Microglial activation is known to cause inflammation resulting in neurotoxicity in several neurological diseases. N-((3,4-Dihydro-2H-benzo[h]chromene-2-yl)methyl)-4-methoxyaniline (BL-M), a chromene derivative, was originally synthesized with the perspective of inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), a key regulator of inflammation. The present study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of BL-M in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Our results demonstrated that BL-M significantly inhibited the formation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, as well as lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, it suppressed the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 in LPS-induced BV2 cells. Western blotting analyses revealed the inhibition of inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκBα) phosphorylation and NF-κB translocation by BL-M in LPS-activated cells. Therefore, our study highlights marked antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of BL-M, and suggests that this compound may have a beneficial impact on various neurodegenerative diseases associated with inflammation.
Pyrrole–imidazole (PI) polyamide is a novel gene regulating agent that competitively inhibits transcription factor binding to the promoter of the specific target gene. Liver fibrosis is an integral stage in the development of chronic liver disease, and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is known to play a central role in the progression of this entity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PI polyamide targeting TGFβ1 on rat liver fibrosis. PI polyamide was designed to inhibit activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor binding to the TGFβ1 gene promoter. The effect of PI polyamide on hepatic stellate cells was evaluated by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in RI-T cells. To determine the effect of PI polyamide in vivo, PI polyamide was intravenously administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg/week in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced rat model of liver fibrosis. Treatment of RI-T cells with 1.0 µM PI polyamide targeting TGFβ1 significantly inhibited TGFβ1 mRNA expression. Azan staining showed that DMN treatment significantly increased areas of fibrous materials compared with controls. PI polyamide targeting TGFβ1 significantly decreased the fibrous area compared with DMN group. mRNA expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were significantly increased in DMN-treated group compared with control. Treatment with TGFβ1 PI polyamide significantly decreased mRNA expression of these genes compared with DMN group. The novel gene regulator PI polyamide targeting TGFβ1 may be a feasible therapeutic agent for the treatment of chronic liver disease.
DLBS1033 is a mixture of bioactive proteins fractinated from the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus which possesses antithrombotic and thrombolytic activities. DLBS1033 contains a potent fibrinolytic enzyme with excellent specificity for fibrin. A commercial oral enteric coated tablet for administration 3 times daily is available on the market from the DLBS manufacturer. This research aimed to develop a multiparticulate sustained-release DLBS1033 Forte (DLBS1033F) tablet (with more potent fibrinolytic activity than DLBS1033), which has targeted release in the small intestine and colon. The chemical and physical stability of the fibrinolytic enzyme was expected to be preserved in these bowel segments. The sustained-release system was designed to maintain the effective plasma concentration of the proteins and prolong the thrombolytic activity. This was done by incorporating the proteins in a multiparticulate solid that was subsequently compressed into the monolithic system of a sustained-release tablet. The challenge was to maintain pellet integrity after the compression process. A set of studies confirmed the preserved physical shape of the pellets. In addition, in vitro release studies of the multiparticulate tablet in reassembling media of the gastrointestinal tract indicated the successful formulation of DLBS1033F as an enteric as well as sustained-release solid dosage form.
Zoledronic acid and denosumab are two antiresorptive drugs currently in use for treating osteoporosis. They have different mechanisms of action, but both have been shown to delay the onset of skeletal-related events in patients with advanced cancer. However, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) has been reported in cancer patients treated with zoledronic acid or denosumab. We studied 155 patients with several types of advanced cancer who were treated with zoledronic acid or denosumab in our hospital during the period from April 2010 through March 2013. Thirteen of these 155 patients (8.4%) developed MRONJ. MRONJ development was significantly associated with the number of zoledronic acid or denosumab infusions (p<0.001) and the duration of zoledronic acid or denosumab therapy (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes [odds ratio (OR)=6.699, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.435–31.277, p=0.016], anemia [OR=14.559, 95% CI, 2.161–98.069, p=0.006], and pus discharge [OR=6.491, 95% CI, 1.514–27.835, p=0.012] significantly increased the risk of developing MRONJ. However, the risk of MRONJ was significantly lower [OR=0.137, 95% CI, 0.020–0.944, p=0.043] when patients received periodical dentistry maintenance. Diabetes, anemia, and pus discharge may also play roles in its development. These findings suggest that the active inclusion of dentistry maintenance in bisphosphonate or denosumab treatment of cancer patients can reduce MRONJ development.
