PEGylation changes the physical and chemical properties of the biomedical molecule, such as its conformation, electrostatic binding, and hydrophobicity, and results in an improvement in the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug, while it also causes some disadvantages of which cannot be neglected. The available data manifests that polyethylene glycol (PEG) itself shows potential risk, such as immunogenicity of the PEG and PEG-containing vacuoles in cells observed with PEGylated biologicals. Decreased activity and heterogeneity are also the negative aspects of PEGylation. The unfavorable impacts which are brought by the PEGylation are described here with examples of modified therapeutic proteins on the market and used in the clinical trials.
Colistin and tigecycline are the only therapeutic options for extensively drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB), but there is little comparative study. This retrospective observation study evaluated two-colistin and tigecycline-antibiotics profiles like treatment success rate, negative conversion rate, the length of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and antibiotics use, mortality rate during hospital stay and adverse event rate, based on the medical record of XDR-AB positive patients who were treated at least 5 d with those intravenous antibiotics. Treatment success rate of colistin (n=39) and tigecycline (n=16) were not different: 48.7% and 43.8%, respectively (p=0.737), though negative conversion rate was significantly higher in the colistin group: 46.2% against 12.5% (p=0.049). There was no statistically significant difference in mortality rate between two groups during hospital stay (43.6% vs. 56.3%, p=0.393). There were no significant differences in the following parameters: the median length of hospital stay (46.0 d vs. 72.5 d), the median length of intensive care units stay (26.0 d vs. 27.0 d), the median length of antibiotics use (15.0 d vs. 13.0 d). The colistin group showed serum creatinine elevation (defined as elevation more than 2.0 mg/dL and 50% increase from the baseline) as 43.6% when compared with 12.5% of the tigecycline group (p=0.028). As a therapeutic option of XDR-AB, colistin showed significantly better negative conversion rate than tigecycline with more frequent nephrotoxic prevalence, and treatment success rate and mortality rate were not different from both antibiotics groups.
Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, CA) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of CA in skin inflammation are only partially understood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of CA on acute and chronic skin inflammation in mice and the effect of CA in keratinocytes in vitro. The results showed that topical treatment with CA inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema in a dose-dependent manner, leading to substantial reductions in skin thickness and tissue weight, neutrophil-mediated myeloperoxidase activity, and various histopathological indicators. The CA treatment also significantly reduced the mRNA and protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β at the application site, and the TNF-α production, the TNF-α-induced IL-6 and IL-1β production, and TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in human keratinocytes in vitro. Furthermore, CA was effective at reducing inflammatory damage induced by chronic TPA exposure. These results demonstrate that CA has anti-inflammatory activities in both acute and chronic contact dermatitis models via blockade of the mRNA and protein synthesis of these cytokines and neutrophil-mediated myeloperoxidase activity, and can target inflammatory mediators specifically in the keratinocytes. Taken together, the present results suggest that CA might be a therapeutic agent against inflammatory skin diseases.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is attractive target for tumor diagnosis and therapy, as it is specifically and abundantly expressed in tumor cells. EGFR-tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib are widely used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we investigated whether radioiodinated 4-(3-iodo-phenoxy)-6,7-diethoxy-quinazoline (PHY), which is a candidate EGFR-TK imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is able to predict gefitinib sensitivity. We used four NSCLC cell lines-A549 (wild-type EGFR), H1650 (mutant EGFR; del E746_A750), H1975 (mutant EGFR; L858R, T790M) and H3255 (mutant EGFR; L858R)-and one epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431 (wild-type EGFR). Cell proliferation assay and Western blotting revealed that A431 and H3255 with high EGFR expression showed high sensitivity to gefitinib. On the other hand, A549, H1650 and H1975 showed much lower sensitivity to gefitinib. The blocking study revealed that gefitinib decreased tumor uptake in 125I-PHY in A431-bearing mice. Moreover, in vivo tumor uptake of 125I-PHY was correlated with the IC50 of gefitinib for cell proliferation. In the present study, tumor uptake of 125I-PHY was correlated with the gefitinib sensitivity and this uptake was based on expression levels of EGFR, but not on mutation status. Although the mutation status is the most important factor for predicting gefitinib sensitivity, the abundant expression of EGFR is essential for therapy with EGFR-TK inhibitors. Therefore, radioiodinated PHY is a potential imaging agent to predict gefitinib sensitivity based on EGFR expression levels though further modifications of the imaging agent is needed to accurately estimate the mutation status.
