1. Our purposes are to discover how to guide effectively the delinquent children who are attending to secondary school, and how to plan the community services for preventing juvenile delinquency. This report is based on the results of the preliminary survey. Komatsugawa area, Edogawa, Tokyo, was chosen for our study. The children of the secondary school in this area and their mothers were interviewed. Fifty five delinquents and 127 nondelinquents were selected. 2. The results of the survey are as follows: 1) The delinquent children live on disadvantaged status background. 2) The mother of delinquent children are not positive participants to the social activities. Their parental supervision is inconsistent and “lessez-faire”. 3) Delinquent children are not interested in school and are prejudiced against their homeroom teachers. They cannot adjust to the school life. 4) The delinquent children are oriented to their peer groups, and are tend to be engaged in the plays generally prohibited. 5) The expectations of mothers to their children differ from the hopes of children themselves. 3. The system and practices of school guidance programs were analyzed and some problems were found. 1) Guidance activities are often carried out without paying satisfactory care upon delinquent children and their parents. 2) Guidance activities in the school do not adjust to the services of related agencies and associations in this area.
The publications in Japan related to prediction of crime and delinquency amount to 149. The attached table shows the numbers of those publications by their publication years. Publications of this sort have recently been in a little decline, with their peak in 1959 and 1960. Positive researches related to delinquency prediction total 89. The purposes, methods, outcomes of those positive researches may be better understood by grouping them as follows: (1) Studies by psychiatrists (2) Studies by psychologists (3) Studies by sociologists (4) Studies by practitioners There are limits or questions common to them. First, their studies on delinquency prediction are extensive but shallow. Many criticize others, but few are supported by positive data. Many criticisms are made from a narrow point of view confined to their own professions. Second, they have few studies on prediction of delinquency at its early stage. In other words, most of them are concerned with recidivism prediction. Speaking of their application, the majority of studies constructed only tentative prediction tables, the validity of which are never tested, although one or two prediction tables were actually applied recklessly. Third, there are many studies which are defective in the techniques and methods of collecting data. Such a simple method as the collection of primary data only by extracting from official records is usually followed, and in few studies have they followed up the cases for as long as 5 years or more. No attempt has been made to carry out a long-term study of testing the validity of prediction tables. Although the great number of publications related to delinquency prediction could be an indication of people's deep interest in this field, these publications are not always of good quality.
Delinquent act is defined as a relationship in terms of certain enviromental situations between a criminal and a victim. Although the condition in which each criminal and victim are involved comes to be gradually questioend, until recently, the discussion has been manily focused on the problem of criminals. However, in a study of delinquent acts the phase of victim must receive more attention. It is necessary to consider the social institutions or the social systems constituting environmental factors for criminals and victims. Concerning the subject matter of a criminal, traditionally personality factors as well as environmental factors have been taken up, but the problems related to affinitive personality to misconduct should also be considered. In order to understand personality with a delinquent propensity a trend of discrepancy, value systems and behavior patterns and the emotional characteristics must be considered in terms of balance, deviation and abnormality among these factors. Why to these unequibrium will take place? The environmental and personality factors must be reconsidered in relation to a personality deviation caused by distorted environment. The same kind of view point is applicable not only for a criminal but also for a victim.
The problems of adolescence is a social problem concerning to young peoples as a individual, groups and generations. Generally, social problems is considered to be a situation which is a resource of difficulties and unhappiness by some peoples and has the possibility of social reconstruction. Then at the point of level of social behavior, the situation of social problem produces many deviant behaviors, so juvenile delinquency seems to be one type of these deviations. Following scheme shows the relationship between social structures and deviations. With reference to the theories of R. K. Merton, T. Parsons, R. Dubin, R. A. Cloward, the next scheme shows the patterns of deviant behavior in Multiple Society, which-are relevant to patterns of juvenile delinguency in Japan, because Japanese society is also changing society and moves from Communal type to Multiple type. Pattern of Ritualism is fundamentally the same orientation as Conformity. Retreatism is a result of double failure in adaptation in the same direction of Innovation. Then, Juvenile delinquency is a pattern of behavior which shows Innovation and Rebellion.
There are certain theories and research findings concerning the relationship of the educational system to other aspects of society. But on account of the incomplete theory concerning of the educational system, many of the research studies lack theoretical orientation and have yielded few hypothesis of sociological importance. This field includes several subdivisions, among which are (1) the theory of educational system.(2) the relationship of the educational system to the process of social control and the power system.(3) the relationship of education to the social class or status system.(4) the functioning of the formal educational system in the processes of social and cultural change or in the maintenance of status quo.(5) the economics of education. The emphasis has been changed from on the analysis of education and society with reference to the function of political power to on the analysis of education and society with particular reference to the function of national economy. In each area, the educational planning thought in which the goals and functions of education are intertwined with the goals and functions of the total society has become the current trend.