We conducted a 16-week double-blind randomized controlled single-center trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dermal rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Fifty alopecia patients were randomly assigned to the experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received a dermal application of 0.5% RB-SCE (8 mL/d) to the head skin for 16 weeks while the control group received a dermal application of placebo. Changes in hair count, diameter, and density were evaluated with a Folliscope®. Patient satisfaction was evaluated via questionnaire and clinical photographs were rated by dermatologists. The results showed that RB-SCE significantly increased hair density and hair diameter in male subjects. Patient satisfaction and the evaluation of photographs by dermatologists also confirmed the effectiveness of RB-SCE in the treatment of alopecia. No adverse reactions related to RB-SCE were reported. Therefore, RB-SCE shows promise for use in functional cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
Diabetic vascular complication is one of the manifestations of endothelial dysfunction. Resveratrol (RV) is considered to be beneficial in protecting endothelial function. However, the exact protective effect and mechanisms involved have not been fully clarified. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and RV in diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction. Aortas were dissected and placed in organ chambers, and nitric oxide (NO) production in response to acetylcholine (ACh) and RV was measured. ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was markedly increased in controls by RV pretreatment. Furthermore, RV caused NO-dependent relaxation via the Akt signaling pathway, which was weaker in the aortas of diabetic mice than age-matched controls. To further examine the underlying mechanisms, we measured the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS by Western blotting. RV caused the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in aortas, which was decreased in diabetic mice. However, RV augmented the impaired clonidine-induced relaxation in diabetic mice. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS was increased under stimulation with RV and clonidine only in diabetic mice. Thus, either RV or clonidine causes Akt-dependent NO-mediated relaxation, which is weaker in diabetic mice than controls. However, additional exposure to RV and clonidine has an augmenting effect on the Akt/eNOS signaling pathway under diabetic conditions. RV-induced Akt/eNOS activity may be a common link involved in the clonidine-induced Akt/eNOS activity, so RV and clonidine may have a synergistic effect.
Wogonin, a natural flavonoid, is one of the bioactive compounds of the medicinal herb Eucommia ulmoides OLIV. widely used in southeastern Asia for treating hypertension. However, the molecular mechanisms for the therapeutic benefits remain largely unclear. The present study investigated the vasodilatory effect of wogonin and its possible mechanisms. The flavonoid (0.1–100 µM) caused concentration-dependent relaxations in endothelium-intact aortic rings precontracted with norepinephrine (NE, 1 µM) or potassium chloride (KCl, 60 mM). Preincubation with wogonin (10, 100 µM) for 20 min significantly inhibited the contractile responses to NE (0.1, 1, 10 µM) or KCl (7.5, 15, 30, 60 mM). Relaxant responses to wogonin were not inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (100 µM) or endothelial denudation. In a Ca2+-free Krebs’ solution, wogonin not only blocked Ca2+ influx-dependent vasoconstriction by either NE (1 µM) or KCl (100 mM), but also inhibited NE (1 µM)-induced tonic contraction, which is dependent on intracellular Ca2+ release. Wogonin also suppressed the elevation of [Ca2+]i induced by KCl (60 mM) after exhausting the calcium store in sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticula with thapsigargin (1 µM) or by ATP (100 µM) in primary vascular smooth muscle cells. These findings suggest that wogonin-induced responses are mainly due to the inhibition of both intracellular Ca2+ release and extracellular Ca2+ influx.
