Education is a social conduct to realize values and to attain objectives. The concept of pathology in the strict sense is hardly applied to the educational phenomena, excepting itsanalogical and figurative usage. However, we can actually observe dysfunction or impediment in education. The conceptualization of “pathology of education” leads to the diagnosis of problematic and dysfunctioning aspectsofeducation and the contribution to the development of theories for educational practice. In this sense, it may be significant in the sociology of education. Dysfunctioning phases of education are to be examined on the three dimensions: process of education, system of education, and social structure. The theoretical frames of functional analysis, cultural lag, social disorganization, and the like in the discipline of social pathology are to some extent applicable to the diagnosis. However, it should be reminded that it requires a major proposition of value judgement, based on an ideological view of social structure with its orientation and forecast towards future social reconstruction.
As there is Social Pathology as an established sub-division of sociology, so there can be Educational Pathology in educational sociology. Two kinds of educational pathological phenomena can be classified, namely pathologies arising from education on the one hand and education producing pathologies on the other; the former could be named pathologies from education, and the latter pathological education. Pathologies, are identified in terms of the two criteria, valuational or statistical. Valuational criteria employ a certain ideal or perfectness, and statistical ones normal distribution or generality. The former tend to be subjective or arbitrary and to judge nearly all phenomena but a very few perfect ones as pathological, while the latter are liable to ignore prevailing pathologies. Thus both have their difficulties. Here it is proposed to judge as pathological some defects in educational system which should be analyzed in terms of function and structure. There are two main functions, viz. task-performance or goal-attainment and self-maintenance or inner unity. A situation of fulfilling the former function can be named efficiency, the lack of whichis wastage. Educational wastage constitutes a first dimension of educational pathologies. A situation of fulfilling the latter function can be termed integration, the lack of whichis conflict. Educational conflict is a second dimension of educational pathologies. Then in analyzing the structure, there are outer relation and inner structure. A situation in which educational system maintains harmonious and positive relations to outer society can becalled adaptation, the lack of which is lag. Educational lag is a third dimension. A situation in which exists no inequality among components can be termed balance, the lack of which is imbalance. Educational imbalance constitutes a fourth dimension of educational pathologies.
Social problems and pathological facts in education have not been emphasized within the field of “pathology in education” or “social pathology”. Some remarkable research results, however, have been achieved in each area of studies such as delinquency and crime, admission system, over-enrollment, and the like. This article tries to explore the methodology in the research on social problems and pathological facts in education within the frame of “pathology in education”. Specifically, conceptualization, establishment of analytical framework, and formulation of typology are taken into account in this article. (1) Conceptualization. Although the concepts of disorganization, deviance, and anomy have been often used to conceptualize the pathological problem, it seems appropriate to employ the concept of functional disorder-dysfunctioning, partial functioning, or inefficient functioning-for pathology in education because education is a primary social function. (2) Establishment of Analytical Framework. In the pathological process, it seems reasonable to establish the three phases: antecedent facts, pathological facts in a narrow sense, and consequent facts. The concepts of tension, anomy, and strain can be employed for the analysis of antecedent facts, the concept of function to analyze the pathological facts, and the concepts of deviance, abnormality, and disorganization for the analysis of consequent facts. (3) Formulation of Typology. For the formulation of typology, it is required to clarify the criteria on which the diversity of typology depends. The criteria are to be determined by research purposes, conceptualization of facts, or verification techniques.
In Japan the increasing number of graduates from institutions of higher education has reached the extent that some of them are assigned, together with those who hold no bachelor's degree, to the social ladder, by which they may ascend at a slow rate to a lower position of management, but not to a higher position, within an industrial organization. What isknown in Japanese as “no use of school career” for the attainment of status seems to produce a feeling of frustration among the young and seems to make way for the movement against the discriminating two-channel system for social mobility. The situation is serious enoughto be diagnosed as “a social disease” and its causes and effects on the social system need to be explored in the light of social pathology. Generally speaking, it is recognized in our society today that position should be achieved by any individual through his intellectual ability, no matter to which social class he or his father belongs. This liberal principle requires the equality of opportunity as its basis. For its security, however, equal opportunity demands further the reduction of socio-economic differences among all men. In education this indicates a transition from equality of opportunity to the equality of educational achievement. Thus liberal ethics proceeds toward socialisticone. The liberal system is sustained through the state power, from which we desire to be free; and it is justified by the anti-liberal institution of levelling the inequal results of free competition through the power. In this manner, society contains the selfcontradictory principles of liberty, equality, and power. If the social disease derives from the very structure of society, and remedies for it are to be sought in its transformation, isn't it beyond the perspective of social pathologists who work within the social system of the status quo? We seek change not only in our society but also of our society itself.