The research works on the community iife and education account for 22.2 percent of all books and papers collected in the bibliographies of our journal, The Journal of Educational Sociology for the past fourteen years (1950-1963), and these works come out on top of all works. Although the number of these researches is on the decrease for several years, the researches tend to be on a large scale and turn into the excellent joint undertakings. The characteristics of researches in the 1950's is that we can find many critical or practical survey and studies searching for the fact finding or problem solving concerning educational policies and practices in the communities. This tendency is succeeded to the studies on the influences upon educational from the changes of community life based on the recent land development policy of our Government. And the researches for the community aspects of personality development fall short of our expectations in spite of many works, because of the deadrock of study based on its methodological shortcomings. It is necessary for the future studies to make clear the interaction process and influences of cultural factors as the intervening variables lying between the community structure and personality traits. The trend of studies in some years is that the academic interest tends toward the search for the dynamic process of community change and education. It is a rich harvest, in this regard, that the excellent results can be found in the imperical researches on the structural changes of traditional rural community. We look forward to the future research on the problems concerning the change of education based on this products of rural sociology. We can find two aspects in the stt. lies concerning the change of community and education, the institutional approach and the personality approach. It is necessary to clarify the frame of reference of methodology intergrating the two approaches in the future. There is also a necessity for making a practical survey about the residents' movement oriented toward the community reorganization to meet with the community disorganization brought by the land development, and it is our problem to study on the educational planning fitted to each community as a part of social planning. There is a movement to establish regional science as a scientific research on community, and we sociologists of education engaged in the community research must pay attention to this movement.
The writer classified the books and periodicals published in the last five years into several branches as follows: 1) Articles translated into Japanese and concerned with the methodology of sociology of education. 2) Articles in the fields of educational history approched from the view point of educational sociology. 3) Articles dealt with curriculum and teaching methods from the sociological aspects. 4) The technology or ideology related to the educational movement. Hundreds of articles have been published in recent years. Nevertheless some of the questions might remain. Following are some of the examples. 1) The correlations between the social structure and the methods of education are missed. 2) The ways for fact-finding in the educational process are not necessarily enough. In most cases, the writer finds the discrepancies between the positive method and the educational facts.
School broadcast in Japan stands on the experiences of twenty nine years in radio and of eleven years in television. Overhalf of primary schools, one-third of junior-high-schools use radio, and three-quarters of the former, a quarter of the latter use regularly television for their educational purpose. More than sixty empirical studies on school broad cast including field and laboratory works have been published during the past five years in Japan. The leading research have been done by the NHK Radio-TV Research Institute and by the members of the Japan Radio-TV Education Society. These research can be conventionally classified into two groups; field and experimenal studies. One of the mean projects in the field works was the study dealing with various problems underling TV viewing and educational effects in isolated village schools. A long-term joint research plan was made by the members of Japan Radio-TV Education Society. It was planned corresponding with the financial aid program by the government (1960-62) and NHK (1962-65) which made possible the schools in the remote area to have TV sets. The chief research findings were; 1. The mean of TV utilization ratio of the remoted schools, in spite of the handicaps of mechanical conditions (mainly due to the weak electronic wave) and the disadvantages of “small” school system, was higher than the mean obtained from the nation-wide school sample. 2. Notable learning effects, which were caused seemingly by the utilization of TV programs for one year, were found in such subject matters as natural science and social studies. These effects could be understood that TV programs remedied the shortage of teaching materials in the “small” schools. Another effect was found that the intellgence test score rised. A quasi-experimental design was applied drawing these results. Another one of the projects was designed to analyse the teachers' attitude toward radio-TV instruction. It became clear that a half of the teachers feel trouble, to certain degrees, in building curriculum where adopting radio and TV programs. However, almost all of the teachers had the favorite attitude toward the school broadcast. The data was collected by interviewing the sample of teachers drawn from the nation-wide schools.
We studied the problem of socialization in Japanese family, focussing the differences between the roles of a mother and a father. We chose the blamepraise situations and questioned 55 juvenile delinquents (all boys) about their experiences of those situations. The followings are main findings of our interview. 1) They are subjected to the family-oriented socialization. 2) The father praises less than mother and the child does not expect his praise very much. 3) The mother tends to blame the child by pointing out the result of his misconduct. The father tends to blame the child's motive and in so doing he is apt to reject the child completely. 4) When the child is scolded by mother, father seldom speak for him, but rather he joins the mother in scolding their son. The mother, however, often keeps secret the child's misconducts from the father and protect him when the father scolds him. 5) There are strong tendency that the mother blames the child by the expression of petition (shite okure) and praises him by the Japanese form of gratitude (sumanai). Some of these seem to produce the effect of the attaching child to the mother and detaching him from the father.
The aim of this paper is to limit the research areas and fields of educational sociology, and to present a tentative theory of systematization in it as independent science, so that we may expect a clear-cut definition of the character. We take educational sociology as “a sociology of education, ” and the ambiguity in its character is due to the unlimited connotation of the concept of its education. What is the main theory and method of a sociology of education as specialized sociology, and how do we articulate the vague concept of education? In quest for both questions by adapting the approach of the sociology of knowledge (wissenssoziologie) we hope to suggest a perspective of educational sociology. It seems to me that educational sociology has been brought by the industrialization and massification of society in general, or at least its raison d'etre as a specialized field of study has been approved or justified by these trends of transformation of society at the corner of the beginning of this century. The main concern of educational sociology as Gegenwartskunde or modern social science is primarily with the educational institutions and formal educations. This means that educational sociologists see all the educational phenomenon in society with them in heart. This is Les regles de la methode sociologique. The sociolgy of educational institutions treats with studies and researches just as modern sciences of law and economics do with their institutions. It covers the studies and researches in various levels: on the macrocosmic level, the educational system in its relations with the wider social structure; at a less general level, the social structure and functioning of the constituent groups of the system; on the microcosmic level, the social relations inherent in educational activities; finally educational influences and impacts implicit in the social environment of pupils and teachers. This amount of researches and studies must be formed into some coherence by a central scheme, and can be described and explained on two lines: systematic and general section, and historical section, the latter of which has two corollaries of comparative and dynamic sections. Historical and dynamic sections are two principal modes of inquiry in the study of the subject. They try to explain the statics, dynamics, and changing situations of education in its relations with the social structure. This is to be a framework of “A Systematic Sociology of Education.”