A lower serum cholesterol level was recently shown to be one of the causes of stroke in an epidemiological study. Spontaneously hypertensive rats stroke-prone (SHRSP) have lower serum cholesterol levels than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the lower serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP, we determined whether the amounts of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes or the receptor and transporter involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux in the liver were altered in SHRSP. When the mRNA levels of seven cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase and squalene epoxidase (SQE) levels in the liver of SHRSP were significantly lower than those in WKY. SQE protein levels were significantly reduced in tissues other than the brain of SHRSP. No significant differences were observed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (uptake of serum LDL-cholesterol) or ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (efflux of cholesterol from the liver/formation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) protein levels in the liver and testis between SHRSP and WKY, whereas scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1: uptake of serum HDL-cholesterol) protein levels were higher in the livers of SHRSP. These results indicated that the lower protein levels of SQE and higher protein levels of SRB1 in the liver were involved in the reduced serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive neuronal loss with amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plaques. Despite several drugs currently used to treat AD, their beneficial effects on AD progress remains under debate. Here, we established a rapid in vivo screening system using Drosophila AD models to assess the neuroprotective activities of medicinal plants that have been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Among 23 medicinal plants tested, the extracts from five plants, Coriandrum sativum, Nardostachys jatamansi, Polygonum multiflorum (P. multiflorum), Rehmannia glutinosa, and Sorbus commixta (S. commixta), showed protective effects against the Aβ42 neurotoxicity. We further characterized the neuroprotective activity of ethanol extracts from P. multiflorum and S. commixta. Aβ42-expressing flies that we used showed AD neurological phenotypes, such as decreased survival and motility and increased cell death and reactive oxygen species level. However, feeding these flies extracts from P. multiflorum or S. commixta showed strong suppression of such phenotypes. Similar results were observed in human cells, so that the treatment of P. multiflorum and S. commixta extracts increased the viability of Aβ-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside, one of the main constituents of P. multiflorum, also showed similar protective activity against Aβ42 cytotoxicity in both Drosophila and human cells. Taken together, our results suggest that both P. multiflorum and S. commixta have therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD.
In the present study, we isolated a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) from a citrus iyo fruit and identified it as Lactobacillus brevis. This plant-derived LAB strain, designated 174A, produces bacteriocin consisting of two polypeptides designated brevicin 174A-β and 174A-γ. Although each polypeptide itself displays antibacterial activity, the ability is enhanced 100 fold by mixing both polypeptides at a 1 : 1 ratio. Significantly, brevicin 174A inhibits even the growth of several pathogenic bacteria that are more resistant to a lantibiotic bacteriocin, nisin A, which is commonly utilized as a preservative added to foodstuffs. Structural analysis of the 174A bacteriocin using a program that predicts secondary structure suggests that both component polypeptides have a positively charged N-terminal region, as well as two cysteine residues in both the N- and C-terminals. Judging from a mutational analysis of the antibacterial polypeptides, these unique amino acid sequences of 174A-β might be important for the expression of the synergistic activity that occurs in the presence of the two polypeptides combined.
Estimating the extent to which drugs inhibit uridine 5′-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases1A1 (UGT1A1) enzyme activity is important for predicting hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. UGT1A1 enzyme activity is commonly evaluated by detecting the elimination of bilirubin substrate or the generation of bilirubin glucuronides. However, the present methods are inadequate for accurately assessing bilirubin metabolism, selecting incubation conditions, and comparing different systems. Therefore, in our study, we first established a ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS method to identify bilirubin and bilirubin glucuronides. To ensure the reaction was linear, we performed assays to optimize the protein concentration and incubation time. Finally, we measured UGT1A1 activity using three different systems. Data revealed the optimum incubation conditions were 10 min with 0.5 mg/mL human liver microsomes (HLM), recombinant human UGT1A1 (rUGT1A1), and rat liver microsomes (RLM). Bilirubin glucuronidation obeyed Michaelis–Menten kinetics in all three systems. The diversity in bilirubin metabolism among species was revealed. rUGT1A1 had the strongest binding affinity for bilirubin, but the lowest metabolism velocity. Compared with the other systems, RLM exhibited a significant difference. It has the lowest CLint and the highest Km. The difference in parameters between three systems may be attributable to the species differences. In conclusion, these in vitro studies provide useful information regarding drug interactions and the prediction of toxicity for future studies.
