Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
Online ISSN : 1881-4751
Print ISSN : 0039-906X
ISSN-L : 0039-906X
Volume 43 , Issue 5
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • CHIZUKO MARUYAMA, HISAO IWANE, KAICHI TAKANAMI, TOSHIHITO KATSUMURA
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 325-333
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Daily activities and food consumption, for the 2 days before and the day of competition, were investigated in 18 Japanese male triathletes participating in the Ironman Japan Competition at Lake-Biwa in 1991. Energy intakes and the energy intake to expenditure ratio, one and two days before and on race day, were 4005±895 kcal and 151±40%, 5000±1356 kcal and 203±53% and 5170±1799 kcal and 55±27%, respectively. Carbohydrates constituted 62, 4±11.6%, 61.3±7.7% and 76.7±5.6%, respectively, of these meals. Mean vitamin and mineral intakes were highly variable. Total water intake at breakfast and during the events was 7488±3653 ml. Salt intake appeared to be inadequate. Some triathlestes, who consumed only meals (no supplements) or had not stored adequate nutrients prior to the competition, had transiently subnormal nutrient levels during these extremely demanding events.
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  • RYOICHI MITSUZONO, SHUICHI KOMIYA, ATSUO MARUYAMA
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 334-342
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was conducted to assess body composition and somatotype in elite female distance runners and to investigate the relationship between body composition and somatotype. Nine elite female distance runners (21.6±2.7 yrs) and 10 female college students (21.4±0.5 yrs) as a control group participated in this study. Body composition was estimated in terms of total body water based on the analysis of dilution of orally ingested deuterium oxide (D2O) in urine. Somatotype was estimated by Heath-Carter method.
    The skinfold thickness in distance runners were significantly thinner at 14 sites than those of the control group. The mean subcutaneous fat in distance runners was 4.1±1.6 kg (8.6±2.8%), which was significantly lower than that of the control group (9.4±3.0 kg & 17.2±3.8%) . The mean internal fat in distance runners was 7.2±2.0 kg (15.5±3.5%), which tended to be lower than that of the control group (8.2±1.5 kg & 15.4±2.2%) . The mean fat mass and percentage of body fat in distance runners were 11.3±3.1 kg and 24.1±4.7%, respectively, which were siginificantly lower than those of the control group (17.6±4.2 kg & 32.6±5.2%) . On the other hand, somatotype scores in distance runners were 2.35-2.32-3.82, suggesting more ectomorphic. In addition, fat mass positively correlated with the first component (r=0.890-0.916, p<0.05), and negatively correlated with the third component (r=-0.635--0.818, p<0.05) . The subjects who were more ectomorphic had less fat mass. However, the second component that was mesomorphic had no significant correlation with lean body mass. And the mean lean body mass in distance runners was almost the same as that of the control group (35.1±2.5 kg & 36.1±3.5 kg) .
    The results of this study suggest that although endurance training done by elite female distance runners does not increase their lean body mass, it has a great influence on their subcutaneous fat.
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  • TAKASHI KINUGASA, HIROSHI NAGASAKI, HAZIME ITO, KEN HASHIZUME, TAKETO ...
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 343-351
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to determine the effect of aging on motor ability and to establish a test battery for physical fitness in the elderly. The subjects were 150 men aged 18 to 83 years. The test items examined were selected, according to Fleishman's list of motor abilities; (1) trunk flexion, (2) grip and isometric knee extension strength, (3) postural sway with eyes open and closed, (4) step test, (5) walking test at preferred and maximum speeds, (6) simple visual reaction time, (7) peg-board test, (8) finger tapping test at maximum rate and in time to metronome sounds. Performances for the test items, except for preferred walking speed and coefficient of variation in finger tapping at 5 Hz, showed significant decreases with aging. The decrease in motor performance at age 80 years relative to the level at age 20 years was less than 30% for finger dexterity and reaction time, 40-60% for muscle strength, maximum walking speed and the step test, and over 70% for trunk flexion and postural sway with eyes closed. A test battery composed of trunk flexion, grip strength, knee extension, step test, walking as fast as possible, postural sway with eyes closed, and finger tapping, is therefore recommended for assessing the effect of aging on physical fitness.