The viewpoint of educational pathology is still unpopular among educational sociologists. But, this viewpoint is important for the thorough understanding of education itself. It isexpected that more interests and efforts should be concentrated in this field. The theoretical framework has not been formulated, but educational pathology may be difined as thedeviance or dysfunction of education. Educational pathology will consist of deviant educational conditions, educational dysfunction, and deviant behaviors. In this paper, the influence of the applicants' competition for admission on educational pathology will be explored. This can be classified into the two subitems: educational pathology in the family and the school, and social abnormality or deviance in the admission competition. And the latter can be further itemized into deviant behaviors, the increasing number of junior high school graduates who have not been offered admission to senior high schools, and the “admission test industry”.
1.Two phncipal approaches to the problem of definitions are usually recognized as the legal and the behavioral or sociological. There seems to be extensive agreement that delinquency consists of behaviors recognized as undesirable or behaviors formally prohibited by law. However, a number of questions always arise as to this seemingly simple way of defining term. One of such questions is concerned with the problem of what is involved in the idea of delinquency. Is it a single act or must there be a series of related acts, a pattern ofbehavior in order to establish the fact of delinquency? There are also questions about whois a delinquent and when one becomes a delinquent. Whether causal analysis of delinquency is possible depends on how these basic questions are answered. 2. Three fundamental perspectives on delinquency dominate the current scene. They are strain or motivational theories, control or bond theories and cultural deviance theories. Although most current theories of delinquency contain at least two and occasionally all three of these perspectives, reconciliation of assumptions is very difficult. Each investigator should begin framing hisperspective in order to analyze causes of delinquency. 3. There are three principal requirements that an empirical investigator must meet in order to be able to say that A causes B: 1) A and B are statistically associated. 2) A is causally prior to B. 3) Theassociation between A and B does not disappear when the effects of other variables causally prior to both A and B are removed. 4. There have been many arguments among proponentsof “general theory” or “multiple factor” approaches. Multiple factor adherents should state more explicitly the reasons for their choice of particular itemsfor analysis and the general theorists should examine and make more extensive use of data.The causes of delinquency must be discussed more in probabilistic terms than in deterministic models.
In this paper path analysis is applied to the selection process to high schools. In the causal model here used the variable to be explained is the admission or nonadmission to highschools and the explaining variables are educational levels, occupational status, and income levels of parents and educational attainments of children. Equation system is as follows: X2=0.395 X1 (R2=0.152) X3=0.142 X2+0.210 X1 (R2=0.088) X4=0.377 X3+0.067 X2+0.149 X1 (R2=0.218) X5=0.491 X4+0.261 X3+0.019 X2+0.110 X1 (R2=0.485) (X1 means the educational levels of parents, X2 means occupational status of parents, X3 means income levels of family, X4 means educational attainmentsof children, and X5 means the admission or non-admission to high schools) Results of path analysis shows that the most influential variable in the direct effect on admission is educational attainment (path coefficient X4→X5 equals 0.491) and occupational status andeducational level of parents are less influential both in their direct and indirect effects. On the contrary, income level of family, in spite of less direct effect on admission (path coefficient 0.261), has a fairly high effect on the educational attainment of child (path coefficient X3→X4 is 0.377) and determines through it the chance of admission to high school in a fairly high degree. The effect of income level on admission through educational attainment of child amounts to 0.446. It means that income determines the admissionin the nearly same degree as the the educational attainment of child. Even in the stage ofhigh admission (about 90% of graduates from middle schools enter high schools) family background plays unneglectable role in the educational selection process.