We previously reported that dermal application using nanoparticles improves skin penetration. In this study, we prepared novel topical formulations containing ketoprofen (KET) solid nanoparticles (KETnano gel ointment) and investigated the antiinflammatory effect of the KET nanoparticle formulations on rheumatoid arthritis using adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats. The KETnano gel ointment was prepared using a bead mill method and additives including methylcellulose and Carbopol 934; the mean particle size of the KET nanoparticles was 83 nm. In the in vitro skin penetration experiment, the penetration rate (Jc) and penetration coefficient through the skin (Kp) values of the KETnano gel ointment were significantly higher than those of gel ointment containing KET microparticles (KETmicro gel ointment; mean particle size 7.7 µm). On the other hand, in the in vivo percutaneous absorption experiment, the apparent absorption rate constant (ka) and the areas under the KET concentration–time curve values in the skin of rats receiving the KETnano gel ointment were significantly higher than those of rats receiving the KETmicro gel ointment, and the amounts of KET in the skin tissues of rats receiving the KETnano gel ointment were also significantly higher than those of rats receiving the KETmicro gel ointment. In addition, the application of the KETnano gel ointment attenuated the enhancement of paw edema of the hind feet of AA rats more than the application of the KETmicro gel ointment. Our findings suggest that a topical drug delivery system using nanoparticles could lead to expansion in the therapeutic use of KET.
We have previously isolated spontaneous insulin-resistant mice (ddY-H) and non-insulin-resistant mice (ddY-L) from ddY mice. In the present study, age-dependent onset of insulin resistance in obese ddY-H mice was investigated by comparing with lean ddY-L mice. In ddY-H mice fed a standard diet, an increase in elevation of glucose-stimulated plasma insulin level, glucose intolerance in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and a reduction of hypoglycemic action of insulin were found at 9 weeks of age, but not at 6 weeks of age. When ddY-H mice were administered nateglinide, a greater elevation of plasma insulin level and a less decrease of serum glucose level were observed at 9 weeks of age. These changes developed progressively with age. These findings suggest that insulin resistance is induced at 9 weeks of age. The age-related change in insulin resistance was correlated with reductions in mRNA expression and protein content of the insulin receptor (InsR), and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in the epididymal adipose tissue. On the other hand, in the liver, mRNA expression of InsR and IRS-1 did not change at any age, although that of the IRS-2 was reduced. Thus, in ddY-H mice, insulin resistance and glucose-stimulated hyper-secretion of insulin are induced at 9 weeks of age and are reciprocally affected, resulting in progression to a more severe state at an older age. Insulin resistance may be attributed, at least in part, to the decreases in the mRNA expressions and proteins of InsR, IRS-1 and IRS-2 in adipose tissue.
The rewarding effects of alcohol can lead to progressively heavier and more frequent drinking. Since studies of reward have mainly focused on responses to higher alcohol doses, the relations between reward and moderate/sustained alcohol exposure remain unknown. Our objective was to evaluate factors affecting the reward value of low alcohol doses and risk factors for increasing alcohol doses due to reward progression caused by alcohol exposure patterns. We thus performed conditioned place preference (CPP) and ethanol (EtOH)-induced locomotor sensitization tests in mice. Low-dose EtOH (0.5 or 1 g/kg twice/week)-induced CPP was stronger than that produced by saline control treatment, but the effect decreased with increasing numbers of conditioning trials. Moderate-dose/long-term EtOH exposure induced a weaker CPP than high-dose/short-term EtOH (2 g/kg twice/week) exposure with the same total EtOH dose (8 g/kg/experiment). Acamprosate calcium, an anti-relapse drug, preclusively reduced EtOH-induced CPP. EtOH induced CPP and locomotor sensitization in black but not white chamber, although the initial preference and the basal locomotion in each chamber were equal. Therefore the brightness of the chamber had an effect on EtOH-induced sensitization. Moreover, additional studies indicated that EtOH-induced locomotor sensitization also depends on the dose but not the administration interval. Paired associative learning with EtOH exposure is a potent factor influencing the level of reward produced by EtOH. Moreover, exposure to high doses of alcohol, even on an intermittent schedule, carries a higher risk of addiction than exposure to moderate doses over longer periods.
