Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
Online ISSN : 1881-4751
Print ISSN : 0039-906X
ISSN-L : 0039-906X
Volume 55 , Issue Supplement
Showing 1-50 articles out of 54 articles from the selected issue
Original Articles
  • KAORU TSUYAMA, YOSUKE YAMAMOTO, KOICHI NAKAZATO, HIROYUKI NAKAJIMA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S1-S6
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of two kinds of neck muscle training on the isometric cervical extension strength (ICES) and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the neck extensor muscles. The subjects which were examined consisted of 22 male college judo athletes. Each was assigned to one of three groups: shrug and upright rowing training (SU); shrug, upright rowing and dynamic neck muscle training (COM); and control (CONT). The SU and COM groups trained 3 days per week for 9 weeks. The ICES and CSA of the neck muscles were measured before and after muscle training. The ICES of the COM group showed a significant increase after training. For the CSA, although a significant increase was only found in a superficial area of the neck extensor muscles in the SU group, the COM group showed significant increases in all areas. This study determined that combined neck muscle training is effective for developing the neck extensor muscles.
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  • YUKIO URABE, KOSUKE TANAKA, SENTARO KOSHIDA, KOJI MIYASHITA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S7-S10
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the first restraint against anterior tibial translation (ATT) in the knee joint. Previous studies suggested that knee joint laxity might be increased by the repeated stress imposed on the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effect of the repeated soccer ball kicking actions on the ATT in healthy knees. Forty female collegiate students volunteered for this study. KT-2000 knee arthrometer was used to measure ATT before and after the task. The findings demonstrated that the repeated kicking actions had no significant effect on the ATT in healthy knees. The maximum knee extension angle on the striking side was greater than the supporting side (p<0.05). Significant correlations between mean anterior translation and maximum knee extension angle were observed on both sides (p<0.05). The kicking force on a soccer ball resulted in no increase in the knee laxity.
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  • JUN SUGAWARA, TAKESHI OTSUKU, TAKUMI TANABE, KOICHIRO HAYASHI, SEIJI M ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S11-S14
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The engaging>30 minutes of physical activity (PA) at 4-6 METs has been recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We determined whether relatively low intensity (i. e., 3-5 METs) PA inhibits the age-related central arterial stiffening, a risk of cardiovascular disease. In the cross-sectional study, the association between carotid arterial properties (via ultrasound system) and daily PA (via electric accelerometer) were studied in 172 normotensive people (41-82 yrs). People engaging>30 min/day of PA corresponding to 3-5 METs had a significantly lower beta-stiffness index than sedentary peers after adjusting for covariates (i. e., age and PA time at more than 6 METs). In the interventional study, beta-stiffness index of nine normotensive postmenopausal women was significantly decreased after the 12-week aerobic training (cycling at 80% of ventiratory threshold, ≈4 METs, 30 min/day, 5 days/week). These results suggest that the increase in daily PA at 3-5 METs inhibits the age-related carotid arterial stiffening.
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  • HIROMI YANO, YUKI FUJINAMI, TAKASHI MATSUMOTO, DAISUKE SHIVA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S15-S18
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To determine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced prostaglandin (PG) E2 production is responsible for reduced spontaneous physical activity, we measured LPS ( 1 mg/kg, i. v.)-induced changes in voluntary wheel-running activity for 24 hours in both C3H/HeJ (LPS unresponsive due to a mutation in the tlr4 gene) and C3H/HeN (LPS response) mice. We also examined the effect of tlr4-gene mutation on LPS-induced PGE2 production using peritoneal macrophages from the C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN mice. In addition, the voluntary wheel-running activity of the C3H/HeN mice, which were injected with the PGE2 inhibitor indomethacin (IM ; 0-20 mg/kg, i. p.) 30 min before injection with or without LPS ( 1 mg/kg), was monitored for 24 hours. Wheel-running activity in the C3H/HeJ mice was maintained in spite of LPS injection, but the activity in the C3H/HeN mice was significantly reduced by LPS injection. In vitro experiment showed peritoneal macrophage PGE2 production to be lower in the C3H/HeJ mice than that in the C3H/HeN mice. IM partially, but significantly, attenuated the LPS-induced reduction in wheel-running activity in the C3H/HeN mice. Our results suggest that the transient reduction in physical activity after LPS injection is partially mediated by LPS-induced PGE2 production, and that other factors also play a role.
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  • RYOTARO KIME, TAKUYA OSADA, KIYOSHI SHIROISHI, SHIRO ICHIMURA, YUKO KU ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S19-S22
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We evaluated regional differences of muscle O2 dynamics between distal and proximal sites in the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle using near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy (NIRSRS). forty-one male subjects performed a 30 W ramp incremental bicycle exercise test until exhaustion. The NIRSRS probes were attached on each distal and proximal site in the VL. The pulmonary O2 uptake and heart rate were monitored continuously during the experiment. The TOI at rest was significantly higher in proximal than distal sites (65.0±5.2 vs. 69.7±4.6%, p<0.001). The TOI at exhaustion was also significantly higher in proximal than distal sites (39.5±6.7 vs. 47.5±7.6%, p<0.001). Moreover, a significant correlation was found between VO2max and the TOI at exhaustion in each proximal and distal site in the VL. Half time reoxygenation, the time to reach a value of half-maximal recovery, was significantly slower in distal sites than proximal sites (27.1±5.6 vs. 25.0±6.1 sec, p<0.01). In conclusion, lower muscle oxygenation at exhaustion in higher VO2max may be due to enhanced O2 extraction in high oxidative capacity muscle. In addition, slower reoxygenation and lower muscle deoxygenation at the distal site in the VL may be explained by differences in O2 supply and/or muscle fiber composition between distal and proximal sites.
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  • MIFUYU KAMO, SHIGERU MORIMOTO
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S23-S24
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The evoked force was observed during repetitive electrical stimulation for 3 min on m. vastus medialis. The stimulus frequency was 0.2 Hz, 10 Hz and 20 Hz. The time to peak of twitch was 90.8 ms at 0.2 Hz stimulation. The changes in the evoked force did not represent a constant or a monotonic pattern but were complex at 10 Hz and 20Hz stimulations. At 10 Hz the evoked force represented an initial transient increment (steep peak), then an abrupt decrement followed by a gradual increase (gentle peak) and then a gradual decrease. At 20 Hz the steep phase did not appeared. The magnitude of potentiation was not necessarily large at 20 Hz. These results suggest that a constant discharge rate of motor units cannot maintain constant force development, and “rate coding” is considered to be necessary for keeping a constant force.
