To explore the adrenocortical function at low temperatures, the time-dependent transition of corticoidogenesis (CG) as well as the effect of verapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, on CG were examined at 27°C using primary cultured bovine adrenocortical cells. CG was induced using adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, 10pM to 1μM), which stimulates the receptor-operated Ca2+ channel and adenylate cyclase activity; dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP, 0.25 to 4mM), which mimics the intracellular action of cyclic AMP; and 30mM K+, which activates the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel. Cells were incubated together with each of these secretaogues for 3 hours at 27°C. Though the CG induced by 1nM ACTH-and 1mM db-cAMP increased for 3 hours at 27°C in the presence of 1.2mM Ca2+, the CG induced by 30mM K+ did not show any increase after 2 hours. Both 5μM and 10μM of verapamil inhibited the CG induced by 10pM ACTH dose-dependently at 37°C. However, 5μM of verapamil showed no inhibiting effect at 27°C. Even 10μM verapamil did not influence the CG induced by 1mM db-cAMP. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, 10μM verapamil did not influence the CG induced by ACTH (10nM to 1μM) or db-cAMP (0.25 to 4mM) at 27°C. These experiment results show that the functions of adrenocortical cells are kept effective for 3 hours and that Ca2+ is also important for CG at 27°C. Although it is well known that the increases in both cyclic AMP and intracellular Ca2+ are essential for the CG induced by various stimulants at 37°C, it is suggested that cyclic AMP plays a more important roll in CG than Ca2+ does at low temperatures.
The effect of hot spring bathing on nocturnal blood pressure was investigated in 6 normotensive young individuals at Kusatsu. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured at 1-hour intervals from 18:00 one day until 12:00 the following day. The experiments were performed on 2 consecutive days. Three subjects took a 10-minute 42°C hot-spring bath at 20:00 on the first experimental day but did not on the second experimental day. The order of experiments was inverted in the other 3 subjects. While not statistically significant, the nocturnal blood pressure on the “bathing” day tended to be decreased more than that on the control day. However, there was no difference in the heart rate. These findings may suggest possible involvement of hot spring bathing in the initiation of thrombotic diseases occurred in the morning hours at Kusatsu.
Sodium sulfate·sodium bicarbonate bathing is known to exert stimulatory effect upon an increase in cutaneous circulation after bathing due to its skin-coating and vasodilating action. In the study, authors investigate the change in cutaneous blood flow after artificial sodium sulfate·sodium bicarbonate bathing in the healthy man, and clarify its antihypertensive effect upon diurnal variations in blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. The results obtained are as follows. 1) Changes in cutaneous blood flow after bathing were studied in five healthy volunteers. Sodium sulfate·sodium bicarbonate bathing (40°C, 10 min) resulted in a significant increase in cutaneous blood flow 30 min after the beginning of bathing, comparing with plain water bathing. Thermographic study on body surface revealed the findings corresponding to the change in cutaneous blood flow. 2) Diurnal changes in blood pressure after bathing were studied in ten patients with essential hypertension, who had been treated with hypotensive drugs. No significant difference of hyperbaric indici in systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (MBP) was observed between sodium sulfate and plain water as a whole. However, six cases out of ten showed the significant decrease in MBP after sodim sulfate·sodium bicarbonate bathing, comparing with the plain water bathing. From these findings it is expected that artificial sodium sulfate·sodium bicarbonate bathing is available as a supportive therapy for refractory hypertension to medicaments.
Since the incidence of acute appendicitis seems to vary depending on weather (e. g., the perforation increases under a high atmospheric pressure), we investigated the underlying mechanism. We classified 112 patients who underwent appendectomy into three groups according to the atmospheric pressure at the time of onset. We found that gangrenous cases (high infiltration of granulocytes) occur more frequently at high atmospheric pressures while catarrhal cases (no infiltration of granulocytes) occurred more frequently at low atmospheric pressures. The physiological variations of granuocytes and lymphocytes in the blood with respect to the atmospheric pressure were then examined in a healthy volunteer. Granulocytosis increases under a high pressure due to the sympathetic activity, whereas lymphocytosis increases under a low pressure due to the parasympathetic activity. Results obtained from gangrenous cases showed much granulocytosis in the blood as well as appendix while catarrhal cases showed much lymphocytosis in the blood and appendix. This seems to imply that granulocytosis induced by the increase in sympathetics activity might be closely related to the onset of gangrenous appendicitis. Even in gangrenous cases, bacteria were not found around the granulocytes in the appendix or in the cytoplasma of granulocytes as observed in electron microscopy. These results may be extremely useful in exploring the etiology of suppurative diseases which are caused without apparent bacterial infections.