The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between tanshinones and polyphenolic extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE in rats. The rats in the medium dose groups were given an intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg tanshinones extract-loaded emulsion (equivalent to 4.0 mg/kg tanshinone IIA (TSIIA)), 100 mg/kg polyphenolic extract solution (equivalent to 61.2 mg/kg salvianolic acid B (Sal B)) or mixed extracts-loaded emulsion (equivalent to 4.0 mg/kg TSIIA and 61.2 mg/kg Sal B). The dosage given to the low dose groups was half that of the medium dose groups, while the high dose groups received twice the dosage of the medium dose groups. The areas under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) of TSIIA and Sal B were considerably increased (about 2—14 fold) after intravenous administration of mixed extracts-loaded emulsion in comparison with the equivalent dose of the corresponding extract administration. An increase of about 2-fold was observed in both the low and medium dose groups for TSIIA and Sal B, while there was at least a 14- and 5-fold significant increase (p<0.01) for TSIIA and Sal B in the high dose groups, respectively which was due to a significant (p<0.01) reduction in total plasma clearance (CLt). The peak plasma concentrations (C0.083 h) of TSIIA and Sal B were also both significantly increased (p<0.01). However, no significant differences in the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) of TSIIA and Sal B in the mixed extracts-loaded emulsion groups were found compared with that of the corresponding extract groups except for the high dose groups of TSIIA (p<0.05). Therefore, a pharmacokinetic interaction occurs between tanshinones and polyphenolic extracts of Salvia miltinorrhiza BUNGE after intravenous administration in rats, which affects the pharmacokinetic process of TSIIA and Sal B in vivo.
Background: Despite increasing in vitro evidence that lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1), a cell-surface receptor for oxidized LDL, is implicated in the atherogenesis and thrombus formation, its in vivo participation to the atherosclerotic plaque destabilization, rupture and thrombus formation remains unclear. Here, we compared the in vivo expression of LOX-1, with tissue factor (TF) expression and cell apoptosis, in atherosclerotic lesions of myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits. Methods and Results: We prepared sixty series of cross sections in the aortic arch and the thoracic aorta from four WHHLMI rabbits. LOX-1 and TF expression, as well as apoptotic events were determined by immunohistochemical staining and TUNEL methods, respectively. LOX-1 expression was mainly observed in the macrophage-rich lipid areas of vulnerable plaque-like atheromatous lesions where TF expression and apoptotic events were prominent. LOX-1 expression was positively correlated with TF expression (r=0.53, p<0.0001), apoptotic events (r=0.52, p<0.0001) and morphological vulnerability (r=0.63, p<0.0001). Conclusions: LOX-1 expression appears to be closely associated with TF expression, apoptotic events and the morphological vulnerability, suggesting the in vivo involvement of LOX-1 in the destabilization and rupture of atherosclerotic lesions and the subsequent thrombus formation. The present findings in hypercholesterolemic rabbits should help advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.
Raltegravir belongs to a new class of antiretrovirals acting for a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase inhibition. Clinical trials of this drug have demonstrated potent antiviral activity in both therapy naïve and experienced patients. Thus, raltegravir has become an important component of combination treatment regimens used to treat patients with multidrug-resistant HIV-1. The quantification of raltegravir in human plasma is important to support clinical studies and determine pharmacokinetic parameters of raltegravir in HIV-1 infected patients. Recently, the LC-MS/MS superfine system was developed to determine plasma concentration of raltegravir; however, the system needs to be delicately set and the equipment is very expensive. Therefore, we developed a conventional LC-MS method to overcome these difficulties. Subsequently the method was validated by estimating the precision and accuracy for inter- and intraday analysis in the concentration range of 0.010—7.680 μg/ml. The calibration curve was linear in this range. Average accuracy ranged from 97.2 to 103.4%. Relative standard deviations of both inter- and intraday assays were less than 10.4%. Recovery of raltegravir was more than 80.6%. This novel LC-MS method is accurate and precise enough to determine raltegravir levels in human plasma samples.