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  • KAZUTAKE KAWAI, TOMOYOSHI KOMIYAMA, TOSHIAKI FURUBAYASHI
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 352-360
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Premovement facilitation of spinal monosynaptic reflex was investigated under different movement modalities using both visually guided tracking movement and the H-reflex technique. Subjects performed fast step and slow ramp movements under reaction time (RT) conditions and self time determining (Self) conditions. For each of the conditions, the motor task was bilateral simultaneous dorsiflexion.
    Under both RT and Self conditions, the onset of premovement H-reflex facilitation (OPHF) was significantly prolonged in the slow ramp movement (RT, 37, 3±11.8 ms ; Self, 79.4±21.8 ms) compared with the fast step movement (RT, 24.4+6.2 ms ; Self, 43.4±14.2 ms) . In addition, OPHF was significantly prolonged under Self conditions in both the step and ramp movements. Movement time (MT) did not differ significantly under RT and Self conditions except in three subjects. The peak value of torque change (PV) was larger under Self conditions than under RT conditions in four out of ten subjects.
    From these results, we conclude that OPHF is modulated not only by changes in movement speed but also by changes in movement modality. It is suggested that this contextual dependency of OPHF might be controlled by the supraspinal motor center.
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  • HEE SIK KIM, KIYOJI TANAKA
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 361-369
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to propose an appropriate model for evaluating activities of daily living in the elderly. The subjects were 396 Korean elderly women, aged 60 to 91 years, all of whom were participants in school programs for the elderly managed by the City of Seoul. In our previous studies, seven variables were selected for the assessment of activities of daily living based on the results of factor analysis. In the present study, the 7 variables were submitted to principal component analysis, and the 1st principal component obtained was interpreted as “activities of daily living (ADL) ”because of significantly heavy loadings on all variables. Thus, the first principal component was used as a predictor of ADL. Principal component score decreased significantly with advancing age (r=-0.556) . The equation develloped to determine ADL age (ADLA) was ADLA=6.31ADLS+71.71+Z, and ADLS= - 0.033x1 + 0.012 x2+0.045 x3+0.032 x4+0.046 x5+0.025 x6+0.007 x7-3.256, where ADLS=ADL score, Z= 0.46 Age-32.91, x1= walking around two chairs in a figure 8, x2=balancing on one leg with eyes open, x3=grip strength, x4=tapping with one foot while seated, x5=manipulating pegs in a pegboard (both hands), x6=sit and reach, and x7=leg flexion strength in a seated position. It was confirmed that estimated ADLAs (n=396) were symmetrically scattered above and below the line of identity (i, e., chronological age equals ADLA) . In a cross-validation sample (n=101), no significant difference existed between the mean ADLA and the mean chronological age. The equation for estimating ADLAs is considered useful for the assessment of ADL in Korean elderly women. The ADLAs estimated on the basis of the princpal component model appear to be theoretically more valid than those obtained by the multiple regression model.
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  • SHUICHI KOMIYA, KATSUMI IMAI, TAKASHI MASUDA, HITOMI NAKAO
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 370-380
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the present study, we investigated the associations of the body mass index (BMI ; kg/m2) and the waist to hip circumference ratio (WHR) with metabolic features in 134 Japanese women ranging in age from 24 to 79 years. We found that the BMI was reasonably well correlated with the WHR (r=0.693, p<0.001), which may be related to the health risk profile. The BMI and WHR both showed significant negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) level, and positive correlation with triglyceride (TG) and plasma glucose (GL) levels and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) . Following adjustment for the effect of the BMI, the partial correlation coefficients of WHR with HDL, TG, and GL were lower than those obtained before adjustment, and were not significant. However, the partial correlation coefficient of WHR with HDL/total cholesterol ratio (HDL/TC), SBP, and DBP were significant. These results suggest that the levels of HDL, TG and GL are associated with the BMI among subjects with similar WHR. We therefore propose that a combination of the BMI and WHR would be a superior indicator in obesity screening than the BMI alone.
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  • HAJIME MIURA, KAORU KITAGAWA, TOSHIHIRO ISHIKO
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 381-388
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The most characteristic feature of the triathlon is integration of the three endurance activities including of swimming, cycling and running, into a continuous task. So, it is necessary to identify the cardiorespiratory responses during the triathlon to develop a beneficial training program. Twelve male triathletes conducted a simulated triathlon test in a laboratory. This test consisted of continuous swimming, cycling and running using a flumepool, a bicycle ergometer and a treadmill, respectively. The exercise intensity and duration were 60% of maximal oxygen uptake during swimming, cycling and running for 30, 75 and 45 min, respectively. The results demonstrated that the residual effects of the prior exercise stage were observed during the latter exercise stage : The prior swimming stage produced an increment of oxygen uptake and heart rate during the cycling stage ; Prior swimming and cycling stages increased oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, heart rate and ventilatory equivalent to those during the running stage. These results suggest that the residual effects of the preceding exercise decreased the mechanical and respiratory efficiency by increasing the physiological demands of conducting the subsequent exercise. Therefore, triathletes are recommended to train themselves in a continuous task rather than separately.
