Sacerdote reported that there was a decrease in the adrenal ascorbic acid content and an increase in the blood ascorbic acid content of guinea pigs exposed to a gradual reduction in O2 tension (10.5 to 3.5%) . Teppermann et a1. and Aschan observed the depletion of ascorbic acid in the adrenal cortex of rats exposed to anoxic hypoxia. Furthermore, Wachholder and Podesta, Ratsimamanga and Giroud, Namyslowski, Arai, and Ottowicz et al. observed a highly significant depletion of the adrenal ascorbic acid in rats subjected to experimental muscular exercise. These reports suggest that ascorbic acid plays an important role in the metabolism of an organism during hypoxia and exercise. Sayers concluded in his review that, in general, increased adrenocortical activity was associated with a reduction in the concentration of adrenal ascorbic acid. A number of physiological studies suggest that ascorbic acid plays an important role in adrenal cortex activity. However, the physiological role of ascorbic acid in the metabolic processes of the organ tissues during hypoxia and exercise is unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to determine the relations between the changes in ascorbic acid concentration in various organs under hypoxic conditions as well as during muscular exercise. Vitamin C (total ascorbic acid : T-AsA) consists of ascorbic acid (C6H8O6 ; AsA) and dehydroascorbic acid (C6H6O6; DHA) . The major purpose of this study was to elucidate the changes in the ratios of AsA and DHA to T-AsA in different organs during hypoxia and exercise.
Six healthy boatmen of students were examined their mineral metabolism in urine and serum over three different periods consisting of three successive days in every two weeks, during the training camp of boat race event. The first examination period (I) was 11-14 June as ordinary time while attending school, the second period (II) 25-28 June as relatively light exercise time in training camp while attending school, and the third period (III) in summer vacation 9-12 July as hard physical exercise time. Every two hour urine was collected during the three days of each period and the blood from the cubital vein of the examinees was sampled at noon of the second day in each period. [A] Urinary excretions per 24 hours in the three different periods. (1) No definite variation was seen in pH. The value of the Donaggio's reaction was found greater in periods II and III compared to that of period I. (2) Urine volume did not show any significant variation, but the water metabolism probably rose in periods II and III. Creatinine increased significantly in III. (3) No significant variation of Na was observed but the total excretion including the sweat was to be much greater in periods II and III increasingly, and the difference of Ca and Mg between I and II was not significant, while total excretion significantly rose in III. (4) The Na/K ratios fell in periods II and III. The fall seems to be caused by promotion in K excretion and in Na retention relatively, in which the rise of the function of the adrenal cortex is suggested. [B] Serum contents of Na, K, P, Ca and Mg in the three different periods. The fall of Na in periods II and III was significantly greater, in which the effect of the sweat excretion is considered, while K rose significantly in the same periods. The increase of P was in II and III. Both Ca and Mg showed a tendency to increase in III. [C] Diurnal pattern of the urinary excretions in the three different periods. (1) The increase of the urine excretion was showen with about 2 hours lag after the morning exercise and the increase pattern by the afternoon and evening exercises were also shown. Two peak pattern of creatinine in period II was similar to that of the urine volume. (2) Increase patterns of Na, K, Ca and Mg excretion in periods II and III were also observed with the physical exercise. In the morning exercise the increase appeared 2 hours after the exercise, though in the afternoon and the evening exercises the increase appeared from the time of exercise. The pattern of Na and K showed that the increase after the morning exercise was greater than that by the afternoon and the evening exercises. The variation pattern of Ca and Mg showed that the time lag in the increase existed in comparison with that of Na and K, in which the greater increase by the afternoon and the evening exercises was observed noticeably compared with that of the morning. (3) Regarding to P excretion, the decrease during the daytime, and the increase in the sleeping time was common through the three periods. The increase in the evening by the evening exercise in periods II and III was remarkable.
Urinary mineral excretions were measured on five healthy 19-years-old female students in domestic sciences course of a woman's college and five healthy 18-19-years-old female students in physical training course, during the training camp of ski events. The examination for the female students in domestic sciences course was done on 22 December as of ordinary time at school and on 23-25 December 1969 in training camp of ski event at a skiing ground. For the female students in physical training course the examination was done on 9-13 January 1970 in training camp at the same skiing ground and on 3-5 February 1970 in ordinary time at school. Every three hours urine was collected during the examination periods. (1) Whole urine volume per 24 hours decreased in training camp in comparison with that in ordinary school time, while the excretion increased after the physical exercise and decreased during the sleeping hours. (2) Creatinine excretion per 24 hours increased in the training camp and diurnally the excretion increased after the physical exercises. The variation of creatinine excretion seemed to be effected by the physical exercise. (3) Decrease of Na excretion and increase of K excretion were observed in the students of domestic sciences course in training camp. Increase pattern of Na and K excretion with diurnal variation in training camp was observed with physical exercises. (4) Urinary excretion of Ca and Mg increased by the female students of physical training course in training camp. On the diurnal pattern, the increase of Ca and Mg excretion caused by physical exercise showed some time lag of the peak compared to that of Na and K. (5) Phosphorus excretion increased both in the students of domestic sciences course and of physical training course in training camp. The decrease of P excretion in the daytime and the increase in the sleeping hours was commonly observed for both groups. (6) Following up the diurnal variations of urine volume and urinary excretions of Na, K, Ca and Mg in the female students of physical training course through the training camp for five days, difference between the increase of the excretions after, physical exercises and the decrease in sleeping hours got less day by day. Such a change seems to be the physiological adaptation of human body in order to control excess excretions of the important substances. (7) Although the value of Na f K ratio fell in both student groups during training camp, the decrease was smaller for the physical training course group than for the domestic sciences course group. The fact that more excretions of urine volume and creatinine and less lowering of Na/K ratio than those of the domestic sciences course students were observed in the physical training course students seemed to be the effect of the daily training.