To gain insight into the mechanism of malarial hemozoin formation and to explore various biological groups for screening novel antimalarial drugs, we examined the effects of amino acids on the formation of β-hematin (BH), which is a synthetic heme crystal structurally identical to hemozoin, in vitro. Our results showed that BH formation was significantly inhibited by basic amino acids (arginine, lysine, and histidine), probably due to the abilities of these amino acids to complex with heme. The results suggest an involvement in the improvement of the blood-schizonticidal activity of 8-quinolinamine when conjugated with basic amino acids. In addition, cysteine also inhibited BH formation, possibly due to its ability to reduce heme iron or decompose heme in acidic conditions. In contrast, BH formation was enhanced by amino acids with high hydrophobicity values (leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, and phenylalanine), with the exception of tryptophan at high temperature but was not affected in Tween-induced BH formation under normal physiological conditions. The present results can lead to further research on the development of new antimalarials by conjugating these amino acids, especially basic amino acids, with other substances, or by forming complex or small peptides that could have special effects on BH formation.
Neuronal dynamin I plays a critical role in the recycling of synaptic vesicles, and thus in nervous system function. We expressed and purified dynamin I to explore potentially clinically useful endocytosis inhibitors and to examine the mechanism of their action. We estimated the IC50 of nineteen psychotropic drugs for dynamin I. The IC50 values of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sertraline and fluvoxamine) were 7.3±1.0 and 14.7±1.6 μM, respectively. Kinetic analyses revealed that fluvoxamine is a noncompetitive inhibitor of dynamin I guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) with respect to guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP) and a competitive inhibitor with respect to L-phosphatidylserine (PS). Fluvoxamine may compete with PS for binding to the pleckstrin homology domain of dynamin I. On the other hand, sertraline was a mixed type inhibitor with respect to both GTP and PS. Our results indicate that sertraline and fluvoxamine may regulate the transportation of neurotransmitters by modulating synaptic vesicle endocytosis via the inhibition of dynamin I GTPase.
Intelectin (IntL), a lectin that exists on the brush border membrane of the small intestine, plays a role in the innate immune response and also acts as a receptor for lactoferrin (LF), an iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other secretions. Similar to human LF (hLF), bovine LF (bLF) has been shown to induce proliferation and differentiation of human enterocytes and to modulate their cytokine productions. To evaluate the interaction between human IntL (hIntL) and bLF, recombinant hIntL (rhIntL) conjugated with a tag sequence was examined for its ligand-binding capacity by using microtiter plates coated with LF or other proteins. Interestingly, rhIntL showed higher binding for bLF than hLF. It also bound pepsin hydrolysate of bLF, but to a lower degree than native bLF. A very low binding of rhIntL was observed for bovine serum albumin or transferrin. These findings suggest that hIntL acts as a receptor for bLF and its digested fragments.
Pkd2l2 is a novel member of the polycystic kidney disease (PKD) gene family in mammals. Prominently expressed in testis, this gene is still poorly understood. In this study, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed a time-dependent expression pattern of Pkd2l2 in postnatal mouse testis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Pkd2l2 encoded a protein, polycystin-L2, which was predominantly detectable in the plasma membrane of spermatocytes and round spermatids, as well as in the head and tail of elongating spermatids within seminiferous tubules in mouse testis tissue sections of postnatal day 14 and adult mice. A green fluorescent fusion protein of Pkd2l2 resided in the plasma membrane of HEK 293 and MDCK cells, suggesting that it functions as a plasma membrane protein. Overexpression of Pkd2l2 increased the intracellular calcium concentration of MDCK cells, as detected by flow cytometry. Collectively, these data indicated that Pkd2l2 may be involved in the mid-late stage of spermatogenesis through modulation of the intracellular calcium concentration.
Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is one of the pivotal transcriptional factors communicating with inflammatory cytokines. Regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a target to prevent from inflammation and atherogenic changes in patient with diabetes mellitus. This study was made to determine whether KLF5 may associate with MCP-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in terms of the initial events of damaged vascular cells in diabetes. MCP-1 expression was markedly augmented by the treatment of TNF-α to HUVECs, but this augmentation was inhibited by KLF5 small interfering RNA, which primarily suppressed the expression of KLF5 at mRNA levels in the cells. Though TNF-α augmented the levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and attenuated those of embryonic form of myosin heavy chain (SMemb) in HUVECs, the inhibition of KLF5 did not affect the levels of these cytokines in the cells. These results suggested that in HUVECs, KLF5 is playing a critical role in regulating the expression of MCP-1, which has been considered to be involved in the diabetic atherogenic events.