This study investigated the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist, 2-octynyladenosine (YT-146), on mitochondrial function in ischemic and ischemic/reperfused hearts. Isolated rat hearts were perfused in the Langendorff manner with a constant flow rate, and exposed to 30 min of ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Preischemic treatment with YT-146 significantly improved postischemic recovery of left ventricular developed pressure. The high-energy phosphate content in reperfused hearts treated with YT-146 was also more greatly restored than in untreated hearts. YT-146 treatment attenuated the Na+ content of a mitochondria-enriched fraction, but not the myocardial Na+ content, at the end of ischemia. These results suggest that preischemic YT-146 treatment preserves the energy-producing ability of mitochondria during ischemia in the Na+-accumulated myocardium. YT-146 also attenuated both the sodium lactate-induced decrease in mitochondrial energy-producing ability and the increase in mitochondrial Na+ concentration in the myocardial skinned fibers. YT-146 may attenuate Na+ influx to myocardial mitochondria in ischemic cardiac cells, resulting in both preservation of the ability of mitochondria to produce energy and enhancement of the contractile recovery in reperfused hearts. Our findings suggest that the cardioprotective effects of YT-146 against ischemia/reperfusion injury are at least partially due to the preservation of mitochondrial function in the ischemic myocardium.
Mast cells are well established effector cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions such as allergic rhinitis. However, recent studies have suggested that activated mast cells enhance local immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that non-immunological mast cell activators may have the potential to enhance local IgE synthesis. Here, we examined the effect of compound 48/80 (C48/80), a mast cell activator, on IgE and immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis. Female Balb/c mice were intranasally administered a mixture of ovalbumin (OVA) (1–10 µg/nose) and C48/80 (1–100 µg/nose) on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and on consecutive days from day 28 to day 42. Intranasal administration of C48/80 with OVA increased serum OVA-specific IgE and IgG. Double staining with fluorescent-labeled OVA and fluorescent-labeled IgE- or IgG-specific antibody demonstrated the presence of OVA-specific IgE- or IgG-producing cells in the nasal mucosa of sensitized mice. Moreover, intranasal administration of C48/80 with OVA increased the nasal mucosal interleukin (IL)-4 level and enhanced the OVA-induced symptom of sneezing. These results suggested that simultaneous activation of mast cells with antigen exposure enhances local IgE and IgG synthesis.