There has been considerable interest in understanding the effects of antioxidants in flap survival during diabetes. Previous studies showed that chlorogenic acid (CGA) exhibits potent antioxidant effects. We aimed to determine the effects of systemic CGA treatment on skin flap survival in an experimental random-pattern dorsal skin flap model in diabetic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-treated or CGA-treated nondiabetic rats, PBS-treated or CGA-treated diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Caudally based bipedicled dorsal skin flaps were elevated. CGA (100 mg/kg) or PBS (mL/kg; as vehicle) was administered intraperitoneally once daily. On postoperative day 7, flap survival, regional blood perfusion and microangiography were evaluated. The malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were evaluated from the flap tissue. Capillary density and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were assessed. Harmful effects of diabetes on flap survival were observed. CGA attenuated these effects and allowed greater survival and blood perfusion. CGA decreased MDA and NO levels and increased GSH and SOD levels. CGA elevated capillary density and VEGF expression. This study showed that peripherally administered CGA significantly improved flap survival in diabetic and nondiabetic rats.
Etoposide and morphine are well known P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates. The pharmacokinetic effect of morphine on plasma etoposide concentration after the oral concomitant use of etoposide and morphine in rats was assessed using a population analysis approach. A P-gp substrate quinidine and the anticholinergic drug propantheline were also administered with etoposide to compare with the effects of morphine. Plasma etoposide concentration after oral administration was well described using a linear 2-compartment open model with first-order kinetic absorption from the intestine, although a flip-flop phenomenon was shown. After administration of etoposide with morphine, an increased concentration and extended time at maximum concentration were observed compared with the administration of etoposide alone. However, coadministered quinidine significantly increased the maximum concentration without changing the time of the peak concentration of etoposide. Coadministered propantheline significantly extended the time at maximum concentration, although no changes in the peak concentration of etoposide were observed. These coadministered drugs resulted in different pharmacokinetic parameters of etoposide and acted as a significant covariate. That is, morphine and quinidine significantly increased the bioavailability of etoposide believed to be due to competitive P-gp inhibition in the intestine. In contrast, morphine and propantheline decreased the absorption rate constant and were associated with the suppression of enterokinesis. These results indicate that it is necessary to understand the effects on P-gp as well as have information on other effects on the gastrointestinal tract, such as enterokinesis suppression, and to appropriately assess the pharmacokinetic interactions of the combined oral use of P-gp substrate drugs.
In a recent study, we isolated the diketopiperazine disulfide glionitrin A from the co-culture broth of a mine drainage-derived fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus KMC901) and bacterium (Sphingomonas KMK001). Here, we investigated the antitumor activity of glionitrin A and its underlying molecular mechanisms in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. Glionitrin A showed significant cytotoxicity, promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Glionitrin A-treated cells exhibited elevated levels of phospho-histone 2AX (Ser139), a marker of DNA damage, and accumulated in both S phase and G2/M phase due to the activation of checkpoints associated with the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-Rad3-related Chk1/2 pathway downstream of p53-binding protein 1 phosphorylation at Ser1778. In addition, glionitrin A induced apoptosis through both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. Glionitrin A activated caspase-8, -9 and -3 and also released endonuclease G from the mitochondria to the nucleus in a dose-dependent manner. Our in vivo study performed in nude mice bearing xenografts of DU145 cells showed that glionitrin A dramatically reduced the tumor volume by an average of 38.2% (5 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) and 71.3% (10 mg/kg, p.o.) at 27 d after the beginning of treatment. Taken together, these findings provide a detailed description of the mechanism underlying the biological activity of the new natural product glionitrin A, which has the potential to be developed as an anti-prostate cancer agent.