In order to evaluate an effective administration method of essential oils for vaginal candidiasis, efficacy of vaginal application of essential oils against murine experimental candidiasis was investigated. The effect on vaginal inflammation and Candida growth form was also studied. Vaginal candidiasis was established by intravaginal infection of C. albicans to estradiol-treated mice. These mice intravaginally received essential oils such as geranium and tea tree singly or in combination with vaginal washing. Vaginal administration of clotrimazole significantly decreased the number of viable C. albicans cells in the vaginal cavity by itself. In contrast, these essential oils did not lower the cell number. When application of geranium oil or geraniol was combined with vaginal washing, the cell number was decreased significantly. The myeloperoxidase activity assay exhibited the possibility that essential oils worked not only to reduce the viable cell number of C. albicans, but also to improve vaginal inflammation. The smear of vaginal washing suspension suggested that more yeast-form cells appeared in vaginal smears of these oil-treated mice than in control mice. In vitro study showed that a very low concentration (25 μg/ml) of geranium oil and geraniol inhibited mycelial growth, but not yeast growth. Based on these findings, it is estimated that vaginal application of geranium oil or its main component, geraniol, suppressed Candida cell growth in the vagina and its local inflammation when combined with vaginal washing.
To clarify the pathogenicity and the pathogenic factors of Candida tropicalis strains, five strains, IFO 0199, IFO 0587, IFO 0589, IFO 1400, and IFO 1647, of C. tropicalis were tested for their lethality to mice, adherence to Hela cells, hydrophobicity, cell growth under acidic conditions (pH 2.0—5.9), and sucrose assimilation using C. albicans NIH A-207 strain as reference. The pathogenicity for mice of all strains was observed in the increasing order IFO 1400=IFO 0589, IFO 0587, IFO 1647=NIH A-207, and IFO 0199. The pathogenicity for mice by all the tested C. tropicalis strains was not correlated with the adherence, the hydrophobicity, or the cell growth. On the other hand, the pathogenicity correlated well with the sucrose assimilation ability. These results show that the pathogenic mechanisms of the C. tropicalis strains were different from those of the C. albicans strains.
Korean red ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) have been reported as having various biological properties, but the combinational effects with commercial antibiotics and the mode of action of ginsenosides remain mostly unknown. In this study, saponins were isolated from Korean red ginseng, and the antibacterial effects of ginsenosides were investigated. Ginsenosides showed antibacterial activities toward pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. To elucidate the antibacterial mode of action of ginsenosides, we measured the release of the fluorescent marker calcein from negatively charged PC/PG (1 : 1, w/w) liposomes, which mimic bacterial membranes. The results suggest that ginsenosides may exert antibacterial activity by disrupting the cell membrane. To estimate the general combination effects of ginsenosides and commercial antibiotics, such as kanamycin and cefotaxime, on antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that were clinically isolated from an infected patient, the fraction inhibitory concentration (FIC) indexes were determined by a checkerboard study. The FIC indexes showed synergistic or additive effects between the ginsenosides and antibiotics tested.
Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in the synthesis of melanin and is widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. As excessive melanin production causes not only hyperpigmenting effects on human skin but also melanosis in various foods, an inhibitor of tyrosinase has become of interest lately from a practical point of view. In the present study, we purified the tyrosinase inhibitor produced by Trichoderma viride strain H1-7 from a marine environment. The purified inhibitor showed a single peak on HPLC. The chemical structure of this compound was determined by NMR and mass spectrometry analyses. The structure was the same as homothallin II that has been isolated as an antibiotic from T. koningii and T. harzianum. The inhibitor showed competitive inhibition against mushroom tyrosinase.