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  • SANPEI MIYAKAWA, NAOKO MATSUMOTO, HIROKO CHIKAMOTO, MOTOSHI HATORI, KA ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S25-S28
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of the present study is to clarify the improvement of peripheral muscle oxygen consumption after successful renal transplantation. We investigated change of forearm (brachioradial muscle) muscular oxygen consumption in chronic renal failure children before and after renal transplantation. by using near-infrared spectroscopy.Oxygen consumption of brachioradial muscle was increased significantly after succesful renal transplantation. And half recovery time of brachioradial muscle oxygenation in arterial occlusion and exercise were decreased after renal transplantation.These results suggest that increased muscular blood flow and increased oxidative generation of ATP might contribute to the increased oxygen turn over after renal transplantation.
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  • KEN'ICHI EGAWA, YOSHINORI KITABATAKE, YUKIO OIDA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S29-S32
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing conditions using static tilt condition and additional weight load on the soleus H-reflex in humans. Eight healthy subjects were tilted from the supine position to the standing position. In addition, they kept upright standing without and with a weight load of 50% of the body weight. No background activities in the muscle or changes in the recruitment profiles were observed. The effect was −9.1(95%C. I. : −15.1 to −3.1)%Mmax under the static tilt condition, and −1.9(−4.8 to 1.0)%Mmax under the additional weight load condition. The effect under the static tilt condition positively related to the effect under the additional weight load condition. It is suggested that weight bearing-induced proprioceptive input and tonic vestibular input increase presynaptic inhibition of soleus Ia afferents during upright standing in humans.
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  • TAKAHARU IKEUCHI, HIROYUKI TSURU, SEIICHIROU NAKANISHI, EIICHI CHIHARA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S33-S36
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    【Purpose】 To investigate effects of physiotherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), DOMS was induced in the elbow flexors of the non-dominant arm. We selected transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to examine effects of physiotherapy to the recovery process. 【Methods】 Fifteen human volunteers were recruited. DOMS was induced by eccentric exercise. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of three groups (Control, 110 Hz TENS, 4 Hz TENS). TENS was applied for 20 min over the biceps brachii on 1 day only after exercise. Measurements of Mechanical Pain Threshold (MPT) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were performed as evaluation of pain. Measurements were taken before and after exercise. 【Results】 There was no significant improvement in MPT and VAS among all three groups. 【Conclusion】 It was suggested application of TENS on DOMS at the parameters used here had no beneficial effect.
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  • YOSHIHARU FUJIEDA, KATSUYUKI MIURA, HIDEAKI NAKAGAWA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S37-S42
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of walking 10,000 steps per day on coronary risks including insulin resistance in Japanese. Twenty-one white-collar male workers (46.1±5.3 year-old) perform preventive lifestyle prescription. After 6 month, they showed improvements in BMI (p<0.05), VLDL (p<0.05), HDL cholesterol (p<0.001), and plasma insulin at 2 hr. post 75 g OGTT (p〈0.05). The participants increased their walk steps from 8,239±4,302 to 10,083±4,115 steps/day (p=0.09), and the increments of steps correlated with those of body mass index (r=−0.58, p<0.05), VLDL (r=−0.57, p<0.05), tryglycerides (r=−0.54, p<0.05), and blood glucose at 1 hr. post OGTT (r=−0.50, p<0.05) respectively. Especially 8 subjects with improved HOMA-R demonstrated more favorable modifications, and their gained 3,900 steps/day can meet the ACSM recommendation of physical activity. These outcomes could support a scientific aspect of anecdotal belief that walking 10,000 steps per day is effective to maintain one's optimum health.
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  • MASAAKI HATTORI, YOSHINAO NAKAGAWA, KUNIAKI HARADA, MICHIO BANNDO, GOR ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S43-S48
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to investigate differences in muscle group specific intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) storage characteristics associated with elevated muscle lipid storage, and to determine whether IMCL content is associated with maximal aerobic capacity. Seven healthy men [untrained (UT)], four overweight (OW) and six endurance-trained (T) subjects volunteered for this study. Data were acquired, using 1H-MRS, from the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles. The IMCL content in TA was approximately twice as high in T subjects than in UT and OW subjects. In MG, IMCL was higher in OW and T subjects compared with UT subjects. A linear relationship existed between the VO2max and IMCL in TA and a curve of second-degree relationship between the VO2max and IMCL in MG. These results suggest that elevated IMCL deposits in TA might reflect enhancement of aerobic capacity, whereas the IMCL accretion in MG might reflect not only aerobic capacity but also overweight and obese conditions in men.
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  • TATSUKI NAKA, ILLYOUNG HAN, TAKAAKI KEII, MIYUKI NISHIZAWA, HITOSHI SA ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S49-S52
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fat-free mass (FFM) of the total body, the upper limbs, and the lower limbs in healthy subjects and basketball players obtained by the new 8-electrode segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (S-BIA) and to compare the results with the FFM obtained by DXA. The participants were 30 healthy subjects (15 men and 15 women) aged 24.9±3.5 years old and 15 female basketball players aged 23.1±3.1 years old. In the healthy subjects, positive correlations (p<0.001) were observed between the FFM obtained by S-BIA and DXA of the total body (r=0.973), the upper limbs (r=0.956), and the lower limbs (r=0.954). Similarly, in the basketball players, positive correlations (p<0.001, p<0.01) were observed between the FFM obtained by S-BIA and DXA of the total body (r=0.943), the upper limbs (r=0.743), and the lower limbs (r=0.934). The results suggest that the new 8-electrode S-BIA is a valid and convenient method for analyzing body composition of the total body and the body segments in healthy subjects and athletes.