Aristolochiae Fructus (AF) and honey-fried Aristolochiae Fructus (HAF) have been used in China for thousands of years as an anti-tussive and expectorant drug. Few clinical cases were reported associated with the toxicity of AF and HAF, although relatively high contents of aristolochic acids (AAs) were found in them. This work was designed to compare the acute and subacute toxicity of AF and HAF in order to provide references for safe clinical use and to evaluate the possibility of reducing toxicity of AF by honey-processing. The extracts of the herb were fed to mice or rats via gastric tube. Various toxic signs and symptoms, body weights, serum biochemical assay, organ weights and histopathology were used to evaluate the toxic effects. The median lethal dose (LD50) of AF and HAF are 34.1±7.2 g/kg/d and 62.6±8.0 g/kg/d with a 95% average trustable probability (p=0.95), respectively. The subacute results showed a dose-dependant relationship of the toxicity of AF and HAF. Even in the high dose groups, only moderate toxicity was observed. Honey-frying and decoction with water can decrease the contents of AAs, and attenuate the toxic effects of AF. But sufficient attention should be still paid to the safety of AF and HAF due to the existence of AAs.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) shows more pronounced relaxation when blood vessel is contracted with prostanoid receptor agonists than other stimulants. The present study was carried out to obtain information on the mechanisms underlying prostanoid receptor-selective relaxant action of DHA, particularly focusing on the possible roles for K+ channels and its CYP epoxygenase (EOX) metabolites. In endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta, DHA (10−5M) almost completely relaxed U46619 (a thromboxane A2 (TP) receptor agonist)-contracted muscle without substantially affecting noradrenaline (NA)-induced contraction. DHA-induced relaxation was not affected by a large conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channels inhibitor iberiotoxin (IbTX, 10−7M) but was almost abolished by high-KCl (8×10−2M) or 10−2M tetraethylammonium (TEA) which non-selectively inhibits K+ channel activity. DHA also prominently relaxed U46619-contracted aorta even in the presence of CYP inhibitors (SKF525A or miconazole, each at 10−5M). However, in the presence of these CYP inhibitors, the relaxant action of DHA was not affected by 10−2M TEA. In supporting a significant role for CYP EOX metabolites in the blood vessel relaxation to DHA, 16,17-epoxy docosapentaenoic acid (16,17-EpDPE), but not 19,20-EpDPE, showed a potent relaxation in U46619-contracted aorta, and this action was significantly attenuated by 10−2M TEA. The present findings suggest that the relaxant action of DHA shown in the rat aorta contracted through the stimulation with TP receptor is generated by DHA itself and its CYP EOX metabolites. The relaxant effect of DHA metabolites seems to be partly triggered by the activation of K+ channels though the role for BK channel is insignificant.
Inflammation has been implicated in development of the insulin resistance that leads to elevated blood sugar levels associated with type 2 diabetes. It is reported that salsalate, a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to decrease blood glucose concentration in some clinical study. Recently, we found that bovine milk-derived α-lactalbumin had anti-inﬂammatory activity caused by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic administration of α-lactalbumin on glucose tolerance in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes. After 10 weeks administration of the α-lactalbumin (300 mg/kg, twice a day), oral glucose tolerance tests revealed significant decrements of blood glucose levels after glucose loading. However, significant differences of insulin levels were not observed among three GK rats groups after glucose loading. α-Lactalbumin treatment enhanced high molecular weight form of adiponectin and suppressed prostaglandin E2 levels in plasma. These results suggest that α-lactalbumin effectively decreased blood glucose levels after glucose loading in GK rat, and the decrements may be due to enhancement of adiponectin.
