In order to investigate an effect of the excess fat of obese men on the respiratory-cardiovascular system, VO2max was measured for seven obese, 16 ordinary and seven lean men. All subjects were university students, ages 18 to 25 years. Body composition was determined by densitometry. Furthermore, six non-obese young men participated in an added-weight experiment so as to estimate an effect of the excess fat of obesity. Results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in the absolute values of VO2max, VEmax, and HRmax among the groups. Concerning the relative value of VO2max to body weight, the obese group showed a significantly lower value of 40.4 ml/kg-min than the lean and ordinary group values of 51.5 and 48.8 ml/kg-min, respectively. However, no significant difference was found between the relative values of VO2max per lean body mass of any of the groups. VO2max for the obese group was 54.0 ml/kg-min, 56.0 for the lean group and 57.7 for the ordinary group. Such trends were very similar to the results of the added-weight experiment. Based on the values for the subjects in this study, this leads to the conclusion that the excess fat of obese men might act only as an inactive load and might not affect the ability of the respiratory-cardiovascular system. Besides, the threshold of obesity for men proposed by Behnke and Wilmore might be reasonable from the viewpoint of the absolute and the relative values of VO2max.
In order to elucidate the changes of cardiovascular functions on the long distance running in middle-aged and old men (aged 40-87 years) performing the running training at least over a year measured on blood pressure and ECG before and after the 10km, 25km and 42km running, respectively. Furthermore, several runners fainted during and at the end of running were also measured on the blood pressure at the fainting. The results were summarized as follows, In the 10km, 25km and 42km running the average values of systolic (excepting the 10km), and diastolic pressure after running were significantly lower than those average values before running. Further, it was noted that the higher the systolic and diastolic pressure before running were the more the reduction of those blood pressure after running in any distance, and also with the prolongation of running distance the reduction of those blood pressure became more remarkable. Especially, the reduction of blood pressure in the fainted runners was very remarkable. On the other hand, the pulse pressure showed no significant difference between before and after running. On the observation of ECG recorded before and after running, the shortening of PQ interval and the prolongation of QTc were noted after running, especially the prolongation of QTc in a group of 42km was remarkable. While the reduction of TII voltage was also found after running. It may be therefore thought that a long distance running in middle-aged and old men bring on large changes for their cardiovascular functions, even if they continued the running training over a year.
In order to investigate the association of alpha-blocking with motor set under the condition of simple reaction movement, the scalp distribution of alpha wave envelope recorded by averaging method was compared with that of slow potential changes. The results were as follows. 1) The slow potential changes (readiness potential, early and late component of CNV) were large over the central and frontal area. The readiness potential was larger over the contralateral than the ipsilateral central motor area, while the early component of CNV showed bilateral spread. The late component of CNV showed the similar scalp distribution to that of readiness potential, but the latter was much more lateralized. 2) The alpha-blocking was bilaterally symmetrical over the central and occipital area under the condition of photic stimulus without movement. But the alpha-blocking accompanying preparatory signal increased over the frontal and central area compared with control alpha-blocking, and was larger over the contralateral than ipsilateral central motor area. 3) The maximal alpha-blocking rate showed to correlate negatively with its latency under each condition. The difference in alpha-blocking rate at the onset of the imperative stimulus between reaction movement and control showed to correlate negatively with reaction time. From these findings, it seems that alpha-blocking accompanying preparatory signal reflects not only input system but also readiness potential component, and that in temporal respect alpha-blocking increases at the onset of movement.
Wistar rats (30 days after birth) were trained by treadmill running for fifteen weeks. The training program consisted of endurance running at a speed of 30 meters per minute, for 30 minutes a day, and 5 days a week. After the training, fiber composition and fiber area of thier leg muscles were histochemically studied. Samples of the soleus, EDL, and plantaris muscles were stained with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and myosin ATPase, and the muscle fibers were classified into the three types : fast-twitch glycolytic (FG), fast-twitch oxydative glycolytic (FOG), and slow-twitch oxydative (SO) . The body and muscle weights of the rats in the training group were larger than those of the control group, but the difference was not significant. After the training, the ratio among the numbers of three fiber types showed no difference between the training and control groups. Also, the average cross-sectional areas of the FG fibers showed no difference between the training and control groups ; however, those of the FOG and SO fibers were 8-11% larger in the training group than in the control group. These results obtained in the present experiments indicated that the trained rats increased in their fatigue resistivity through the training.
In order to obtain certain basic data to he used in planning a physical training program for archers, we carried out physical constitution and fitness tests on six male members of a university archery club (20 to 21 years), after checking the actual bow weights they usually used. Parallel to these examinations we made the subjects launch three shots and run a distance of 30 meters to and fro to recover the arrows. Their energy consumption during this training and at rest was measured to clarify the intensity of archery training. The results are as follows : 1) In body height and body weight there was no difference between our subjects and the Olympic candidates in a training session, however, it was evident that the former had a smaller girth of chest than the latter did. 2) As to physical strength, there was no difference between our subjects and the Olympic candidates, in other factors except in shoulder-arm muscles strength which the subjects were slightly weaker than the Olympic candidates. 3) A positive correlation was found between the actual bow weight and shoulderarm muscle strength of archers, and the correlation coefficient was +0.73 in push and +0.50 in pull. 4) As a result of a basal metabolism test, the mean value was 38.3 kcal/m2/hr, which corresponds approximately with the mean value calculated from the standard basal metabolic rate. 5) A positive correlation was found between the total energy consumption and body weight or surface area of archers, and the correlation coefficient was +0.73 in body weight and +0.76 in surface area. A negative correlation was found between the total energy consumption and a year of experience, obtaining correlation coefficient of -0.68. 6) A relative metabolic rate was obtained from the caloric consumption during training ; the highest value was 2.7 and the lowest 1.9, while the mean was 2.2.