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  • KOJIRO ISHII, MAKOTO AYABE, TETSUKO OKABE, TAKASHI IWATA, KOHSAKU TAKA ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S53-S58
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We performed exercise intervention for 12 weeks in young females (22.3±2.5 yrs ; mean±SD) with a %fat value of 30% or more (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry : DXA) despite a body mass index (BMI) of less than 25 kg/m2, which indicates hidden obesity, and the following results were obtained. The intensity of exercise was established as the double product break point calculated from heart rate and systolic blood pressure, and the subjects were instructed to exercise for 30 minutes or more for 3 or more times a week. Six weeks after exercise intervention, the BMI, body fat level, and plasma glucose level were lower than those before exercise intervention, and the %fat value was lower 12 weeks after intervention. Furthermore, cardiac autonomic function (CAF) was negatively correlated with changes in Total power and changes in fat (kg), suggesting that exercise-related improvement in CAF is involved in a decrease in %fat.
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  • YOSHINAO NAKAGAWA, MASAAKI HATTORI, KUNIAKI HARADA, RYUJI SHIRASE, MIC ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S59-S64
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study is the evaluation of intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) in skeletal muscle in elderly female endurance-trained individuals. The subjects comprised endurance-trained elderly persons (END : n=7, age=66.1±2.0) and healthy elderly control subjects (CON : n=7, age=70.1±3.0). All subjects were female and matched by age and lower BMI. We quantified differences in IMCL and EMCL concentrations in the tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SOL), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles using 1H-MR spectroscopy. The IMCL and EMCL contents in SOL and MG in END were significantly lower than those in CON (p<0.01). Total lipid content in SOL and MG was lower in END. The IMCL and EMCL contents in TA in END were slightly lower than those in CON. Water contents of all types of muscle in END were higher than those in CON. These results suggest that stored IMCL and EMCL in END are less than in CON.
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  • TAKESHI OTSUKI, SEIJI MAEDA, MOTOYUKI IEMITSU, SUBRINA JESMIN, TAKASHI ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S65-S70
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Skeletal muscle is comprised of multiple fiber types. Slow-twitch oxidative muscle fibers have greater capillary density compared with fast-twitch glycolytic fibers of skeletal muscle. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the difference of capillary density, we investigated whether the basal gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major angiogenesis-related factor, and its transcriptional factors (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, transforming growth factor-β1, c-jun, and c-fos) differs between these two fiber types of rat skeletal muscle. The mRNA expression of VEGF and its transcriptional factors was significantly higher in slow type fiber of muscle (soleus muscle) compared with fast type fiber of muscle (plantaris and tibialis anterior muscles). These results suggest that the difference of basal gene expression of VEGF and its transcriptional factors between slow and fast fiber types of skeletal muscle may partly contribute to the difference in capillary density between these two fiber types.
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  • RYOUTA MATSUURA, HISAYOSHI OGATA, TOKUO YANO
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S71-S74
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether accumulated and temporary fatigue could be separately observed in repeated cycling sprints (RCS) with combined short and long recovery periods. Eight male performed three RCS with 35-sec (RCS35), 350-sec (RCS350) and combined 35-sec and 350-sec recovery periods (RCScomb). RCScomb consisted of ten 10-sec cycling sprints (CSs) with 35-sec and 350-sec recovery periods before the 5th and 9th CS. In RCScomb, peak power output (PPO) was restored in the 5th and not in 9th CS. Blood lactate concentration ([La]) progressively increased, but there were no significant differences among conditions despite the difference in PPO. In RCScomb, mean power frequency determined on the vastus lateralis was correlated with PPO and oxygen uptake before CSs (preVO2) showed high in short recovery periods and low values in long recovery periods. Accumulated and temporary fatigue cannot be explained by effects of preVO2 and [La].
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  • AKIRA YORIMOTO, NAOKO NISHIKAWA, SEIJI SAKATE
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S75-S80
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, the danger of dehydration and heatstroke in a walking event in the summer was examined. Subjects were 64 males, 11 females, and the average age was 62.3±7.8 years old. The following were measured before and after 25 km walking : body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, tympanic temperature, and fluid intake. WBGT in the walking event was 22.6℃ mean value. Time of the 25 km walking was 5 hours 45 minutes, and the number of steps were 36,570±2,741 steps. The body weight loss by the walking was 1.36±0.57 kg, 2.24±0.96%. This body weight loss rate increased with the age. The fluid intake was 1,327±608 g, and sweat loss was 2,621±740 g in the walking. The tympanic temperature after walking was 38.02±0.60℃, and increased 0.99±0.67℃ from before walking. In the walking of middle-aged and elderly persons in the summer, there is danger of dehydration and heatstroke, therefore enough water and salt intakes are necessary.
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  • KAZUKI NISHIMURA, KAZUTOSHI SEKI, TAKESHI OKAMOTO, DAISUKE NISHIOKA, K ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S81-S84
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of supine floating on rectal temperature and cardiac autonomic nervous system activity after exercise. Seven healthy males volunteered for this study. Subjects performed supine position for 30 minutes in both control condition (C-condition) and water condition (W-condition) after exercise with a cycle ergometer for 15 minutes. Exercise intensity was high (80%VO2max) and moderate (60%VO2max). Water temperature was 30 degrees Celsius. Rectal temperature of post exercise showed no significant differences under the W-condition, as compared to the C-condition. Delta rectal temperature (point 0-0 was end of exercise) was significantly reduced (p<0.05) under the W-condition, as compared to the C-condition. Log HF was significantly increased (p<0.05) under the W-condition, as compared to the C-condition. These data suggested that supine floating after high and moderate intensity exercise could promote recovery of rectal temperature and increased in cardiac parasympathetic nervous system activity.
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  • FUJIKO YONEYAMA, HITOSHI WATANABE, MASANOBU ARAKI, KYONOSUKE YABE
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S85-S88
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of buoyancy on physiological responses during treadmill walking. Six subjects participated in this experiment. The water level was adjusted to the greater trochanter. Normal water (NW) and 1.135 kg/l of specific gravity (high buoyancy ; HB) were set. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion were measured during exercise. VO2 in HB at all walking speeds were higher than those in NW significantly. HR enhanced in HB over the walking speed of 70 m/min significantly. It was clear that the workload of walking in HB increased remarkably over the walking speed of 70 m/min. This suggested that the water resistance acted on the phenomenon of increase of the workload in HB. Furthermore, it was suggested that walking in HB was useful for rehabilitation and therapeutic exercise in the low-speed and for physical training in the high-speed.