The oxygen consumption during physical exercise is necessarily dependent upon the load on the muscle and also on the mass of muscles at work. In the present study maximal work has been performed by legs and arms plus legs in pedaling bicycle ergometer. Thirteen healty male students were studied. Group A consisted of eight Judoists, aged 18-21 years. Mean maximal oxygen uptake and max O2 uptake/kg for this group were obtained 3.41/min and 44.7 ml/kg/min respectively in legs bicycle exercise. Group B consisted of five long distance runners, aged 19 years, with mean max. O2-uptake of 3.31/min and max. O2-uptake/kg of 57.2 ml/kg/min. In arms plus legs bicycle exercise, max. VO2 and max. VO2/kg were an average value of 3.81/min and 49.8 ml/kg/min respectively for group A. For group B max. VO2 and max. VO2/kg averaged 3.61/min and 62.6 ml/kg/min respectively. Group A 12% significantly higher values for max. VO2 was attained in arms plus legs cycling (P<0.01), but group B 9% higher max. VO2 when arms plus legs cycling than when legs cycling was actually not a regular finding in the group. Max. VO2/kg in legs cycling was an average 9-11% lower than that on arms plus legs cycling. The differences were statistically significant for group A and group B. Only in group A was max. VO2 a little higher than in group B for legs cycling, but the differences was not statistically significant. Max. VO2/kg was statistically significantly higher in arms plus legs cycling with both group. In group A max. heart rate, tidal volume and O2-pulse were higher in arms plus legs cycling. Then max. heart rate and tidal volume were significantly higher in group A than on group B.
Sumo the Japanese traditional form of wrestling is a unique and very popular sport, and particularly among the professionals the ancient ceremonial rites are still in practice. The wrestlers are of gigantic stature and consist mostly of men of the pyknic type and are considered to possess great strength. Actually, the Shindeshi or novices are selected from boys under 18 years of age and having a body height of over 170 cm and weighing over 70 kg. The present paper deals with a study on the physique and physical fitness of 103 Shindeshi who entered the professional Sumo world in 1970 and 1971. The results of the investigation were as follows: 1) The average age and body measurements of the experimental subjects are shown in Table 1. The average body height and average body weight of 174.5 com and 90.9 kg, respectively, of the Shindeshi when compared to those of the average 16 year old male, are remarkably great. Of particular interest are the girth measurements which showed remarkable development: chest, 103.4 cm, waist, 93.0cm and hip, 105.0cm. 2) As a result, Rohrer's index was found to 171.8 and the average of the total skinfold thickness (upper arm, back, abdomen) was 81.3 mm indicating a remarkably pyknic type. Consequently, it is only natural that high correlation values of 0.927 and 0.937, respectively, for the waist and outstretched upper arm are established. 3) Body density computed by Nagamine and Suzuki's equation was found to be 1.034 and body fat calculated by Keys and Brozek's equation was found to be 25.3%, both indicating values twice as high as those of the average male of comparable age, proving that the Shindeshi belong to the ultra-pyknic type. 4) Results of measurements of muscle strength and motor capacity are shown in Table 4 and in Fig. 1 these measurements are compared to the average male of comparable age. The average back strength was 152.9 kg and the average grip strength, 52.0 kg, indicating remarkably higher values than the average youth. However, it is noteworthy that according to the results of physical fitness tests provided by the Ministry of Education including forward flexibilit, backward flexibility, vertical jump, and step test, the Shindeshi were found to have inferior motor capacity than the average youths of comparable age. 5) And, as shown in Table 4 a significant inverse relation was found between motor capacity and skinf old thickness Rohrer's index and body fat. 6) Three groups totalling 12 Shindeshi were formed according to the degree of skinfold thickness in order to determine their work capacity. The bicycle ergometer was used and the maximal oxygen uptake of the experimental subjects was measured (Table 6) . Proportionate to their large physique, the maximal oxygen uptake was comparatively high (3.6-3.91), however, when converted into the uptake per kilogram of body weight, it was found that although higher than the average youths of comparable age, the uptake (46.9ml/kg-32.0m1/kg) was lower than that of sportsmen in other field of sport. From the foregoing, it may be inferred that the Shindeshi, although large in physique lack endurance as attested by a compartively low oxygen uptake. It is also interesting to note that from the special characteristics of Sumo this capacity to endure is not necessarily required.