The diterpene compounds, centipedic acid (CA) and 12-acetoxyhawtriwaic acid lactone (AHAL, tanabalin) isolated from the flower buds of Egletes viscosa LESS. (Asteraceae) were evaluated on acute and chronic models of mouse ear dermatitis. A single topical application of CA (0.125; 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ear) or AHAL (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 mg/ear) immediately before 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 2.5 μg/ear) caused a dose-related significant inhibition of ear inflammatory edema and influx of polymorphonuclear cells, as evidenced by a decrease in ear thickness and reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in ear tissue homogenates. The maximal obtained inhibition for both ear edema and neutrophil influx were almost similar to that of topically applied dexamethasone (0.05 mg/ear). The extent of inhibitions for the respective treatments of CA (0.5 mg/ear), AHAL (0.5 mg/ear), or dexamethasone (0.05 mg/ear) were in the order of 63%, 61% and 81% for the ear edema, and 90%, 95% and 95% for the neutrophil influx. Also, at similar doses, both diterpenes and dexamethasone effectively inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by repeated topical application of 1% oxazolone (OXA, 20 μl/ear), as evidenced by significant decreases in ear thickness and interferon-γ (INF-γ) levels in ear tissue. Histopathological analysis revealed a marked decrease in epidermal hyperplasia and neutrophil infiltration in animals pretreated with CA or AHAL, in a manner similar to dexamethasone. These data provide evidence for the anti-dermatitis effect of Egletes viscosa diterpenes, by mechanisms that involve a reduced neutrophil influx and decreased production of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ.
Based on our previous molecular modeling and radioligand binding study, we have demonstrated that aspartic acid of 104 in transmembrane helix (TMH) II of β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) is important for functional characteristics of these receptors. We have also showed that mutation of negatively charged aspartic acid to neutral charged alanine exhibited constitutive activity of β1-AR. However, the mutation of negatively charged aspartic acid to positively charged lysine is still remained to be examined, which is very important to know for fully understanding the characteristics of β1-AR. At the present study, we mutated aspartic acid to lysine (Asp104Lys) residue in human β1-AR. This resultant mutant (Asp104Lys) markedly reduced the binding affinity of isoproterenol and (−)-epinephrine. On the other hand, antagonist binding with this mutant was similar to the wild type receptor. Isoproterenol at its saturation concentrations produced lower amount of intracellular cyclic adenosine-3′,5′ cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in HEK-293 cells expressing Asp104Lys mutant receptor as compared to cells expressing wild type receptor. Moreover, cAMP accumulation of Asp104Lys mutant was unchanged in the presence or absence of isoproterenol. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that Asp104Lys mutation in the human β1-AR differentially affects the binding of antagonist and exhibits a functional uncoupling of G-protein-coupled receptors. Thus, we may suggest that mutation of negatively charged aspartic acid to positively charged lysine as well as neutral charged alanine may help to understand the mechanism of the activation or inactivation of β1-AR by its conformational changes and this finding would be helpful for clarifying the functional responses mediated by β1-AR.
The protective effect of salidroside (SDS) isolated from Rhodiola sachalinensis A. BOR. (Crassulaceae), was investigated in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatic toxicity mouse model in comparison to N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Drug-induced hepatotoxicity was induced by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 300 mg/kg (sub-lethal dose) of APAP. SDS was given orally to mice at a dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg 2 h before the APAP administration in parallel with NAC. Mice were sacrificed 12 h after the APAP injection to determine aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in serum and glutathione (GSH) depletion, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, and caspase-3 expression in liver tissues. SDS significantly protected APAP-induced hepatotoxicity for SDS improved mouse survival rates better than NAC against a lethal dose of APAP and significantly blocked not only APAP-induced increases of AST, ALT, and TNF-α but also APAP-induced GSH depletion and MDA accumulation. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses also demonstrated that SDS could reduce the appearance of necrosis regions as well as caspase-3 and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression in liver tissue. Our results indicated that SDS protected liver tissue from the APAP-induced oxidative damage via preventing or alleviating intracellular GSH depletion and oxidation damage, which suggested that SDS would be a potential antidote against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.