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  • MASASHI KUME, HIROKAZU OSANAI, NAOTO KIMURA, TAKASHI ITO
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S89-S94
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study aimed to examine the change cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) of finger between seven female alpine (AP group) and six female cross-country skiers (CC group) at different points in their training programs. The CIVD test was performed twice, once in spring period after ski-training, once in the summer period during physical-training. From the onset of ice-water immersion in each CIVD test, finger skin temperature in each group fell followed by an incline. Thereafter, finger skin temperature began to rise and fall in an attenuated fashion during ice-water immersion. The resistance index (RI) in summer (7.1±1.7) for AP group was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that in spring (4.6±1.1). However, that of CC group showed no difference between spring and summer. These results suggested that the physical training during summer period for AP group may influence on the improvement of CIVD.
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  • ICHIRO KAWANO, SHIN-ICHIRO TAKASUGI, TAKAHIDE KAMISHIMA, KENJI MASUMOT ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S95-S98
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Ball Exercise on physical functions related to fall prevention among community-dwelling elderly. Nineteen healthy elderly women voluntarily participated in a Ball Exercise course that consiste of 60-min classes once a week for three months. We assessed their physical functions at baseline and then again after the Ball Exercise course. Significant improvements (p<0.05) were observed in one leg standing without vision (+7.2 s), functional reach (+14.4%), trunk flexibility test (+7.1%), maximum walking speed (+17%), and the isometric muscle strength of the knee and ankle joints (+9.8〜35.7%), but no changes were observed in grasping power. This study suggested that Ball Exercise might be a suitable fall prevention and health promoting exercise for elderly people. We therefore concluded that ensuring a high level of physical functions is important to prevent falls and maintain a high quality of life for elderly people.
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  • ICHIRO KAWANO, SHIN-ICHIRO TAKASUGI, TETSURO NEJIME, TAKEHIDE KAMISHIM ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S99-S102
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to analyse electromyographic characteristics of Tai Chi. The subjects, six healthy men, performed ; (1) the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of each tested muscle ; (2) three forms in 24-style Tai Chi ; (3) on a bicycle ergometer (100 w) and jogging (120 m/s). For each muscle, the maximum integrated EMG for one second was computed and standardized by MVC(%MVC). The results were as follows : (1) High muscle activity was observed during Tai Chi. In five muscles, the %MVC exceeded 60%. (2) In the rectus femoris m., the %MVC of Tai Chi was 6.8 times that of the bicycle ergometer and 10.3 times that of jogging (p<0.01). In a similar way, in the tibialis anterior m., the %MVC was 7.1 and 4.8 times (p<0.01), and in the rectus abdominis m., the %MVC was 6.3 and 4.9 times (p<0.01). We conclude that Tai Chi might be useful as an exercise in muscle strength training.
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  • TOSHIO NAKANO, NAOTO SHIRASAWA, HIDEKI SASAKI, IZUMI MIHARA, TOSHIO MO ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S103-S108
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study examined the relationship between riding posture and muscle activities during passive exercise on horseback-riding simulation equipment. The effects of passive training on the prototypes were also determined. Three prototypes with tilted seat (A110, A130, and A140) were developed with an attempt to change the angle between trunk and leg to 110, 130, and 140 degrees, respectively. Twelve female aged 42.7±2.3 years performed passive exercise on the three prototypes and isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) tests. Electromyogram of nine muscles in the trunk and lower limb were recorded. On A110, back muscle showed the largest activity (22%MVC ; p<0.01 ; repeated measures ANOVA). Contrastingly on A140, abdominal muscle and knee extensor showed the largest activity (40%MVC and 26%MVC ; p<0.01). Passive training on the prototypes for 30 minutes/day, 4 times/week, 8 weeks produced enhancement of muscle strength in trunk and hip. Riding posture is an effective factor to control physical effects without increasing the velocity on horseback-riding simulation equipment.
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  • TAICHI YAMAGUCHI, KOJIRO ISHII, MASANORI YAMANAKA, KAZUNORI YASUDA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S109-S112
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    PURPOSE : The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effect of static stretching on muscular performance with concentric isotonic muscle actions under various loads. METHODS : Concentric isotonic leg extension power outputs were assessed in 12 healthy male subjects after two types of pre-treatment. The pre-treatments included 1) static stretching (SS) treatment performing static stretching of leg extensors, and 2) non-stretching (NS) treatment by resting in a sitting position. Loads during the assessment of the power output were set to 5%, 30% and 60% of the maximum voluntary contractile (MVC) torque with isometric leg extension in each subject. RESULTS : The peak power output following the SS treatment was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that following the NS treatment under each load. CONCLUSION : The present study demonstrated that static stretching significantly reduces power output with concentric isotonic muscle actions under various loads. This result suggests that static stretching decreases power performance.
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  • KAZUHIRO P. IZAWA, SATOSHI WATANABE, KOICHIRO OKA, NAOHIKO OSADA, KAZU ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S113-S118
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of self-monitoring approach (SMA) on exercise maintenance, self-efficacy for physical activity (SEPA), and objective physical activity (OPA) over the long-term after supervised cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Forty-five myocardial infarction (MI) patients (mean age 64.2 years) were recruited following completion of an acute-phase exercise-based CR program. Patients were randomly assigned to a SMA or control group. Along with CR, the SMA group performed self-monitoring of their weight and OPA for 6-months ; the control group participated in CR only. Twelve months after MI onset, exercise maintenance, SEPA scores, and OPA as a caloric expenditure were assessed. More patients maintained their exercise routine in the SMA than the control group. Mean SEPA score and mean OPA after CR were significantly higher in the SMA than control group. SMA during CR may effectively increase exercise maintenance, SEPA, and OPA over a 1-year after MI.