We examined whether adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 to intestinal epithelial cells contributed to the induction of secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody production in mice. Wild-type EHEC O157:H7 and its mutants deficient in the espA, sepL, tir and eae genes, encoding adherent factors on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), were inoculated intragastrically into mice. Inoculation of wild-type EHEC induced fecal IgA antibodies specific to EHEC at 4 weeks after the inoculation, but that of espA- and sepL-deletion mutants did not. Furthermore, even 4 inoculations at weekly intervals with espA-deletion mutant, heat-killed wild-type EHEC and nonpathogenic E. coli did not induce fecal IgA antibodies, although these bacterial inoculations induced serum antibodies. Kanamycin (Km)-treated mice showed prolonged and similar fecal shedding of Km-resistant mutants of EHEC O157:H7 including A2-F6 having intact LEE, A6-E7 (sepL-insertion mutant), G1-E11 (tir-insertion mutant) and Δeae (eae-deletion mutant). In this case, A2-F6 induced fecal IgA antibodies, but the other mutants with defective LEE did not. In contrast to the fecal IgA antibodies, serum IgM and IgG antibodies were induced in mice inoculated with any of the LEE defective mutants as well as A2-F6. Thus, adhesion of EHEC to epithelial cells is essential for inducing the mucosal immune response in the intestine but not for inducing the systemic immune response.
Telaprevir (TVR) is a protease inhibitor used in combination with pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for hepatitis C, and TVR strongly inhibits CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. We reported successful TVR treatment of liver transplant patients with recurrence of hepatitis C during receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Before initiation of triple therapy, all patients switched from tacrolimus to cyclosporine, which has a lower inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 than tacrolimus. To avoid graft failure, we measured the cyclosporine blood concentrations at 0, 2, and 6 h after administration to maintain the target level (150–200 ng/mL) within 1 week after initiation of TVR and adjusted the dose of cyclosporine. The dose of cyclosporine was decreased 0.24–0.40 fold in all patients after initiation of TVR treatment. In 3 patients, the dose of TVR was decreased two-thirds of starting dose because of adverse effects, including anorexia and skin rash. However, the HCV RNA level rapidly decreased to undetectable levels within 1 month. Furthermore, all patients completed the TVR therapy in 12 weeks and did not experience liver graft rejection. In addition, we found the rapid elimination of inhibitory effect of TVR on the disposition of cyclospirne in the all four cases and therefore, rapid increase in the dosage of cyclosporine would be required immediately after the end of TVR administration. These results suggest that frequent measurement of cyclosporine levels was important for successful TVR triple therapy and prevention of rejection.
Although dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of blindness, no effective therapies are developed. In this study, we investigated the effects of SUN N8075, a radical scavenger with neuroprotective properties, against light-induced retinal damage used as the model of dry AMD in mice. After dark adaption for 24 h, we exposed the mice at 8000 lx for 3 h. We evaluated the retinal damage by recording the electroretinagram (ERG) and measuring the thickness of outer nuclear layer (ONL) at 5 d after the light exposure. Retinal apoptotic cells were also detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transeferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and the expression of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as an index for oxidative stress at 48 h after exposure to light. In ERG measurement, the intraperitoneal administration of SUN N8075 at 30 mg/kg improved the retinal dysfunction induced by the excess light exposure. In the histological evaluation, SUN N8075 inhibited the reduction of ONL thickness. In addition, SUN N8075 decreased in both numbers of TUNEL- and 8-OHdG-positive cells in ONL. These findings suggest that the systemic administration of SUN N8075 has protective effects on excess light-induced photoreceptor degeneration, via inhibition of oxidative stress.
Liu-Shen-Wan (LSW), an ancient preparation used to treat localized infection with pain, was recently reported to possess anticancer activity. The mechanism responsible for LSW’s analgesic and anticancer activity is unclear. In the present study, we obtained a LSW supernatant (LSWS) fraction from ultrasound-assisted ethanol extraction (yield 15.9%) which proved to be safer than LSW in terms of hepatotoxicity. The LSWS (1 and 10 µg/mL) exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on the bradykinin-evoked rapid release of substance P from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. At concentrations of 0.1 µg/mL and higher, the LSWS resulted in a concentration-related growth inhibitory effect on HepG2, a representative cancer cell lines. The LSWS significantly down-regulated the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor expression in both HepG2 and bradykinin-treated DRG cells. In addition to the NK-1 receptor-dependent growth inhibition in HepG2 cells (0.1–100 µg/mL), the LSWS induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis at a higher concentration (1–100 µg/mL). In conclusion, we recently isolated a safer LSW fraction which maintained its analgesic and anticancer activity, and found that the substance P/NK-1 receptor system was partly responsible for these effects. Our findings will be useful for developing more effective and less toxic LSW preparations.