Ginsenosides have been reported to release nitric oxide (NO) and decrease intracellular free Ca2+ in cardiovascular system, which play important roles in antihypertrophic effect. This study investigated the potential inhibitory effect of total ginsenosides (TG) on right ventricular hypertrophy induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg/d) and examined the possible antihypertrophic mechanism in male Sprague Dawley rats. MCT-intoxicated animals were treated with TG (20, 40, 60 mg/kg/d) for 18 d. TG treatment ameliorated MCT-induced elevations in right ventricular peak systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy and the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide; NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, had no influence on these inhibitory effects of TG 40 mg/kg/d, and TG at this dose had no any effect on the eNOS mRNA expression, suggesting the limited rule of NO in TG's effects. To further examine the mechanisms of the protection, the expression of calcineurin and its catalytic subunit CnA, as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (ERK-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) was examined. TG treatment significantly suppressed MCT-induced elevations of these signaling pathways in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, TG is effective in protecting against MCT-induced right ventricle hypertrophy, possibly through lowering pulmonary hypertension. Multiple molecular mechanisms appeared to be involved in this protection, such as the suppression of MCT-activated calcineurin and ERK signaling pathways.
Protein S-nitrosylation in the heart tissue has been implicated in several patho (physiological) processes. However, specific protein targets for S-nitrosylation remain largely unknown. In this study, the rat cardiac proteins were incubated in vitro with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a biologically existing nitric oxide (NO) donor and S-nitrosating agent, to induce protein S-nitrosylation, and the resulting S-nitrosylated proteins were purified by the biotin switch method, followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) separation and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS) identification. Candidate Western blot analysis was also used to identify potential S-nitrosylated proteins. A total of ten proteins including triosephosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, adenylate kinase 1 (AK1), enolase 1, destrin, actin, myosin, albumin and Hsp27 were unambiguously identified, among which AK1 was found as a novel target of S-nitrosylation. Further studies showed that AK1 activity in the rat heart extracts was significantly inhibited by GSNO but not oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the inhibition was completely reversed by dithiothreitol (DTT) post-treatment, demonstrating that S-nitrosylation might serve as a new regulatory mechanism in controlling AK1 activity. This study represents an initial attempt to characterize the S-nitrosoproteome in the heart and highlights the importance of protein S-nitrosylation in cardio function regulation.
Intravitreal injection of corticosteroid has been used to treat diabetic macular edema, however, the exact mechanism remains unknown. In the present experiment, four weeks after streptozotocin administration, intravitreal injection of dexamethasone (50 μg/10 μl) was performed. After 2 d injection, we investigated the effect of dexamethasone on leukocyte accumulation, vascular permeability and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Accumulated leukocytes were counted in vivo by acridine orange leukocyte fluorography, the retinal vascular permeability was measured by the Evans blue assay. The mRNA and protein level of VEGF and ICAM-1 were analyzed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Dexamethasone downregulated VEGF and ICAM-1 expression in diabetic rats which correlated with its effect on leukocytes accumulation and retinal vascular permeability. The present data revealed that dexamethasone may inhibit retinal accumulation and leukostasis accumulation and vascular permeability through its blockage on VEGF and ICAM-1 expression.
In an effort to develop potent cytotoxic inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX), a series of cytotoxic 3-alkylaminopropoxy-9,10-anthraquinone derivatives was screened to evaluate their antiplatelet effect on washed rabbit platelets and human platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Thrombin, arachidonic acid (AA), collagen, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) induced platelet aggregations were potently inhibited by compounds 1, 2, and 3 (each at 300 μM). Of the compounds tested in human PRP, compounds 1, 8, and 10 showed significant inhibition of primary and secondary aggregation induced by epinephrine and had a weak inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). Molecular docking studies revealed that compounds, 1, 8, and 10 were bound in the active sites of COX-1. This indicated that the antiplatelet effect of these three compounds was partially mediated through the suppression of COX-1 activity and reduced thromboxane formation. It is concluded that the cytotoxic compounds 1, 8, and 10 may interfere the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin (PG)H2 in the active site of COX-1.