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  • NORIO MURASE, SHIRO ICHIMURA, MIKA MORI, KIYOSHI SHIROISHI, KAORI MITS ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S119-S124
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of bicycle ergometer training and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) for patients with intermittent claudication. Subjects were divided into four groups : the medication group (M), the PGE1 group (P), the exercise group (E) and the PGE1 and exercise group (PE). The P group was injected with 10μg of PGE1, the E group performed bicycle ergometer exercise 3 times a week for 6 weeks, and the PE group was injected with PGE1 and performed exercises. The maximal walking distance (MWD) was evaluated by a treadmill test. Muscle oxygenation level was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and recovery half time (T1/2) was calculated. MWD was significantly improved for P (142%), E (216%) and PE (240%) groups. T1/2 was significantly improved in the E and PE groups. This study indicates that improvement of MWD was a result of development of muscle perfusion in lower limbs and PGE1 injection may support exercise therapy.
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  • NAOKO SHONO, RYOMA MICHISHITA, TOSHIYUKI TSURUTA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S125-S128
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Prescribed exercise regimens based on the target heart rate (THR) and the target work rate (TWR) on a cycle ergometer at the intensity of the lactate threshold (LT) were evaluated before, and after 6 and 12 weeks of exercise therapy in obese subjects with (OBHT, n=38) and without hypertension (OB, n=55) matching for age, sex, BMI, body composition, as well as the blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride level. THR was 97.8±9.2 in OBHT and 98.3±10.7 in OB without group differences. The resting HR was higher in OBHT than in OB (76.3 vs. 72.1). Both the relative THR (%HR reserve) and the relative TWR (%Body weight) were lower in OBHT than in OB. During the training period, the VO2max, THR and TWR increased while body fat decreased significantly in both groups. The resting BP and HR decreased, and the %HRR increased significantly in OBHT. In conclusion, the lower THR and TWR are therefore recommended when initially prescribing an exercise regimen without an exercise stress test for obese individuals, particularly for the obese subjects with HT based on the exercise intensity at LT. Thereafter, careful modifications in the prescribed exercise regimen will be needed according to improvements in the fitness level and in coronary risk factors.
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  • HYUNG LAE CHO, JUNG HOEI KU, JIN WAN KIM, CHOON KEY LEE, SU HAN AN
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S129-S134
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rock Climbing has become increasingly popular recently. It needs repetitive high-torque movements in gaining the ascent of rock faces often in steep overhanging positions, so the upper limb injuries are common and it is the major site of overuse syndrome. Osteolysis of the distal clavicle is very infrequent, its etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood, but may be related to overuse. We report a case of the osteolysis of distal clavicle in an elite rock climber. The diagnosis was based on no history of shoulder trauma, positive plain radiographs, positive joint scintigraphy and MRI. Using this case, we discuss the possible pathogenic mechanism especially relating to this sport, differential diagnosis and treatment options for the osteolysis of the distal clavicle.
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  • MISAKA KIMURA, AYA ITOI, IZUMI SATO, MASAKO NAKAGAWA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S135-S140
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
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    In this study, the states of obesity, physical activity, and diet of 4 th-6 th graders were examined in an agricultural area of the Tohoku region, where many pupils are driven to and from school. The physique (height, weight), physical activity level (Select 2 ; Kenz), and nutritional intake were investigated in 32 elementary school pupils for one week. The subjects showed the following characteristics : 1) A high percentage of obese pupils, 2) a small number of walking steps, and 3) a lower percentage of obese pupils than non-obese pupils participating in sports activities. Therefore, efforts to increase the physical activity level are considered to be necessary for the prevention of obesity. For this purpose, in addition to administrative measures to increase exercise opportunities in the community such as the establishment of a general sports club, local movements such as encouraging pupils to walk to school may be effective.
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  • HISAO IWAMOTO, YUKIO URABE, HIROSHI KANAZAWA, TAIZAN SHIRAKAWA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S141-S144
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to measure and analyze peroneus longus reaction time (PRT) as well as ankle movement during ankle sprain simulation. PRT was measured for six control ankles and six unstable ankles with an inversion ankle sprain (1 male and 5 females per group, respectively) using an ankle inverting platform and high speed camera. The unstable group showed a significantly slower PRT (58.8±8.7 ms) than the control group (46.5±8.1 ms). The inversion angular velocity was significantly faster in the unstable group (152.8±62.6 d/s) than the control group (83.2±38.4 d/s). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding ankle eversion time. Our results indicate that it is important to lead an unstable ankle to reduce inversion angular velocity to prevent recurrent inversion ankle sprain.
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  • AKIRA NAGATA, TAEKO TAJIMA, MASAYUKI UCHIDA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S145-S152
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
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    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the cultured Cordyceps sinensis (Cs, supplement) powder during exhaustive running of human comparing with the placebo (control). These supplements were given to 36 male sedentary subjects over period of 2 weeks. During the exercise, following bio-signals were measured such as the respiratory variables (VO2, VCO2, VE), the blood pressure (BP), the heart rate (HR), and the lactic acid (LA). In addition, their storing urine for one night was inspected about the catecholamine (CA, Adr, NorA, Dop) and the cortisol hormone (17-KA-S and 17-OHCS) at the pre-and the post-ingesting with those supplements. The changing ratio calculating between the pre- and the post-variables of VO2/kg (5.2±0.1 & 4.8±0.1 ml), VE (12.0±0.2 & 11.0±0.2 L), and LA (6.1±2.1 & 5.2±2.6 mmol/dl) had decreased to lower percentages at the recovery period from the exercise test than those of CON, significantly (p<0.01). Futhermore, concentration of the total CA (1.19±0.51 & 1.29±0.49 mg/L), Adr (13.5±1.2 & 17.7±1.9μg/L), NorA (127.4±8.1 & 130.0±8.5μg/L), Dop (1.06±0.1 & 1.14±0.4mg/L), 17-OHCS/creatinine (4.42±0.30 & 4.2±0.31), and 17-KS-G/creatinine (3.18±0.09 & 3.06±0.07) showed changes of significant difference related to the placebo (p<0.05). There have been appeared an augmentation of the energy generation and the anti-fatigue ability intaking with this supplement during the exercise test. During this prolonged exercise, ingesting with this Cs might elicit the superior efficiency and the economical function on the energy metabolism.