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  • —AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN THE DOGS—
    HITOSHI SHIMOJYO, YUTAKA MIYANAGA, TORU FUKUBAYASHI
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 389-398
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, we have investigated the use of cryopreserved menisci to orthotopically replace the medial menisci in adult beagle dogs. Red cell group typing and white blood cell group typing were determined and beagles were divided into the blood-matching group and the non-matching group. The medial meniscus was replaced with an allograft meniscus that had been preserved at -70 degrees for 7-21 days. As a control, the medial meniscus was removed and reattached after cryopreservation. Replaced menisci were examined macroscopicaly, histologicaly and biochemicaly at an interval of 2 weeks, 1, 3, 6, 12 months postoperatively.
    After 6 months, the transplanted menisci had completely healed macroscopicaly. However, chondral erosions of the medial tibial plateau were seen in about one-half of the transplanted knees, and were thought to be caused by improper fixation of the anterior or posterior meniscal horns.
    At 12 weeks, an infiltration of fibroblasts and capillaries from the synovial fringe into the meniscus were seen histoloigicaly. The central core of the menisci remained acellular. At 12 months, regenerated chondrocytes in the deep layer and fibrocartilage were seen in the macroscopical good allografted group. In the macroscopical poor group, the extracellular matrix of the meniscus was destroyed and the empty lacunae were presented.
    The water content of the macroscopical poor group was significantly greater than that of the control group. In the good group the collagen content was siginificantly greater than that of the poor group.
    There were no differences between the blood matching group and the non-matching group macroscopicaly, histologicaly and biochemicaly.
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  • NORIYUKI YABUNAKA, YOSHINORI OHTSUKA, ICHIRO WATANABE, HIROSHI NORO, H ...
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 399-405
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was conducted to examine the effect of exercise training on heat-shock response, the protective response to heat, oxidative stress and other stresses characterized by elevated synthesis of heat-shock proteins (HSP), in strenuous exercise. Five untrained men (aged 20-21 ) participated in the study. The protocol included strenuous exercise to exhaustion by bicycle ergometer (1 st Ex), 4 weeks of training (a 2 km run three days per week) and a repetition of the strenuous exercise (2 nd Ex) . We measured VO2 and VCO2 with a respiratorygas analyzer, 70 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP 70) of mononuclear cells by western blotting, and rectal and mean skin temperatures by thermistors during the strenuous exercise. After 4 weeks of training, VO2max was increased significantly (p<0.05) . HSP 70 increased immediately after the exercise in 3 of 5 subjects in the 1 st Ex, but not in the 2 nd Ex. Rectal temperatures rose significantly after both the 1 st and 2 nd Ex (p<0.05) . Mean skin temperatures fell significantly after both the 1 st and 2 nd Ex (p<0.05) . There was no correlation between rectal and mean skin temperatures and HSP 70. We observed the heat-shock response during strenuous exercise and the attenuation of this response after 4 weeks of exercise training. These results suggest that exercise training may have suppressive effects on the heat-shock response during strenuous exercise.
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  • TOMOHIRO KIZUKA, TAKAAKI ASAMI, KATSUNORI TANII
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 406-414
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between long latency activities evoked by a sudden muscle stretch of the right wrist flexor and a peformance during a target match task accompanying wrist movement. The index of performance was the target match time (TMT) from onset of a handle displacement untill the handle position output was matched with a traget line. The standard deviation of TMT (TMT-S.D.) was calculated. Sixteen healthy men, ranging in age from 20 to 27 yr., participated in the study. A DC torque motor was used to generate an angular displacement at the right wrist joint. Analysis of the surface electromyogram recorded from the wrist flexor showed that the short and long latency reflex components (Ml, M 2 and M3) were evoked by muscle stretching. In the target match task, the amplitude of the M 2 and M 3 components for all subjects were significantly smaller than the M 1 component (p<0.01) . In some subjects the M 3 component was not identifiable, since its amplitude was very small in the target match movement. There were significant correlations between the M 2 amplitude and performances (TMT : r=0.857, p<0.01 and TMT-S. D. ; r=0.651, p<0.01) during the target match task. In shoat, the smaller the M 2 amplitude was, the shorter the TMT became and the smaller the TMT-S. D, became. These results suggest that the change in the M 2 component is related to motor control for the target match task.