There are methodological problems in the research on “community and education” in the rural areas which are in the process of urbanization as a result of the rapid economic growth. For these problems, the relationships between local community and education have been reexamined and several empirical studies have been conducted. This is a study ofthe structual relationship between local community and education within the methodologicalframework based on a the oretical approach to life structure. We tried to determine the relationship between attitudes toward the education system and the diverse social value orientations with the residents in the urban fringe. We formulated the four types according to the aspects of social structure, ecology and life structure. We assumed that the residents' social value orientations are correlated with their attitudes toward the education system. With this assumption, we carried out a survey by interviewing random samples of the mothers at the two primary school districts in 0 town, Fukuoka Prefecture (185 were interviewed). The results point to the following conclusions: 1) among the items concerning the education system which are easy for the mothers to understand, there are correlations between social value orientations and attitudes; 2) among the conservatists in social valueorientations, the large variation is found in relation to the attitudes toward the education system; whereas among the reformists there exist strong correlations. In this study, we tried to carry out research on the attitudes toward education in the urban fringe by examining the relations to the social value orientation. This paper is a part of the joint research project report which was presented at Kyushu Society for the Study of Education last year.
The purpose of this paper is to examine adult political socialization with the participants in regional movements. The concept of political socialization was derived from Parsons' concepts of socialization and polity. The problems in this study are as follows: 1) Can we find the clear process of adult political socialization? 2) If we can, what are the contents? 3) What are the factors in its process? The data indicated the following results: 1) The process of adult political socialization can be clearly found. 2) It is the socialization in commitments. It includes both generalized commitments to the specific values of the collectivity and commitments to the specified role; that is politicalinterests and feeling of political efficacy. But we can't find any political socializationin capacities. 3) The direction of political socialization is toward the aquisition of higher political interests and stronger sense of political efficacy. 4) The pattern of participation in the movement is a factor of political socialization. 5) Sex and schoolcareer are the mediating factors of political socialization. 6) The pattern of socialization may influence the process of adult political socialization.
An educational budget manifests the authoritative allocation of the public funds to publiceducational activities and focuses on how to allocate the limited funds to the swelling educational needs. In the decision-process various. factors-socio-economic, political and educational-interact reciprocally, and many social forces struggle with each other for more favorable budget decisions. This study tries to explore the sociopolitical process in Hachioji-City, Tokyo, which is concerned with the decision of “who gets what, how” in public education. In this study the decision-process of educational budget is analyzed in terms ofthe dynamic system of the following three sets of elements; 1) the decision-making set of the Board of Education, the mayor and his executive agency, and the City-Assembly, 2) the pressure-impact set of the educational interest groups, the influential opinion leaders, public opinion, and the structural change of environments, and 3) the condition set of the resources, public funds, the legislative regulations, and rules. 1Since 1960's, Hachioji-City has shown the rapid increase in population. Along with this population growth, the number of primary school children in that city was increased by 13, 000 during the period of May 1965 to May 1975. For the decision makers, therefore, it has become one of the most urgent problems to build new schools. The rate of the educational expenditure in the total amount of the budget has remarkably increased since 1970. The decision process of educational budget is divided into the following three stages; 1) the formation stage-the Board of Education, 2) the assessment stage-the Mayor and his executive agency, and 3) the decision stage-the City-Assembly. Through these stages, the decision process showed the strong tendency of bureaucratization and specilization, and the established plan, the educational pressure groups, and the public opinion showed to play important roles in the decision process of educational budget.
The purpose of this paper is to indicate some points of view from which we consider education today, by scrutinizing K. Mannheim's thought of the intellectuals. For this purpose, we must clarify Mannheim's understanding of his own age and the modern European intellectuals through the works in which he argued about the intellectuals: for examples, Seeleund Kultur in which we can scrutinize the thought of young Mannheim during his stay in Hungary, Historismus, Ideologuie und Utopie, and The Problem of the Intelligentsia in which he discussed the intellectuals systematically. It can be pointed out, furthermore, that he discussed the intellectuals not only to defend “relativ freischwebende Intelligenz”, but also to search for the way of supporting them. Finally, the following points can be indicated as the problems to be considered further: 1) How can themass obtain the capacity of the intellectuals? 2) What relationship could be found between attainment of knowledge and thought and action? 3) How could “Elite” be determined and what are their positions in society?