Sesamin (SM) and episesamin (ESM) are constituents of sesame seeds, which are used in health foods and considered to have various beneficial effects in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette transporter involved in drug absorption in the human gastrointestinal tract. A recent report indicated that SM influences P-gp-mediated drug transport. In the present study, we investigated whether SM and ESM inhibit P-gp in vitro, using Caco-2 cells and the typical P-gp substrates rhodamine123 (Rho123) and fexofenadine. SM and ESM showed no effect on accumulation of these compounds, indicating that SM and ESM do not influence P-gp function. In addition, an in vivo study using Rho123 indicated that SM and ESM do not affect absorption of P-gp substrates. Overall, these results suggest that health foods containing SM and ESM are unlikely to interact with P-gp substrates.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease with adult onset, characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a lipid mediator, exerts its biological functions by binding to four subtypes of E-prostanoid (EP1–4). Among them, EP3 has been shown to have multiple isoforms, EP3α, EP3β, and EP3γ, produced by alternative splicing. Since PGE2 has been shown to have important pathophysiological roles in ALS, experiments were performed to identify EP3 receptor isoform(s) in spinal motor neurons of wild-type (WT) and ALS model (G93A) mice. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of adult mice demonstrated expression of EP3α and EP3γ mRNAs in the lumbar spinal cord, whereas EP3β mRNA was barely detectable. Laser capture microdissection was used to dissect out motor neurons from frozen samples of lumbar spinal cord in these mice for analysis by real-time PCR. We found that expression of EP3γ mRNA was predominant in these neurons, whereas EP3α and EP3β mRNAs were undetectable. At the early symptomatic stage, the mRNA expression profiles of these splice isoforms in G93A motor neurons were comparable to those in neurons from WT mice. These results suggest that the PGE2-to-EP3 signaling pathway is mediated mainly by the EP3γ isoform in the motor neurons of mice, and that modulation of the EP3γ isoform in motor neurons may be a promising new therapeutic approach for ALS.
We screened inhibitors in the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A/cAMP response element binding protein pathway (AC/PKA/CREB pathway) from a 2400 chemical library by a cell-based assay method using bioluminescence probes. We found a compound that inhibited forskolin-induced cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent transcription, the interaction between the kinase-inducible domain (KID) and the interacting domain (KIX), and endogenous CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, this compound suppressed the activity of the PKA catalytic subunit dose-dependently. On the other hand, this compound did not inhibit forskolin-induced cAMP up-regulation. Taken together, we conclude that we have identified a new PKA inhibitor that binds to the catalytic subunit directly. We also succeeded in shortening the screening protocol by excluding a screening step which was used in a previous method.
Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) via cytochrome enzymes such as CYP 2C9, 2C8 and 2J2. EETs play a role in cardioprotection and regulation of blood pressure. Recently, adverse reactions such as sudden heart attack and fatal myocardial infarction were reported among patients taking angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). As some ARBs have affinity for these CYP enzymes, metabolic inhibition of AA by ARBs is a possible cause for the increase in cardiovascular events. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the inhibitory effects of ARBs on the formation of EETs and further metabolites, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), from AA via CYP2C8. In incubations with recombinant CYP2C8 in vitro, the inhibitory effects were compared by measuring EETs and DHETs by HPLC-MS/MS. Inhibition of AA metabolism by ARBs was detected in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of losartan (42.7 µM), telmisartan (49.5 µM), irbesartan (55.6 µM), olmesartan (66.2 µM), candesartan (108 µM), and valsartan (279 µM). Losartan, telmisartan and irbesartan, which reportedly accumulate in the liver and kidneys, have stronger inhibitory effects than other ARBs. The lower concentration of EETs leads to less protective action on the cardiovascular system and a higher incidence of adverse effects such as sudden heart attack and myocardial infarction in patients taking ARBs.
Newly synthesized secretory proteins are folded and assembled in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where an efficient protein quality control system performs a critically important function. When unfolded or aggregated proteins accumulate in the ER, certain signaling pathways such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER-overload response (EOR) are functionally active in maintaining cell homeostasis. Recently we prepared Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing mutant antithrombin (AT)(C95R) under control of the Tet-On system and showed that AT(C95R) accumulated in Russell bodies (RB), large distinctive structures derived from the ER. To characterize whether ER stress takes place in CHO cells, we examined characteristic UPR and EOR in ER stress responses. We found that the induction of ER chaperones such as Grp97, Grp78 and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was limited to a maximum of approximately two-fold. The processing of X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) mRNA and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) subunit were not induced. Furthermore, the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was not observed. In contrast, CHO cells displayed UPR and EOR when the cells were treated with thapsigargin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, respectively. In addition, a portion of the mutant AT(C95R) was degraded through proteasomes and autophagy. CHO cells do respond to ER stress but the folding state of mutant AT(C95R) does not appear to activate the ER stress signal pathway.