To determine the background of aged people who need bathing assistance, we analyzed data of the Survey on Demand for Health and Welfare Services of Japan as of 1997. The survey covered 21, 723 persons aged 65 years or older, and 1, 193 caregivers who provide care to persons 65 years or older throughout Japan. The main parameters were aged people's sex, age, marital status, health condition, degree of bed rest, and needs of care in daily life; relation between caregivers and aged people; life with care giver; job; family composition; use of home care services; demand for home care services; caregivers' sex, age, health condition, and employment status; and demand for home care services. Subjects were divided into three groups, those who need bathing assistance, those who do not need bathing assistance, and those who do not need care in daily life, and the rate was shown for each item. The results indicated that the rate of those who need bathing assistance was higher among (1) aged people who were older, have poor health, and are in bed alweys or almost alweys, (2) aged people who needed care in daily life, used home care service, and required home care service, and (3) aged people whose caregivers required home care services. Aged people who need bathing assistance are subject to frequent bathing accidents, so we need to pay attention to safe bathing service.
The patients with asthma or pulmonary emphysema who were admitted at our hospital for last 9 years (1992-2000) were examined in relation to frequency of disease, patient age, and areas where patients came. 1. Of 1271 patients (141.2 patients/year) with respiratory disease admitted for last 9 years, 808 (63.6%, 97.8 patients/year) were patients with asthma, and 157 (12.4%, 17.4 patients/year)) were those with pulmonary emphysema. 2. The frequency of patients with asthma for all patients with respiratory desease tended to decease from 82.1% in 1992 to 51.3% in 2000, while the frequency of those with pulmonary emphysema increased from 2.8% in 1992 to 24.4% in 2000. 3. The number of patients with asthma over the age of 70 years was larger in those inside Tottori prefecture, and the number of patients between the ages of 60 and 69 years was larger in those from distant areas. The age was more than 50 years in all patients with pulmonary emphysema. 4. The number of patients with asthma from distant areas (outside Tottori prefecture) was larger (456 patients; 56.4%) than the number of those inside Tottori prefecture (352 patients) for 9 years. The number of patients from Okayama, Hiroshima, Hyogo and Osaka was larger than the number from other distant areas.
The circumferences of chest, abdomen, thigh and calf during head-out water immersion up to chin level were measured in 8 healthy male subjects (age 35.4±1.6years old, body mass index 23.7±1.6kg/m2) in standing and sitting positions. The circumferences of chest, abdomen, thigh and calf decreased significantly during immersion in standing position. The circumferences of chest, abdmen and thigh decreased significantly in sitting position. The circumference of chest decreased from 90.6±3.4 to 90.1±3.1cm, that of abdomen decreased from 81.4±2.8 to 80.6±2.5cm, that of thigh decreased from 47.1±1.6 to 46.6±1.8cm, and that of calf decreased from 37.7±1.8 to 37.2±1.8cm during immersion in standing position. As the body surface area is about 1.6m2, the decrease in the volume of human body is considered to be 730cm3 or less when the body shape change during immersion is not taken into considerarion.
Sand bathing is a method of Uighur medical treatment that use natural conditions to treat diseases at Turpan, China. Its effects on heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, body weight and rheumatoid arthritis were discussed in various patients. Reduction in body weight (absolute decrease 1.46±3.8kg) was observed one hour after completing at 50-60°C sand bathing. The heart rate (absolute increase 16.33±7.5/min), systolic blood pressure (absolute increase 4.05±16.6mmHg) and body temperature (absolute increase 1.02±0.2°C) inceased gradually after 10 minute sand bathing and decreased gradually in 10 minutes after the sand bathing in 91 patients. Since heart rate and blood pressure could not recover after completing the sand bathing in a small part of patients, we considered that hypertensive patients should pay attention to taking the sand bathing. For 21 patients (70.0%) of 30 rheumatoid arthritis patiens treated by serial sand bathing for 15 days, joint pain was relieved signifcantly. However, for 5patients (16.7%) treated by the serial sand bathing, joint pain was not changed. For 4 patients (13.3%) treated by the sand bathing joint pain was worsened. From the above results it was considered that sand bathing may exert rather benfcial effects on rheumatoid arthritis patients.