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  • FUMIKO OHMORI, SHIZUYO SHIMIZU, TAKAFUMI HAMAOKA, ATSUKO KAGAYA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S153-S158
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how long it takes to reach peak blood flow after muscle contractions in consideration of the cardiac cycle. Seven healthy female subjects performed two successive dynamic plantar flexions of 1-s duration at 30, 50 and 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Based upon the blood flow response after a single contraction, we set up intervals during two successive contractions each corresponding to 10% (10 I), 30% (30 I) and 50% (50 I) of the time required to reach peak blood flow. Upon cessation of contraction, the popliteal artery blood flow (Qpa) increased progressive, beat-by-beat increase and peaked by the 5th cardiac cycle, for all conditions. The highest peak blood flow among the cardiac cycle was at 3rd cycle in overall data. Peak Qpa values reached after exercise did not differ among intervals, whereas peak Qpa value attained after exercise was significantly greater in 50 and 70%MVC than 30%MVC (p<0.05). The result indicates that the augmentation of the Qpa after exercise with short duration differed with the exercise intensity but the timing for reaching peak post-exercise value did not differ in terms of the number of cardiac cycles.
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  • MUTSUKO YOSHIZAWA, SHIZUYO SHIMIZU, ATSUKO KAGAYA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S159-S162
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in vascular conductance changes in brachial and femoral artery (BVC, FVC) of non-exercising limbs during handgrip exercise at different intensities. Six subjects performed rhythmic handgrip exercise, which consisted of 2-second contraction and 2-second relaxation at the intensities of 15%, 30%, and 45% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Brachial and femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound method) of non-exercising limbs, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured. The BVC during exercise at lower intensities (15% and 30%MVC) and FVC during exercise at any of three intensities did not change significantly. However, BVC significantly decreased at 45%MVC when the exercise was continued to longer than 60% of maximal endurance time (P<0.05). These results suggest that FVC of the non-exercising limb dose not change during handgrip exercise at the intensity lower than 45%MVC, but BVC of the non-exercising limb change during handgrip exercise depending on the exercise intensity and duration.
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  • HIROKAZU OSANAI, SHINOBU NISHIMURA, YOKO NAKAO, TADAYOSHI SAKURAI, TAK ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S163-S168
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fluctuation of the recovery period of autonomic nervous activity (ANA) after isokinetic exercise. Sixteen male subjects participated in this study after they turned in their consent forms. The subjects performed isokinetic knee extension-flexion exercise using BIODEX. We obtained the electro-cardiogram during the entire experiment. We calculated their heart rate (HR) and power spectral of R-R interval (LF is low frequency component, and HF is high frequency component. Both indexes were converted to a logarithm transformation as to lnHF and lnLF.) from pre-exercise period (PRE) and post-exercise period (POST). Some researchers reported that ΔlnHF of POST was lower and ΔLF/HF of POST was higher than those of PRE immediately after aerobic exercise; however, this study's results were in complete contrast. In conclusion, we found that the recovery periods after aerobic and isokinetic exercises of ANA are entirely different.
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  • MOTOHIRO INOUE, TATSUYA HOJO, MEGUMI ITOI, HIROSHI KITAKOJI, TADASHI Y ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S169-S172
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We applied electrical acupuncture to the spinal nerve root by inserting needles under x-ray control in two cases with radicular sciatica as a non-pharmacological substitute for the lumbar spinal nerve block. In both cases, symptoms were markedly reduced after electrical acupuncture to the spinal nerve root. The sustained effect was noticeably longer than that of caudal anesthesia previously performed one time on one of the cases. We suggest that descending inhibitory control, inhibitory control at the spinal level, or changes in nerve blood flow may be involved in the mechanism of the effect of electrical acupuncture to the spinal nerve root. These results suggest that electrical acupuncture to the spinal nerve root may be superior to lumbar spinal nerve block or caudal anesthesia when it is applied appropriately in certain cases of radicular sciatica, taking into consideration of patient age, severity of symptoms and duration of the disorder.
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  • YUKARI KAWANO, SAKUKO ISHIZAKI, YOSHIKO AKIYAMA, NOBUYOSHI SHIOZAWA, K ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S173-S178
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Purpose : Rhythmic gymnasts sometimes develop severe iron-deficiency anemia. Preventing such anemia could thus enhance both their performance and health. We compared the relationship between a dietary intervention and RBC metabolism.Methods : Ten female rhythmic gymnasts were recruited for this study. Changes in the RBC delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity were used as an index of biosynthesis, and changes in the haptoglobin (hp) were used to assess degradation. Results : During the one month intervention period, the athletes consumed traditional Japanese foods which provide 1500 kcal energy, 2 g/kg body weight protein, 200 g carbohydrate and 15 mg iron. No main effect of this intervention on the hematological indexes was observed. The δ-ALAD activity was significantly greater in August than in July or September. Hp concentration was significantly lower in August in comparison to the other periods. Conclusion : Dietary intervention might enhance the RBC turnover by increasing the capacity for erythrocyte biosynthesis and degradation.
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  • HIROMI KITAMURA, KUMIKO MINATO, HIDEAKI NAKASHIMA, SHUHEI KOBAYASHI
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S179-S182
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The objective of this study was to examine whether the combination of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA) supplementation and physical exercise training would decrease oxidative stress in comparison with n-3 PUFA supplementation only in humans. Eighteen women college students were divided into a perilla oil supplemented control group or a perilla oil supplemented physical exercise trained group throughout the experimental period of 4 weeks. After the intervention in both groups, plasma triglyceride levels were decreased. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level in the control group was increased by n-3 PUFA supplementation. In the trained group, however, TBARS level was unchanged. Plasma vitamin C level in the trained group was significantly decreased by n-3 PUFA supplementation. These results suggest that the combination of n-3 PUFA supplementation and physical exercise training might result in attenuated tissue damage induced by reactive oxygen species, if appropriate daily antioxidants, especially vitamin C, were provided.
