Oxygen intake, pulmonary diffusing capacity (DL), pulmonary membrane diffusing capac ity (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) were measured at rest and during maximal and submaximal work, with Filley's steady state technique on 3 athletes (middle distance runners) and 5 non-athletes. The results obtained in this study were as follows (1) At rest, DL, DM, Vc in athletes were 28.3±3.7 ml/min/mmHg, 52.2±5.3 ml/min/ mmHg, 124.1±41.8 ml respectively, and in non-athletes were 25.6±1.0 ml/min/mmHg, 47.5±7.5 ml/min/mmHg, 114.7 ± 25.9m1 respectively. (2) During submaximal works, DL, DM and Vc increased together with oxygen intake. At the same level of VO2 athletes showed greater DL, DM and Vc than those of non-athletes. Contact time exponentially decreased as oxygen intake increased. (3) At maximal work, athletes showed significantly greater max VO2 DL, DM and Vc than those of non-athletes. But, contact time of athletes was not significantly greater than that of non-athletes. (4) The results demonstrate that a higher DL, DM and Vc is accompanied by a higher aerobic capacity, a larger ventilatory capacity, and a larger cardiac output.
The remarkable increase of branched amino acid and pretty decrease of lysine venous concentration were observed in healthy nine male and female adults by the brief fast. The increase of branched amino acid wasn't able to find by the various exercise generally. The increase of lysine venous concentration was found after the running more than 10km frequently. Only on the subjects of 44 and 55 years of age, the increase of branched chain amino acid and lysine were observed by the running. It looks like have to take precautions that aged people run under the conditions of empty stomach.
Venous concentration of lysine and other 16 amino acids were determined in healthy 5 male 20-22 years of age subjects in the resting state, after 2 min from bigining of exercise, immediatetly after all-out exercise and 30 min after of the exercise with a bicycle ergometer at work intensities which will be fell into all-out in about 6 or 7 min. During 2 min exercise lysine only was increased, no change of glycine and puoline were observed and other amino acids were decreased. At the point of all out increase of threonine, lysine and histidine were observed, compared with resting state Alanine concentration at 30 min after of all out exercise was very high than that of resting state and same tendency but a little was observed on lysine. Other amino acids were decreased. A risk connected with exercise was discussed from the data of lysine obserbed high concentration during two min exercise concerning with the variation of other amino acids by the all-out exercise.
We have tried to design a method to measure health degrees as one of ideas to grasp the activity of general population. We should like to suggest to measure relative local endurance and to observe its index or their mutual index ratio measurement of their endurance in each item. Exercise method was already reported in the report (1) . Loading time by standing arm test (SAT) is 1 minute, knee test (KT) is 30 seconds, sit up test (ST) is 30 seconds for general population. Extimate formulas on index are given as follows, SAT=120-2Y/ (P1+P2) ×4×1.36×100=2206-37Y/P1+P2 KT=120-2X/ (P1+P2) ×4×1.22×100=2459-41X/P1+P2 _??_ST30=120-3Z/ (P1+P2) ×4×1.20×100=2500-63Z/P1+P2 _??_ST30=120-3Z/ (P1+P2) ×4×1.38×100=2174-63Z/P1+P2 X, Y and Z show frequency of impossible in each exercise. The above index itself can be compared with index in another person, but for the individual SAT/KT and ST/KT show that balance of moving and in case need SAT+ KT and SAT+KT+ST can be compared as the whole body endurance. After this, we are expected to investigate whether the health degree in each individual can be observated or not, by these methods.
Lipolytic activity of adipose tissue with age has been widely investigated by many authors. There are differences on the conception of intrinsic lipolytic activity of a cell changed with aging. Since lipolytic activity has been expressed by amount of FFA release per wet weight, per triglyceride or per protein, increase of triglyceride or wet weight seems to be a main factor to affect on it. It is of interest, therefore, to investigate the intrinsic lipolytic activity of adipose tissue with aging from the relationship among FFA release, wet weight, protein and triglyceride content in adipose tissue. In the present paper, we investigated effect of aging on lipolysis by using epididymal adipose tissue in 29, 35, 43, 57, 105 and 350 days rats. Rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital sodium (4mg/100g body weight) and after that epididymal adipose tissue were removed and washed out the blood by 25°C Krebs-Ringer solution. The fat pads were placed in glass bottles containing Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer solution (pH 7.2-7.4), bovine serum albumin (4°C/ w/v) and epinephrine (3.9 pM/ litre) . Incubations were carried out in a shaking water bath for 120 min at 37°C under an atmosphere of 95% O2-5% CO2. Rate of lipolysis were determined by assaying the production of free fatty acids. Free fatty acids were titrated by Dole's method. Triglyc-eride and protein content in fat pads were assayd by Stern and Shapiro's method and Lowry's method, respectively. The following results were obtained 1) Triglyceride-to-wet weight ratio and triglyceride-to-protein ratio in the adipose tissue corresponded to age (days) remarkably increased between 35 days and 43 days rats. However, after that, triglyceride-to-wet weight ratio was unchanged up to 350 clays rats. 2) Maximum lipolytic activity of adipose tissue in rats with aging was observed at 29 days in the range studied and after that its lipolytic activity decreased with aging. This decreased phase of lipolytic activity seemed to be divided into two phases : one was fast decrease phase which was observed in the rats before 43 days, and the other was slow decrease in the rats after 57 days. 3) Relationship between lipolytic activity and triglyceride-to-protein ratio in adipose tissue during aging showed inverse curvelinear relation, and it was found that lipolytic activity of adipose tissue was extremely inhibited at triglyceride-to-protein ratio more than ten. From these results, we assumed that increase of triglyceride content in adipose tissue was related with the decrease of lipolytic activity during aging and that the lipolytic activity of adipose tissue would be enhanced with decrease in triglyceride-to-protein ratio inversely.
It is generally accepted that the physical capacity accompanied with aging decreases. In order to investigate a reason of reduction of the physical capacity, changes of skeletal muscle glycogen in the aged rats were mainly investigated. Body weight and skeletal muscle, ventricular muscle and liver weights with aging in rats were examined, and their physical capacity was tested by treadmill running. At the same time, changes of blood glucose, lactate and plasma FFA, plasma triglyceride and muscle glycogen (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), soleus, plantaris, gastrocnemius) in these animals were determined under the post-absorptive state at 30, 105, 350 and 540 days, respectively. Body weight of rats were maximum at 360 days, thereafter slightly decreased. The rate of muscle weight to the body weight reduced slightly with aging, but no significance was statistically observed. Furthermore, no change of ventricular muscle and liver weights to the body weight were observed with aging, except the 30 days rat. Glycogen contents of EDL, plantaris and white region of gastrocnemius in 540 days rats significantly decreased comparing 105 days rats, but there were no changes on glycogen contents in soleus and red region of gastrocnemius. In post-absorptive state, muscle glycogen in 30 days rats decreased more 2 fold than that in young adult rats. On the other hand, ventricular glycogen increased at fasting. Blood glucose and plasma FFA were not influenced by aging, while plasma triglyceride rose 2.5 fold.