The stereoselective transport of methotrexate (L-amethopterin, L-MTX) and its antipode (D-amethopterin, D-MTX) by human reduced folate carrier (hRFC) has been examined in HEK293 cells expressing H27-hRFC and R27-hRFC. The uptake of both L-MTX and D-MTX increased as the extracellular pH increased from 6.0 to 7.4. The initial uptake rate of L-MTX into the H27- and R27-hRFCs of the HEK293 cells followed Michaelis–Menten kinetics with Km values of approximately 0.24 and 0.47 µM, respectively. Dixon plots revealed that the [3H]-L-MTX uptake mediated by the H27- and R27-hRFCs was inhibited competitively by unlabeled L-MTX with Ki values of approximately 0.1 and 0.5 µM, respectively. D-MTX also competitively inhibited the H27- and R27-hRFC mediated uptake of [3H]-L-MTX with Ki values of approximately 3.4 and 3.2 µM, respectively. The RFC-mediated uptake clearance of L-MTX was approximately 15-fold greater than that of D-MTX in the H27-hRFC-HEK293 cells, and was more than 30-fold greater than that of D-MTX in the R27-hRFC-HEK293 cells. The results of the current study have revealed that the enantiomers of MTX enantiomers can be transported in a stereoselective manner by the H27- and R27-hRFCs because of significant differences in the affinities of the enantiomers to the hRFC.
Citrulline is an amino acid with antioxidant activity. In this study, effects of citrulline on the adverse effects of doxorubicin (DOX) and DOX-induced antitumor activity were examined. Citrulline significantly inhibited DOX-induced increases in lipid peroxide (LPO) in the heart as adverse reaction. Combined treatment with DOX and citrulline increased DOX levels in tumor cells and enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro by significantly increasing DOX uptake compared with DOX treatment alone. In simultaneous in vivo treatments, combination treatment with DOX and citrulline decreased tumor weight and increased DOX concentrations in tumors. Promotion of DOX uptake by citrulline enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX through the action of energy-independent and Na+-independent transporters. This effect of citrulline on DOX influx is identical to that of S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine, promoting DOX influx through the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1. Therefore, it is anticipated that citrulline as a food component may enhance DOX efficacy.
Despite the increasing sales of black cohosh (the dried rhizome and root of Cimicifuga racemosa L.) in the world herbal market, these products have continuous adulteration issues. The botanical authenticity of the black cohosh products is the first important step for ensuring their quality, safety and efficacy. In this study, we genetically identified the botanical sources of 10 black cohosh products and 5 Cimicifuga Rhizome crude drugs of Japanese Pharmacopoeia grade, and analyzed the metabolic profiling of 25 black cohosh products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Consequently, we found that C. dahurica and possibly C. foetida are misused as sources of the black cohosh products and in some cases, the extracts of black cohosh were adulterated with the plant materials of C. dahurica. We demonstrated that these three species can be distinguished by three marker compounds in a specific mass range. These results must be helpful in establishing regulations for the safe use of the black cohosh products.
The present study aimed to characterize comparatively endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptors in rat tissues by radioligand binding assay using [125I]ET-1 and to examine receptor binding after oral administration of bosentan. Significant amount of specific [125I]ET-1 binding was detected in the lung, heart, kidney, bladder and cerebral cortex of rats. ET-1, bosentan, ambrisentan, and CI-1020 inhibited specific [125I]ET-1 binding in these tissues in a concentration-dependent manner. The Hill coefficients of each agent in the rat lung and cerebral cortex and those of bosentan and ET-1 in the heart, kidney and bladder were close to unity, while the Hill coefficients of ambrisentan and CI-1020 in the heart, kidney and bladder were less than one. The nonlinear least squares regression analysis revealed the presence of high- and low-affinity ET-1 receptor sites in these tissues for ambrisentan and CI-1020. Oral administration of bosentan caused a dose-dependent decrease in specific [125I]ET-1 binding in the rat lung, kidney and bladder, suggesting significant binding of the tissue ET-1 receptors in vivo. In conclusion, it has been shown that a significant amount of pharmacologically relevant ET-1 receptors may exist in rat tissues and that ET-1 receptor antagonists such as bosentan at pharmacological doses may exert some pharmacological effects by binding these ET-1 receptors.