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  • HIDEKI MATOBA, AYUMI KAWASHIMA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S183-S188
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
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    The effects of resistance training (RT) on serum adipocytokine levels were investigated in rats. Male rats were allocated either to a RT group or a control (C) group. The RT group performed RT by climbing 1-m high cages for access to water. The epididymal, retroperitoneal, and inguinal fat pad weights of the RT were significantly lesser than those of the C group. A significantly lower serum insulin concentration was observed in the RT group than in the C group ; no significant group difference was observed in the plasma glucose concentration. The serum leptin level was significantly lower in the RT group than in the C group. On the other hand, no significant difference existed in the TNF-α, adiponectin, and resistin levels between the two groups. The results indicate that the RT improved the whole-body insulin sensitivity and induced differential effects on the serum adipocytokine levels in rats.
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  • KUMIKO MINATO, YUKO SATO, SHUHEI KOBAYASHI, FUMIHIKO KARIYA, KEIZO KOB ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S189-S192
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to assess the status of nutrients intake in male Japanese collegiate athletes. Each 20 of baseball (B), soccer (S), volley ball (V), and long distance (L) athletes participated in this study. The B, S, and V athletes lived by themselves, whereas the L athletes lived in an athletes dormitory with provided meal. The nutritional status was assessed for 2 days. Mean energy intakes in the B, S, V, and L groups were 43.6, 53.7, 47.0, and 55.0 kcal/kg body weight, respectively. Mean protein intakes were 1.2, 1.6, 1.3 and 2.4 g/kg, respectively. In B athletes, skipping of breakfast was recognized frequently. Most of micronutrients intakes in the B, S, and V groups were less than the recommended dietary allowances for athletes. We suggest that a provided meal system is a better system for collegiate athletes and more nutritional education is necessary for Japanese male collegiate athletes, in particular, those living by themselves.
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  • KAORI HAYASHI, NOBUYOSHI SHIOZAWA, YOSHIKO AKIYAMA, YUKO MEKADA, HARUM ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S193-S198
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
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    Purpose : This study was undertaken to clarify the effect of heme-iron supplementation on the prevention of iron-deficiency anemia in male collegiate distance runners. Methods : Forty-one male collegiate runners were divided into three groups, consisting of a heme-iron group (HI), a citrate-iron group (CI), and a non-iron group (NI). Iron tablets (heme-iron or citrate-iron) were administered at a dose of 7 mg per day for two months. The blood components and nutritional intakes were estimated before and after the intervention. Results : The nutritional intakes did not differ among the three groups. The red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, ferritin, Glutamic-Pyruvate Transferase and γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase levels were unchanged throughout the experimental periods. After the intervention, the serum iron levels significantly decreased in the NI group but not in the iron-supplemented groups, while the reticulocytes counts increased among the three groups. Conclusion : The small amount of heme-iron supplementation was thus found to have a preventive effect on iron deficiency anemia without causing any negative side affects.
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  • MIKIKO MATSUOKA, YUKARI KAWANO, YOSHIKO AKIYAMA, NOBUYOSHI SHIOZAWA, K ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S199-S204
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Purpose : This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between pedometer counts and food intake in Japanese elderly people. Methods : One-hundred-eighty healthy, community-dwelling elderly people were divided into three groups according to age. The number of steps taken by each subject was recorded with a pedometer over a 30-day period in August. The dietary and nutritional intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Results : There was no significant difference in the pedometer counts between men and women. The number of steps significantly decreased with age (p<0.01). The intake of energy, protein and carbohydrate were significantly higher in men than in women (p<0.05), and they were nearly the same among the three aged groups. The calcium and vitamin C intakes after adjusting for sex and age increased with the number of daily steps, except for the intakes of energy, protein and carbohydrates. Conclusion : A higher number of daily steps was found to be associated with the calcium and vitamin C intakes.
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  • TAEWOONG OH, MITSURU HIGUCHI, KAZUYUKI KANOSUE, CHIYOKO USUI, ISAO MUR ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S205-S208
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Athletes have been instructed to refrain from taking carbonated beverages in the sports world, but the mechanism has not been clear. The purpose of this study was to clarify how physiological and biochemical evaluation are affected by taking a 10% CHO carbonated beverage after cycle ergometer (60 min, 60% VO2max). Seven subjects consumed a carbonated or noncarbonated (10% carbohydrate) beverage after exercise. No differences were observed in concentration of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, K and Na in serum from carbonated beverage compared with noncarbonated beverage intakes after exercise. These results indicate that carbonated beverage did not affect the changes of physiological and biochemical parameter after prolonged exercise, and it could be more refreshing and stimulate taste rather than noncarbonated beverage, but seemed to be hard to drink immediately after exercise because it made subjects feel as if having drunk more than they did.
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  • TAKAHIRO MUKAIMOTO, ILLYOUNG HAN, TATSUKI NAKA, MAKOTO OHNO
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S209-S212
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    15 healthy elderly adults (68.6±4.5 years old) participated in this study and were chosen at random for either super low-velocity repetition training (SLT : n=7) or general low-velocity repetition training (GLT : n=8). All subjects performed machine training leg work twice a week for 6 months. Training contents of SLT and GLT were programmed as follows : SLT (Method : 4 seconds of lifting and 6 sec of lowering) and GLT (Method : 2 sec of lifting and 2 sec of lowering). Muscular strength testing was adopted during isometric knee extension using Cybex6000, and body composition was measured by DXA method. As a result, increases in peak torque values and 5 sec average torques value were significantly different in both groups, pre- and post-training (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Fat mass significantly decreased during post-training in both groups (p<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the groups. SLT showed that increases in maximum muscular strength and endurance were similar to GLT. Thus, low-intensity and low-velocity repetition training is suggested as an effective method for elderly adults to increase lower limb muscular strength.
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  • SHIZUYO SHIMIZU, YOSHIHO MURAOKA, FUMIKO OHMORI, ATSUKO KAGAYA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S213-S216
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between left ventricular muscle mass, skeletal muscle volume and vessel structures in elderly women (n=15, 76.0±5.4 years). We measured the thigh muscle thickness, and brachial and common carotid arterial diameter using B-mode ultrasound method. Posterior wall thickness, interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter, and aorta artery were measured by B-mode echocardiography. No significant relationship was obtained between brachial and common carotid arterial diameters, and aortic diameter. On the other hand, significant correlation coefficients were obtained between cardiac muscle thickness and thigh muscle thickness (r=0.674, p<0.01). A significant correlation coefficient was also obtained between the estimated skeletal muscle volume and left ventricular mass [LVmass](r=0.542, p<0.05). The slope of regression equation between estimated thigh muscle volume and LVmass in elderly women in this study was (y=0.11x+75.65) steeper than in children (y=0.06x+14.02) reported previously. These results indicate that the ventricular muscle (LVmass) is closely related to the skeletal muscle volume in ordinary elderly women and skeletal muscle mass at a given LVmass is smaller in elderly women than children.