Here we developed a new program, HydrophoBicity On a Protein (HBOP), to find the ligand-binding site of a protein using the long-range hydrophobic-potential function estimated from the experimental data of Israelachvili and Pashley. We calculated the hydrophobic-potential energies at each grid point of a lattice around a protein using the potential function. The hydrophobic potential was evaluated using the carbon atoms of the hydrophobic residues, with the exception of those of the amide groups. We tested HBOP on 26 types of protein (72 protein–ligand complexes), the three-dimensional structures of which were determined experimentally. Although only one hydrophobic function was used, HBOP could successfully identify the binding sites in all of the proteins tested. Moreover, in 24 of the proteins, the binding sites were located in the most hydrophobic region. Surprisingly, the binding sites on sugar binding proteins were the most hydrophobic sites. It implies that the hydrophobic interaction plays an important role in the formation of protein–ligand complexes.
Amygdalin is a plant glucoside isolated from the stones of rosaceous fruits, such as apricots, peaches, almond, cherries, and plums. To investigate the pain-relieving activity of amygdalin, we induced pain in rats through intraplantar injection of formalin, and evaluated the antinociceptive effect of amygdalin at doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/kg-body weight by observing nociceptive behavior such as licking, biting and shaking, the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the spinal cord, and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the plantar skin. The intramuscular injection of amygdalin significantly reduced the formalin-induced tonic pain in both early (the initial 10 min after formalin injection) and late phases (10—30 min following the initial formalin injection). During the late phase, amygdalin did reduce the formalin-induced pain in a dose-dependent manner in a dose range less than 1 mg/kg. Molecular analysis targeting c-Fos and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) also showed a significant effect of amygdalin, which matched the results of the behavioral pain analysis. These results suggest that amygdalin is effective at alleviating inflammatory pain and that it can be used as an analgesic with anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of a liquid culture filtrates of the entomogenous fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes (PTCF) and its main active glycoprotein-enriched (PGF) fraction against hematotoxicity in mice treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Oral administration of PTCF (100 mg/kg/d) for 7 consecutive days after 5-FU injection significantly suppressed reductions in the red and white blood cell counts in peripheral blood, and accelerated their recoveries. From PTCF, glycoprotein-enriched fraction (PGF, >90% protein, approximately 15 kDa determined by SDS-PAGE) was separated as active ingredient that ameliorates 5-FU-induced anemia. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of trypsinized-PGF showed 11 fragment ion peaks. Effective recoveries of erythrocytopenia and leukocytopenia were observed when PGF was co-administered with murine recombinant erythropoietin (mrEPO; 5 U/mouse). Oral administration of PGF also inhibited 5-FU-induced decreases in peripheral reticulocyte and bone marrow cell counts on day 12, and markedly hastened their recoveries on day 20, in dose-dependent manners. Reductions in erythroid progenitor colonies, such as colony-forming units (CFU)-erythroid and burst-forming units-erythroid mix, formed by bone marrow cells from 5-FU-treated mice were markedly improved by oral administration of PGF with subcutaneous mrEPO. Oral administration of PGF also increased the myeloid lineage progenitor, CFU-granulocyte-macrophages, in cultured bone marrow cells. These findings suggest that PGF isolated from P. tenuipes has the potential to protect against 5-FU-inudced erythrocytopenia and leukopenia, especially in combination with mrEPO, and also has hematopoietic activity, through stimulation of immature erythroid as well as myeloid progenitor cell differentiation.
Puerarin and daidzein are the major naturally occurring isoflavones in leguminous plants. These two compounds are metabolized to equol by human intestinal flora. Here we isolated two intestinal bacteria capable of metabolizing puerarin and daidzein, respectively, from human feces. One of them, strain PUE, converted puerarin to daidzein by cleaving a C-glucosyl bond, whereas the other, strain DZE, converted daidzein to equol by reducing a double bond in ring C followed by elimination of an oxo group. Based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence, strain DZE showed 85% similarity with Eggerthella lenta. Equol produced by strain DZE was identified as (3S)-equol through several analytical methods. Moreover, we obtained (3S)-equol from puerarin by co-incubation with strain PUE and DZE. In addition, 5-hydroxyequol was obtained from genistein by incubation with strain DZE.
