Studies were made on the physical fitness and morphological development of 47 high ranking sumo wrestlers who are considered to possess gigantic physique and great strength. Morphological measurements. 1) The average body height was 180.2cm which when compared to the average Japanese is remarkably tall, however, when considering the tendency for the first rate athletes in Judo, boating, baseball, and basket ball to become taller, recently, this is not particularly noteworthy (Fig.1) . 2) The average body weight was 122.3kg, and the average of the Rohrer's index was 210.5. This is remarkable and may be considered to be a characteristic of the sumo wrestlers (Table 1, Fig. 2) . 3) The development of the circumf erential measurements when compared to that of the long axis of the body was remarkable : waist girth, 114.9cm, and hip girth 115.7cm. The skinfold thickeness was 109.9mm which is remarkably thick. This nearly abnormal development of subcutaneous fat is a special characteristic of sumo wrestlers. Physical fitness. 4) The average back strength was 181.2kg, and the average grip strength was 47.9 kg, which are unexpectedly small and inferior to those of the boating and heavy weight lifting Olympic athletes. The method of measurement of muscle strength may be somewhat problematic, however, the development of the muscles was surprisingly poor. (Table 4) 5) The sumo wrestlers were also remarkably poor in tests requiring body movement, such as, vertical jump (47.9 cm) and side step test (35.1 times) . These values are far inferior to those of athletes in other sports, and are even inferior to those of the average Japanese of comparable age. (Table 4) 6) However, in spite of their obesity, the sumo wrestlers were comparable to the athletes of other sports in body flexibility and response time. (Table 4) 7) Obese subjects are said to have weak respiratory function. The sumo wrestlers under observation had an average vital capacity of 4918.6m1 indicating a remarkably low value for their large physique. 8) The average points for the step test was 49.4 indicating a lower value than the average Japanese of comparable age. 9) A follow-up study of the measurements made during the past 4 years was made on a few Sekitori. Although no change was noted in body height, marked increases in body weight and circumferential measurements were observed. (Fig. 4) 10) When the higher ranking wrestlers were compared with the lower ranking wreatlers, it was found that, morphologically, the higher ranking wrestlers were superior in body weight and circumferential measurements, however, no significant difference was found in the functional aspect (Fig. 5, 6) . These facts suggest that morphological superiority is an important factor in winning a sumo match. 11) From the foregoing, it may be inferred that the special characteristic of the sumo wrestler is their well developed morphological features, especially girth, however, they are far inferior to athletes of other sports in their functional aspect. These points suggest that more consideration should be made on the sumo wrestlers' method of training and also on their mode of living.
962 male inhabitants aged from 30 to 60 in Kanto district were tested on their physique and physical fitness. The results were as follows. 1) So their weight was havier than those of nations but on their height relatively that their Rohler's Index was biger than that of nations. 2) Their motor ability was generally inferior than that of nations, especially it was remarkable on the subject on their thirties. 3) The subjects who was superior on the ability of 5 minutes running had the biger Rohler's Index and larger skinfold than that of inferior one. 4) Persons who had less skinfold were inferior on their other physical activities. 5) The subject who had the skinfold ranged from 25mm to 39mm (i. e. had 14-21 percentage fat to their weight) showed highest ability with the running distance within 5 minutes, backward flexibility and vertical jump. 6) It seems to me that the meaning of forward flexibility as the item of physical fitness should be discussed further more after a lot of investigations.
Seven long distance runner aged from 51 to 75 were tested on the view point of physical fitness and results as follows. 1) Mean values of maximum VO2ml/kg/min, maximum heart rate and maximum respiratory rate during all out running were 43.7, 170 and 56.4 respectively. 2) The maximum heart rate, maximum respiratory rate and oxygen intake during 5 minutes walking with the speed of 120 meter/min. were 80 percent, 64 percent and 77 percent of the former respectively. 3) A case that was able to run one hour under the condition the heart rate continued about 200 beats was found. 4) The systolic blood pressures were rised during walking and running but were decreased below the level of starting time in 5 to 10 min. after the stop of them. 5) It was presumed that the speed of initial stage of long distance running should be held relatively slow for the aged to perform their ability reasonavely. 6) The girth of lower leg became large by the long distance running on the case of man, but not on the case of woman. 7) The skinf old of them were reduced of all. 8) Vital capacity ratio one second/max and side step test were high level, but the grip strength, vertical jump, backward flexibility, forward flexibility and static endurance of leg were not always high compared with ordinary level of same aged. 9) The size of heart shade of them were almost appeared in the normal range. 10) Anemia caused by hard training was found in all cases.
Kendo champions were measured in order to study neuromuscular coordination on blow and to examine influence of Kendo athletics on fundamental human grading ability about grading grip and standing broad jump graded. The results were as followes. 1) As subjects were ordered to voluntarily show one-third, one-second and two-thirds of his own maximum grip strength after checking his maximum value, no discrepancy of voluntary grip strength and ordered strength was shown between well trained Kendo champions and beginners. Standard deviation values of ten times grip strength were not much different between them. 2) As subjects were ordered to voluntarily show one-third and two-thirds of his own maximum standing broad jump after checking his maximum, no discrepancy of voluntary value and ordered value was shown between well trained Kendo champions group and weight training group. Standard deviation values of thirty times jump record were not much different between two groups. 3) Well trained Kendo champions and beginners were measured in blowing down with bamboo-sword at three different distances. In spite of beginners showed varied moments of blow and foot touching the floor when distance was changed, well trained Kendo champions showed uniform moment of them.