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  • SHIRO ICHIMURA, NORIO MURASE, TAKUYA OSADA, RYOTARO KIME, TOSHIYUKI HO ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S217-S222
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to determine the age and habitual physical activity on re-oxygenation time in working muscles following maximal cycling exercise (CycEXmax). Twelve sedentary middle-aged (50±6), 13 sedentary elderly (66±3), 13 active middle-aged (53±5), and 20 active elderly (67±5) were evaluated the half re-oxygenation time (T1/2 reoxy) as an index of oxygen delivery, using near-infrared spectroscopy at the vastus lateralis (VL) and lateral head of the gastrocnemius (LG) after CycEXmax. T1/2 reoxys at VL and LG were significantly greater in the elderly subjects than in the middle-aged subjects in both sedentary and active groups. T1/2 reoxys at VL and LG of the active group were smaller than those of the sedentary group, regardless of age. The results of this study suggest that habitual physical activity may attenuate age-related prolongation in T1/2 reoxy in working muscles although ageing delay T1/2 reoxy in working muscles.
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  • YASUHITO TANAKA, MISAKA KIMURA, IZUMI SATO, KOYO KOJIMA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S223-S226
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An Elderly Health and Fitness Promotion Program was carried out in the 32 on areas of Ichihazama Town (now Kurihara City), Miyagi Prefecture to promote the health of the elderly population by making as many townspeople as possible aware of their health and fitness levels, and develop active lifestyles. We evaluated the effectiveness of this program on the basis of the results during the past 4 years. In 2001, the Elderly Health and Fitness Promotion Program was started in each of the town's 32 administration areas. The number of participants continued to increase until it exceeded 600 in 2004, with increases in the percentages of males, those aged 80 years or above, and those withlimited ADL among the participants. While the results of fitness tests varied widely and were very low in some participants, changes in the fitness level were small in regular participants.
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  • RUMI KOZAKAI, WATARU DOYO, FUJIKO ANDO, HIROSHI SHIMOKATA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S227-S230
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationships between age-related changes of postural stability and physical function in middle-aged and elderly Japanese. The subjects were 640 males and 620 females who had participated in both the baseline and the 4-year follow-up surveys of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging. Postural stability was measured using a force platform. Flexibility, muscle function, reaction time, balance and comfortable and maximal gait performance were also measured as physical function. Postural sway was increased in 4 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis controlled for age, sex, height, weight and history of diseases revealed significant relationships between decline of postural stability and sit-ups, flexibility, frequency and velocity at comfortable gait and leg extension power at baseline. These results suggest that not only greater abdominal muscle strength and leg power but also quick walking benefit the preservation of postural stability.
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  • YIFA JIANG, SACHIO NAGASAKI, HIDENORI KIMURA
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S231-S236
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study is to establish a new dynamic model for balance keeping control in upright standing; and to deduce the underlying possible control mechanism of central neuronal system with a special concern on the roles of pelvis and its muscles. The dynamic model including five joints, i. e. two ankles, two hips and one lumbosacral making up a multi-link system being driven by two pairs of muscles, the psoas major (PM) and glutaeus medius (GM). In coronal section, experimental data shows the ankle and lumbosacral sway in almost the same amplitude, whereas their phase difference is approximately equal to π. The results indicate that the trunk is keeping perpendicularly to horizon during the standing process. By defining the model's physical parameters, assuming that the corrective torque needed for balance keeping process is regulated by PID (stands for proportional, integral and derivative) control, the body sway can be simulated. The simulation result is quite consistent with the experimental data suggests that the pelvis is one of the most important structure in balance keeping, moreover, the dynamics of the present proposed balance keeping model is a quite useful model for analyzing the posture sway.
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  • KAZUNORI NAKAJIMA, TOMOTAKA TAKEDA, SHINTARO KAWAMURA, KEIICHI ISHIGAM ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S237-S240
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is thought that for some sports so called the “agility” accomplishes the key role from the viewpoint of the improvement of the performance and the injury prevention. Therefore we examined the influence of bite up with the oral appliances on the agility. Tested sporting event were cervical retroflexed force. EVA mouthguard and resin splint were used for the oral appliances. Reaction time was measured as a response to stimulated light by the activating time of the masseter muscle and activating time of the main muscle. It is found the reaction time of neck muscles movement tends to be shortened by wearing of the oral appliances. These results were seemed to be based on decrease of a free way space by the bite up with the oral appliances resulted in shortening the reaction time of the masseter and the stabilized occlusion.(141 words)
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  • HIROSHI ITOH, TETSUO OHKUWA, YOSHIHIKO YAMAZAKI, TSUGIO SHIMODA, HIROM ...
    2006 Volume 55 Issue Supplement Pages S241-S246
    Published: October 01, 2006
    Released: September 27, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have determined the plasma 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels during endurance exercise. Eight untrained male subjects completed a 10-km run. Plasma 8-OHdG, total coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), ubiquinol, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) concentrations were measured after exercise. Plasma 8-OHdG concentrations significantly decreased immediately after (0.21±0.13 ng/ml, p<0.01) and 1 hr after (0.23±0.09 ng/ml, p<0.05) the run compared to the resting values (0.36±0.09 ng/ml). Both plasma CoQ10 and ubiquinol concentrations significantly increased (p<0.05) immediately after the run compared to the resting values. On the other hand, plasma TBA concentrations did not change significantly at any point after the run. These results suggest that, during and after submaximal endurance exercise in this study, an augmented antioxidant defence system such as CoQ10 might thus play a role in the decrease of 8-OHdG in the plasma, and that exercise might stimulate the repair of oxidative damage to DNA.
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