To study the effect of organic Se on spatial learning and memory deficits induced by Pb exposure at different developmental stages, and its relationship with alterations of synaptic structural plasticity, postnatal rat pups were randomly divided into five groups: Control; Pb (Weaned pups were exposed to Pb at postnatal day (PND) 21–42); Pb-Se (Weaned pups were exposed to Se at PND 43–63 after Pb exposure); maternal Pb (mPb) (Parents were exposed to Pb from 3 weeks before mating to the weaning of pups); mPb-Se (Parents were exposed to Pb and weaned pups were exposed to Se at PND 43–63). The spatial learning and memory of rat pups was measured by Morris water maze (MWM) on PND 63. We found that rat pups in Pb-Se group performed significantly better than those in Pb group (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the ability of spatial learning and memory between the groups of mPb and mPb-Se (p>0.05). We also found that, before MWM, the numbers of neurons and synapses significantly decreased in mPb group, but not in Pb group. After MWM, the number of synapses, the thickness of postsynaptic density (PSD), the length of synaptic active zone and the synaptic curvature increased significantly in Pb-Se and mPb-Se group; while the width of synaptic cleft decreased significantly (p<0.05), compared to Pb group and mPb group, respectively. However, the number of synapses in mPb-Se group was still significantly lower than that in the control group (p<0.05). Our data demonstrated that organic Se had protective effects on the impairments of spatial learning and memory as well as synaptic structural plasticity induced by Pb exposure in rats after weaning, but not by the maternal Pb exposure which reduced the numbers of neurons and synapses in the early neural development.
Three functional groups (2-propenyl, 2-propynyl, and 2,3-butadienyl) were introduced onto one of the terminal amino groups of spermidine. Of the six compounds synthesized, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N′-2,3-butadienyl-1,4-butanediamine (N8-butadienyl Spd) and N-[3-(2,3-butadienylamino)propyl]-1,4-butanediamine (N1-butadienyl Spd) irreversibly inactivated human spermine oxidase (SMO) and N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO). Interestingly, N8-butadienyl Spd inactivated SMO far more potently than N,N′-di-2,3-butadienyl-1,4-butanediamine (MDL 72527).
The genome of the facultative anaerobic thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma volcanium contains the open-reading frames (ORFs) tvsod and tvogg, which are predicted to encode a putative superoxide dismutase and an 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase, respectively. Tvsod is immediately upstream of tvogg, and these two ORFs are aligned in a head-to-tail manner in a single operon. A previous study showed that T. volcanium contains an ORF (TVN0292) encoding the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) and that the T. volcanium Fur protein (TvFur) binds to its own promoter in a metal-dependent manner in vitro. Here, we demonstrated that TvFur also binds to the tvsod-tvogg promoter and determined the TvFur-binding sequences in the tvsod-tvogg promoter by DNaseI footprinting analysis. These results suggest that Fur is required for resistance against reactive oxygen species in this facultative anaerobic archaeon.