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  • OSAMU MIYAGI, ATSUKO TSUKANAKA, HIROYO MATSUO, KATSUYUKI OGAWA, KAYO S ...
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 415-425
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was designed to determine prediction equations of body density (BD) for athletes using anthropometric variables and to examine validity of the prediction equations. The subjects were 211 male and 198 female athletes aged 18 to 22 years. The subjects were measured for standing height, body weight, skinfold thickness, girth as well as body composition. Body composition was estimated from densitometry using underwater weighing method and pulmonary residual volume measurement. Skinfold thickness was measured at 9 sites on the right side of the body with an Eiken-type ski nfold caliper and 7 measures of girth were taken using a cloth tape. All measurements were done three times from April to October : pre-, mid- and post-competitive season, in order to find out a suitable site reflecting body composition change. Using multiple regression analysis, equations to estimate BD were obtained from standing height, body weight, skinfold thicknesses and girths. The effective prediction equations for BD were as follows : For Males
    ED=1.11104-0.00053 (sum of chest, abdomen and quadriceps skinfold thicknesses in mm) -0.00027 (waist girth in cm) .
    R=0.851, SEE=0.0051.
    For Females
    BD=1.11861-0.00054 (sum of abdomen, triceps and subscapula skinfold thicknesses in mm) -0.00054 (waist girth in cm) .
    R=0.826, SEE=0.0062.
    A cross-validation analysis of these prediction equations for BD correlated highly with hydrodensitometrically determined BD (r=0.832, SEE=0.0053 for males and r=0.812, SEE= 0.0062 for females) . Thus the prediction equations developed in the present study will be applicable to athletes.
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  • KAZUNOBU KAWAKAMI, FUMIYUKI YAMAKURA, IKUO TAKAOKA, KATSUHIKO SUZUKI, ...
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 426-433
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We investigated the relationship between maximum oxygen uptake and the amount of lipid peroxide in serum before and after exhaustive exercise. The levels of serum lipid peroxides observed in a group of 6 males with high oxygen uptake were significantly lower than those of the low oxygen uptake control group (4 males) before and 0, 30 and 60 minutes after exercise. The amount of serum lipid peroxides increased slightly in each group after exercise. However, that amount decreased more quickly in the group with high oxygen uptake than the control group. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in erythrocytes showed no significant differences between both groups, nor between before and after exhaustive exercise.
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  • MITSUGI MOTOYAMA, YOSHIYUKI SUNAMI, HUJIHISA KINOSHITA, TAKASHI IRIE, ...
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 434-442
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of long-term low intensity aerobic training and detraining on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were examined in 10 older patients suffering from hypertension and coronary heart disease. Training was carried out for 30 minutes 3-6 times a week for a mean of 17.1 months using a treadmill with the intensity level set at the blood lactate threshold (LT) .
    Following this training both LT and the serum HDL-c increased significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01, respectively) after 6 months while the TC/HDL-c ratio decreased singificantly (P<0.001) only after 1 month and stabilized at a steady favorable value throughout the remainder of the study. The serum TC, TG and LDL-c did not change significantly by the end of the training period. There was a significant negative correlation between the initial TC/ HDL-c level and the change in the TC/HDL-c level at 1 month after training (r=-0.71, P< 0.02) . Only 1 month after the detraining the HDL-c decreased significantly while the TC/HDL-c increased in comparison with the final training value (P<0.001, P<0.05, respectively) and then returned to the pre-training levels.
    In conclusion, these results suggest that long-term low intensity aerobic training could improve the profile of the serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in older patients. However, these results might depend on such factors as a low HDL-c level, a high TG level, the length of the exercise period, or the frequency per week and the age of the patient, while the cessation of such training quickly returned the profile to that of pre-training levels.
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  • HIROMI YANO, MOTOHIKO MIYACHI, LISA YANO
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 443-446
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 447-453
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • 1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 454-461
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • 1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 462-471
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • 1994 Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 472-473
    Published: October 01, 1994
    Released: September 30, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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