The aim of this paper was to evaluate active principles for diabetic complications from Rhus verniciflua. Nine compounds were isolated via bioactivity guided fractionation and isolation and tested for their effects on recombinant human aldose reductase and advanced glycation endproducts. Butein and sulfuretin isolated from ethyl acetate fraction were found to possess strongly both forms of aldose reductase and advanced glycation endproducts inhibition. The inhibitory activity of butein against a recombinant human aldose reductase (IC50 value: 0.5 μM) was 2.6 times more potent that of epalrestat as a positive control (IC50 value: 1.3 μM). The inhibitory potency of sulfuretin (IC50 value: 124.7 μM) on advanced glycation end-products was about 10 times more potent that of aminoguanidine as a positive control (IC50 value: 1231.0 μM). These compounds all displayed antioxidative activity which was measured by Photochem® apparatus. It was concluded, therefore, butein and sulfuretin have antioxidative as well as aldose reductase and advanced glycation endproducts inhibitory effects. As a result, these compounds could be proposed as a leading compound for further study as a new natural products drug that could be used for diabetic complications.
Trypsin has been extensively used in laboratory settings for in vitro epidermal separation and keratinocyte isolation for over 50 years. The aim of this study was to assess the enhancing effect of trypsin on the transdermal delivery of insulin by applying its specific biochemical properties to react with the stratum corneum (SC) of skin. Bovine insulin was used as a model peptide to investigate in vitro permeation through rat skin and in vivo hypoglycemic effects of bovine insulin with or without the trypsin pretreatment. Trypsin significantly increased the transdermal permeability of bovine insulin in pH 3.0 solution, but no effect was observed in pH 6.0 solution. The permeation flux of bovine insulin from pH 3.0 solution was promoted 5.2-fold with 0.25% trypsin pretreatment when compared with the control. The enhancement of trypsin was dependent on the concentration in the range of 0.5—2.5%. Furthermore, with trypsin pretreatment, the plasma glucose level was reduced to less than 60% of the initial value after 8 h of in vivo permeation of bovine insulin with pH 3.0 solution, but did not return to the initial value during an 8-h experiment. Mechanistic studies with Fourier transform-infrared and attenuated total reflectance analysis and electrical resistance measurements suggest that trypsin alters the SC protein structure from the alpha- to the beta-form and decreases the electrical resistance of skin, thereby decreasing the SC barrier and enhancing the permeation of insulin. We conclude that trypsin would be effective as a biochemical enhancer for the transdermal delivery of peptide and protein drugs such as insulin.
It has been reported that organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1) is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. Additionally, we reported that OCTN1 is expressed in hematopoietic cells, and is associated with proliferation and differentiation of erythroid cells. However, physiological role of OCTN1 is still unclear. Ergothioneine, an anti-oxidant, was recently reported to be a good substrate of human OCTN1. However, the transport characteristics of ergothioneine in rat remains to be clarified. The present study, is to further investigate the role of rat Octn1 on transport of ergothioneine in rat Octn1 transfected cells and natively expressing cell line PC12 derived from rat adrenal pheochromocytoma. [3H]Ergothioneine uptake by rat Octn1 stably transfected HEK293 cells was saturable, sodium dependent with 1 : 1 stoichiometry of ergothioneine, and pH dependent. Since ergothioneine was reported to presumably play a protective role against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, its transport in this cell line was investigated. The expression of rat Octn1 and a saturable and Na+-dependent transport of ergothioneine were observed in PC12 cells, suggesting that ergothioneine transport in this cell line may be mediated by rat Octn1. These findings suggested that rat Octn1 may act as a survival factor by taking up ergothioneine to suppress oxidative stress in this cell line. In conclusion, functional characteristics of ergothioneine transport by rat Octn1 is similar to that of human OCTN1 and it is suggested that rat Octn1 is important by transporting anti-oxidant ergothioneine in PC12 cells, though its role in vivo is to be investigated.