We investigated whether an emulsifier or an emulsified oil affects the skin penetration of stearyl glycyrrhetinate (SG) when it is applied in an oil-in-water (O/W)-type emulsion under finite dose conditions in vitro. SG has a high molecular weight (MW: 723) and high lipophilicity (log P: 15.6). Skin penetration of SG applied with O/W emulsions was evaluated using 6 types of emulsifiers that are commonly used in cosmetics; however, no significant differences were observed between these emulsifiers. When applied with liquid paraffins in oil phase, SG skin penetration increased significantly as the molecular weight of the liquid paraffin decreased. The skin penetration of the fluorescent dye 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI; MW: 834, log P: 23.2) also increased with O/W-type emulsions containing liquid paraffins of lower molecular weights. These results indicate that use of O/W-type emulsions with an appropriate oil phase can improve SG skin penetration.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of interaction between tegafur (FT) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the expression of α-defensins (HD-5: human α-defensin 5, HD-6: human α-defensin 6) by using a Caco-2 cell line as a model of human intestinal epithelial cells. This is the first study in which the effect of interaction of an oral anticancer drug and functional food on the innate immune system was examined. α-Defensins are abundant constituents of mouse and human paneth cells and play a role in the innate immune system in intestine. We detected HD-5 and HD-6 mRNA in Caco-2 cells and evaluated the effects of FT and EGCG on these mRNA levels. HD-5 and HD-6 mRNA levels were decreased by exposure to FT. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by exposure to FT as well as H2O2 exposure, and EGCG suppressed FT-induced production of ROS. Furthermore, FT-induced decrease in HD-5 and HD-6 mRNA levels was almost completely suppressed by EGCG. These results indicate that EGCG restored the decrease of α-defensins induced by FT at the transcriptional level in Caco-2 cells, suggesting that EGCG can be used as adjunctive therapy in chemotherapy.
Medicinal plants with reported anti-inflammatory activity could have the potential use as anti-allergens and inhibitors of allergic contact dermatitis reactions produced by allergens and chemicals. Some species from the genus Artocarpus were reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. In the Philippines one local source is Artocarpus camansi BLANCO (Moraceae), which is utilized as an ingredient of their cuisine, and decoction of leaves is used for diabetes and baths of people with rheumatism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the hot water extract of A. camansi leaves on contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in mice. Contact hypersensitivity was induced using 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB). The results showed that the A. camansi hot water extract exhibited significant activity against the swelling produced during 24 h and 48 h post-challenge. The same responses were observed from the mice that received the kamansi ethanol-precipitate (KEP) and kamansi ethanol precipitate water-soluble (KEPWS) fractions. Since the high molecular mass fraction showed the significant activity, we therefore speculate that the compound responsible might be a polysaccharide and/or glycoprotein. In conclusion, our results suggest that the hot water extract of A. camansi leaves might be an effective natural product to treat allergic contact dermatitis. However, further investigations are required to understand the mechanisms involved.
Therapeutic effects of cationic hybrid liposomes (HL) composed of 87 mol% dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), 5 mol% polyoxyethylene (21) dodecyl ether (C12(EO)21) and 8 mol% O,O′-ditetradecanoyl-N-(α-trimethyl-ammonioacetyl) diethanolamine chloride (2C14ECl) on the metastasis of human colon carcinoma (HCT116) cells were examined in vivo. Cationic HL having a hydrodynamic diameter less than 150 nm were preserved for one month. Therapeutic effects were obtained in the hepatic metastasis mouse models of HCT116 cells after the intravenous injection of cationic HL. The histological analysis indicated the induction of apoptosis in the liver section of the hepatic metastasis mouse models treated with cationic HL in vivo. Therapeutic effects of cationic HL without any drugs on the hepatic metastasis were revealed for the first time on the basis of histological analyses in vivo.
A single intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg) of 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB77), a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-type polychlorinated biphenyl, led to significant decreases in the levels of serum total thyroxine (T4) and free T4 without increase in the level of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone at 7 d later in both TCDD-sensitive C57BL/6 and TCDD-resistant DBA/2 mice. When [125I]T4 was injected into the mice 7 d after treatment with CB77, the levels of biliary [125I]T4 and [125I]T4-glucuronide increased 90 to 120 min post injection in C57BL/6 mice, but not in DBA/2 mice, compared with levels in the corresponding control mice. In contrast, in both strains of mice, the CB77-pretreatment led to similar changes in the levels of the [125I]T4 bound to the serum transthyretin, albumin, and thyroxine-binding globulin. Consequently, treatment with CB77 promoted the clearance of [125I]T4 from the serum and further raised the steady-state volumes of distribution of [125I]T4, the concentration ratio (Kp value) of the liver to the serum, and the distribution of [125I]T4 in the liver in both strains of mice. The present findings indicate that in mice, the CB77-mediated decrease in the serum T4 level occurs through enhanced accumulation of hepatic T4 rather than through increased activity of hepatic thyroxine-uridine 5′-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase(s).