity was ranked on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 to 5. Factor analysis with Normal Varimax criterion was applied to the 50×50 correlation matrix. The 50 items were found to be condensed into 4 distinct factors that account for almost 60% of the total variance of the items included in the analysis. The extracted factors were interpreted as locomotion of whole body, manipulation of upper limb, manipulation of finger, and change of posture. Multiple regression analysis revealed that 4 items from each factor were suitable for the assessment of the ability of daily living activity. Therefore, sixteen items were selected from viewpoints of validity and reliability and were included in the simplified questionnaire test. In a cross-validation sample (n=220), high correlatoins (r>0.70) existed between the sum of the raw score of the sixteen test items and factor score. The developed questionnaire was considered useful for evaluating the ability of daily living activity in elderly women.
To determine the minimum duration of exercise for improving the aerobic capacity of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), 23 female patients with CHD and/or hypertension, aged 52.8±8.7 years, were studied. After pre-testing, all the patients were conditioned for 4 months in order to elicit improvements in their aerobic capacity and other healthrelated factors. Duration and contents of daily activities were recorded by each patient. After 4 months, oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2LT) and VO2peak were increased significantly from 12.9±2.6 to 16.0±3.4ml/kg/min and from 18.5±4.2 to 22.3±5.6ml/kg/min, respectively. Duration of exercise conditioning for the 4 months averaged 23.8±12.2min per day, ranging from 4.6 to 49.7min. Correlational analyses were applied in order to determine the extent to which the improvement in aerobic capacity was associated with the individual mean duration of exercise conditioning. As a result, changes in VO2LT and VO2peak correlated significantly with the exercise duration (Pearson's r=0.51, Spearman's rho=0.47 for VO2LT; Spearman's rho=0.58 for VO2peak) . Both VO2LT and VO2peak tended to improve markedly when daliy exercise duration was 20 min or longer. Furthermore, it was shown that the improvement in aerobic capacity remained almost the same within a range of exercise duration of 20 to 60min. We suggest that the minimum exercise duration for improving the aerobic capacity of cardiac patients is 20 to 30min per day or 140min or more per week.