We investigated the influence of murine hepatitis induced by D-(+)-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS) on polyethylenimine (PEI)-mediated plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivery. pDNA encoding firefly luciferase was used as the model reporter gene. PEI was used as the non-viral vector because of its high gene expression and low toxicity. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in mice indicated the highest peaks at 12 h after D-GalN/LPS injection, then the activities of serum ALT and AST rapidly decreased. We determined luciferase activity in various organs of D-GalN/LPS-treated mice and control mice after an intravenous administration of PEI/pDNA complexes. High transgene expression was observed in the liver, spleen, and lung of both mice. Compared to the control mice, a significant increase of transgene expression was observed in the liver of D-GalN/LPS-treated mice after D-GalN/LPS injection. The transgene expression in the spleen and lung decreased at 6 and 12 h after D-GalN/LPS injection. In conclusion, we found that murine hepatitis induced by D-GalN/LPS injection can influence PEI-mediated pDNA delivery and its influence was different from that induced by CCl4 injection which was reported previously. These results demonstrated the necessity of considering the timing and dose of gene therapy according to the disease and its stage.
We have constructed a new ocular pharmacokinetic pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model for anti-glaucoma drugs to describe ocular hypotensive effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) after instillation of a combination of an α1-adrenergic antagonist, bunazosin, and a β-adrenergic antagonist, timolol, into rabbits. This model was constructed by the combination of two ocular PK/PD models for bunazosin and timolol by including aqueous humor dynamics based on both action mechanisms. We also verified the reliability of this model by confirming the drug concentrations in aqueous humor and ocular hypotensive effects after instillation of the drug combination. The aqueous humor concentrations of timolol and bunazosin were determined by an HPLC, and ocular hypotensive effect-time profiles were measured using a telemetry system, which was able to record automatically detailed effects. The combined model could simulate the aqueous humor concentrations of both drugs and the additive IOP-lowering effect after instillation of the combination using the MULTI (RUNGE) program and PK/PD parameters which were obtained from ocular hypotensive effects after instillation of bunazosin alone or timolol alone. The theoretical concentration curves of both drugs in the aqueous humor and the theoretical ocular hypotensive effect curves almost agreed with both the observed concentrations and ocular hypotensive effects after instillation of the drug combination. These results indicate the reliability and usefulness of PK/PD modeling considering aqueous humor dynamics to predict IOP in multidrug therapy. This is the first study to develop a PK/PD model for multidrug therapy for the eye.
Thalidomide has been reported to inhibit the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) that are involved in the down-regulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) induced by endotoxin. In the present study, we investigated the effects of thalidomide on endotoxin-induced decreases in the activity and expression of hepatic CYP3A2 in rats. Thalidomide (50 mg/kg) was administered orally 22 h and 2 h before intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (1 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours after the injection of endotoxin, antipyrine clearance experiments were conducted, in which the rats were sacrificed and protein levels of hepatic CYP3A2 were measured. There were no significant differences in the histopathological changes in the liver between the endotoxin-treated and endotoxin plus thalidomide-treated rats. Thalidomide had no effect on the systemic clearance of antipyrine, which is a proper indicator for hepatic CYP3A2 activity, whereas it enhanced endotoxin-induced decrease in the systemic clearance of antipyrine. Western blot analysis revealed that thalidomide had no effect on the protein levels of hepatic CYP3A2, whereas it enhanced the down-regulation of hepatic CYP3A2 by endotoxin. However, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of TNF-α and NO in plasma between the endotoxin-treated and endotoxin plus thalidomide-treated rats. The present findings suggest that thalidomide enhances endotoxin-induced decreases in the activity and expression of hepatic CYP3A2.
The feasibility of self-dissolving micropiles (SDMP) as a percutaneous delivery system of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been studied in rats using SDMP where dextran was used as a base. After mixing dextran solution with rhGH, SDMPs were prepared by pulling with polypropyrene tips. The mean weight, length and diameter were 0.68±0.05 mg, 3.2±0.5 mm and 0.6±0.2 μm, respectively. To evaluate the bioavailability (BA) of rhGH percutaneously administered by SDMP, an absorption experiment was performed in rats. RhGH SDMPs were inserted into the rats skin, 200 μg kg−1, and plasma rhGH levels were measured by an ELISA method. Peak plasma rhGH level, 132.8±11.8 ng ml−1, appeared at 0.8±0.2 h. By comparing the plasma rhGH levels vs. time profiles after the administration of SDMP and intravenous injection of rhGH solution, 5 μg kg−1, BA of rhGH from SDMP was calculated to be 87.5%. Theses results may suggest that SDMP can be used as a novel percutaneous drug delivery system.