To clarify the effects of full bathing at 42°C for 10min, we measured hematologic (white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, whole blood passage time) and physiologic (body weight, blood pressure, pulse rate) values of 10 healthy men aged 28 to 37 years. Data were collected before, immediately after, and 60min after bathing, and values were compared using a one-factor ANOVA. No significant changes in hemotologic values were found among the three measurement timepoints. Regarding physiologic values, no significant changes in body weight and systolic blood pressure were found among the three measurement time-points. However, diastolic blood pressure decreased after bathing (53.0±9.8mmHg) compared with that before bathing (76.2±10.3mmHg), then increased again 60min after bathing (71.1±10.6mmHg) compared with that immediately after bathing. Furthermore, pulse rate increased significantly after bathing (101.3±10.3bpm) compared with that before bathing (69.0±5.9bpm), and then decreased significantly 60min after bathing (69.8±7.0bpm) compared with that immediately after bathing. Our results indicate that hot water bathing does not influence hematologic values, body weight, or systolic blood pressure in healthy men. Although diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate changed significantly after bathing, they returned to baseline values 60min after bathing. The changes in hematologic and physiologic values may be explained by the maintenance of the body's homeostasis.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of ingesting spa water on electrogastrography and heart rate variability in humans. The subjects were eight youths (average age 22.3 years old). We measured three and six circles per minute (cpm) power of electrogastrography (EGG), the high-frequency (HF: 0.15-0.4Hz) components, and the ratio of low-frequency (LF: 0.04-0.15Hz) components to HF components in heart rate variability (HRV) during 90 minutes. We also assessed the taste of water, pain or abnormalities in the stomach by questionnaire. The subjects ingested the spa water or purified water after thirty minutes, and ingested no water on a different day. The six cpm power of EGG, presumably reflecting instestinal activity, was significantly increased with spa water ingestion. The three cpm power of EGG, presumably reflecting stomach activity, did not change under any conditions. The HF components in HRV, presumably reflecting cardiac parasympathetic activity, tended to increase with ingestion of spa water. The ratio of LF to HF components in HRV, presumably reflecting cardiac sympathetic activity, significantly decreased with ingestion of spa and purified water. There was no difference in the answers of the questionnaire. These findings suggest that spa water ingestion activates instestinal activity, increasing parasympathetic nerve activity and suppressing sympathetic nerve activity in humans.
Purpose In recent years, relatively high humidity (100%) and low temperature (40°C) sauna systems called mist saunas have become popular for homes. It is reported that the impact of differing bathing conditions-namely tub bathing and mist sauna bathing-on the circulation of blood in the scalp have been verified in order to clarify the effects of mist sauna on scalp hair: a characteristic of concern to many men. Method The testing was performed on 8 healthy men in their twenties (average age: 23.6, average weight: 61.8kg, average height: 166cm). Bathing conditions were mist sauna at 40°C for 10 minutes and full body bathing at 40°C for 10 minutes. Blood circulation in the scalp was observed at the top of their heads using a laser Doppler blood flow meter attached to head gear. At the same time, the skin temperature and local perspiration on their foreheads were measured. Results and conclusions Immediately after beginning bathing, the blood flow rose significantly higher during full body bathing than during the mist sauna. No change was observed as full body bathing continued, but during the mist sauna, the blood flow gradually increased until ultimately the blood flow was much higher during the mist sauna than during full body bathing. Based on this result, it is assumed that the increase of scalp blood flow during full body bathing was caused by hydrostatic pressure, and the increase caused by the mist sauna was the result of the heat effects.
Dry skin causes many skin disorders such as dry dermatitis. It requires a lot of time and medication to treat patients with skin disorder that cover a vast skin area. Although glycerin is a component of many skin care creams and cosmetics, there is no report regarding the effects of glycerin alone as a bathwater additive. We investigated the effects of bathing in warm water with added glycerin on skin conditions and the prevention of skin disorders in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. Two studies were conducted to analyze the effects of a glycerin+warm water bath (GWWB). In study 1, the skin conditions in a total of 18 subjects were compared between the glycerin group (G) and nonglycerin group (NG). In the G group, skin moisture, skin pH, and skin sebum were measured with a skin analyzer noninvasively at the forehead and precordial and lateral forearm after GWWB for approximately 6 months. Subjects in the 2 groups had bathed 2 times per week and were immersed in warm water at 40 to 41°C for 2 to 3min. In the G group, 250ml glycerin was added in a 14001 bathtub. In study 2, a total of 78 subjects were examined retrospectively; their medical records after GWWB for approximately 6 months were investigated to gain information regarding cutaneous diseases (number of diagnosis, drugs, areas affected with cutaneous diseases, and days of treatment) in order to compare the G and NG groups. Skin moisture levels at forearm improved significantly (p<0.05) in the G group. The average skin moisture level in other areas was higher in the G group than in the NG group but without sig nificance. Skin sebum levels at the forehead improved significantly (p<0.05) in the G group. The number of diagnosis, drugs, and areas with cutaneous disease were significantly lower in the G group than in the NG group. Further, the average number of treatment days was lower in case of the G group than in case of the NG group but without significance. The moisturizing effects are produced due to a thin film formed by glycerin after GWWB, especially in an area where there is friction between the skin and clothes. Skin sebum is also maintained due to glycerin-film formation. It is possible that maintenance of skin moisture protects the skin from cutaneous diseases due to xerosis. In conclusion, these results indicate that GWWB maintains skin moisture and sebum and prevents skin disorders.
[Purpose] We investigated the effects of fireless moxibustion using the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36®). [Methods] The subjects were 27 elderly people living at home, from whom informed consent was obtained (age: 66 to 94 years). They were randomly divided into two groups using the envelope method. Eleven were in the fireless moxibustion group (FMG), and 16 were in the sham fireless moxibustion group (SFMG). For measurement, no treatment was performed for seven days (Cont.), home fireless moxibustion was performed for seven days (St.), and no treatment was performed for seven days after fireless moxibustion (Af.). During the study period, we conducted a survey using SF-36®. Stimulation was performed every two days during the St. period (total: 4 times). The left/right BL23 and ST36 areas were stimulated. We used fireless moxibustion (Sennenkyu Taiyo(r), Senefa Co., Ltd.). Generalized linear two-way variance analysis and Fisher's (LSD) multiple comparison test were carried out. P<0.05 was regarded as significant. [Results] There was alternative action in the bodily pain item. In a comparison of the two groups, FMG tended to show improved “bodily pain” (p<0.10) and at the Af. period “bodily pain” was reduced as compared with the Cont. period (p<0.05). FMG indicated the tendency to improve “bodily pain” in the Af. period (82.9 (3.7 points) than in the Cont. period (78.4 (4.4 points) (p<0.09). In SFMG, there was no significant change. In Question 8, as a bodily pain factor, routine working pain, which had persisted over the past week, mitigated after 1 week of fireless moxibustion (Af.). [Conclusion] Fireless moxibustion reduced “bodily pain”, and scores of “general health perceptions” increased, while in sham fireless moxibustion at home scores of “Role physical” decreased significantly. From the results, fireless moxibustion at home raised the health related QOL. Fireless moxibustion may be useful for “bodily pain”.