The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and progressive loss of neurons are two main characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Supplement of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) is a promising strategy for repair of the neurodegenerative diseases. However, hostile microenvironment of neurodegenerative brain is harmful for the neuroregeneration. Aβ42 promoted the proliferation of NSPCs. Moreover, Aβ42 (10—1000 nM) promoted the migration of NSPCs in a dose-dependent manner. The attraction of NSPCs toward Aβ42 was significantly offset by 10 μM cyclosporin H, a potent and selective formyl peptide receptor antagonist. After incubation with Aβ42 for 9 d, the migration ability of NSPCs was significantly decreased (p<0.05). The expression of formyl peptide receptor (FPR) and CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) were significantly decreased in NSPCs. The expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) was up-regulated on the membrane of NSPCs correspondingly. Our results suggested that Aβ42 decreases the migratory capacity of NSPCs by FPR heterologous desensitization after long time incubation, and GRK2 in NSPCs may be responsible for the damaged migratory capacity.
Curcumin is an inhibitor of p300 histone acetyltransferase activity, which is associated with the deterioration of heart failure. We reported that native curcumin, at a dosage of 50 mg/kg, prevented deterioration of the systolic function in rat models of heart failure. To achieve more efficient oral pharmacological therapy against heart failure by curcumin, we have developed a novel drug delivery system (DDS) which markedly increases plasma curcumin levels. At the dosage of 0.5 mg/kg, DDS curcumin but not native curcumin restored left ventricular fractional shortening in post-myocardial infarction rats. Thus, our DDS strategy will be applicable to the clinical setting in humans.
The study was carried out in the Wistar rats to investigate the effect of curcumin pre-treatment on the pharmacokinetics of the hypertension-treating drug losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 following single oral administration. In the treatment group, rats were gavaged with losartan 10 mg/kg after repeat oral doses of curcumin (100 mg/kg, for 7 d), while rats in the control group were administrated only with the same dose losartan. The results showed that curcumin significantly increased the plasma concentrations of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174. The present study implicated the existence of herb-drug interaction between curcumin and losartan, and further evaluation of the possible interaction during curcumin administration needs to be considered.
Carvedilol is administered orally as a racemic mixture of R(+)- and S(−)-enantiomers for treatment of angina pectoris, hypertension and chronic heart failure. We have reported that enzyme kinetic parameters for carvedilol glucuronidation by human liver microsomes (HLM) differed greatly depending on the substrate form, namely, racemic carvedilol and each enantiomer. These phenomena were thought to be caused by mutual inhibition between carvedilol enantiomers during racemate glucuronidation. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of these phenomena in HLM and human intestinal microsomes (HIM) and its relevance to uridine 5′-diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A1, UGT2B4 and UGT2B7, which mainly metabolize carvedilol directly in phase II enzymes. HLM apparently preferred metabolizing (S)-carvedilol to (R)-carvedilol in the racemate, but true activities of HLM for both glucuronidation were approximately equal. By determination of the inhibitory effects of (S)-carvedilol on (R)-carvedilol glucuronidation and vice versa, it was shown that (R)-carvedilol glucuronidation was more easily inhibited than was (S)-carvedilol glucuronidation. UGT2B7 was responsible for (S)-carvedilol glucuronidation in HLM. Ratios of contribution to (R)-carvedilol glucuronidation were approximately equal among UGT1A1, UGT2B4 and UGT2B7. However, enzyme kinetic parameters were different between the two lots of HLM used in this study, depending on the contribution ratio of UGT2B4, in which (R)-glucuronidation was much more easily inhibited by (S)-carvedilol than was (S)-glucuronidation by (R)-carvedilol. Meanwhile, HIM preferred metabolizing (R)-carvedilol, and this tendency was not different between the kinds of substrate form.
Danshen, derived from the dried root or rhizome of Salviae miltiorrhizae BGE., has Tanshinone IIA (TSA) as one of its active ingredients. Recent reports have shown that TSA can inhibit the apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal or ethanol in cultured PC12 cells. However, whether TSA has any neuroprotective effectremains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of TSA on cerebral apoptosis induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in which cerebral ischemia had been induced 2 h earlier. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, the rats were assessed for infarct volume etc. Intraperitoneal administration of 25and 40 mg/kg TSA 10 min after MCAO significantly diminished infarct volume and brain water content and improved neurological deficits in a dose-dependent manner. The 25 mg/kg dosage was more effective. Treatment with 25 mg/kg TSA significantly improved symptoms and reduce infarct volume at different points in time, of which 10 min after MCAO was the most significant. Nissl-staining and HE-staining of the 25 mg/kg TSA group were more appreciable in terms of improvement relative to the vehicle group in the infarct core. TSA of dosage 25 mg/kg significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein and increased the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2) protein in the ischemic cortex. Fewer terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were found in the penumbra of the treated group, but they were significantly more common in the vehicle group. We here conclude that the neuroprotective effects of TSA against focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury are likely to be related to the attenuation of apoptosis.
Oxidative damage and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of liver injury and fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which gomisin A conferred a hepatoprotective effect, focusing on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects using rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury. Pretreatment with gomisin A prior to the administration of CCl4 markedly prevented an increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and histological hepatic lesions. Gomisin A was also associated with a decrease in hepatic lipid peroxidation, and increased superoxide dismutase activity, suggesting that gomisin A has an antioxidant effect. In addition gomisin A treatment ameliorated mRNA levels of CCl4-induced inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, and the protein levels of transcriptional upregulator nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and phospho-inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB). Furthermore, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a myofibroblast marker, was also inhibited by gomisin A treatment. These results suggest that gomisin A inhibits the oxidative stress and activation of NF-κB, leading to down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and amelioration of fibrogenesis.
Kefir is a traditional fermented milk beverage produced by kefir grains in the Caucasian countries. Kefiran produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in kefir grains is an exopolysaccharide having a repeating structure with glucose and galactose residues in the chain sequence and has been suggested to exert many health-promoting effects such as immunomodulatory, hypotensive, hypocholesterolemic activities. Here we investigated the effects of kefiran on mast cell activation induced by antigen. Pretreatment with kefiran significantly inhibited antigen-induced Ca2+ mobilization, degranulation, and tumor necrosis factor-α production in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) in a dose-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) after antigen stimulation was also suppressed by pretreatment of BMMCs with kefiran. These findings indicate that kefiran suppresses mast cell degranulation and cytokine production by inhibiting the Akt and ERKs pathways, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect for kefiran.
The fatty acid profile of hepatic lipid in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)/NDmcr-cp (cp/cp) rats (SHR/NDcp), which offer an animal model of the metabolic syndrome, was characterized by comparing those in Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), SHR, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and SHR/NDmcr-cp (+/+) rats (SHR/ND+) . Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that SHR/NDcp and the other four strains and/or substrains of rats were clearly disparate in fatty acid profile of hepatic lipid and that the disparity observed was due to the drastic increases in the mass of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, in the liver of SHR/NDcp. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and palmitoyl-CoA chain elongase in hepatic microsomes of SHR/NDcp were markedly higher than those of WKY, SHR, SHRSP and SHR/ND+. Activities of palmitoleoyl-CoA chain elongase in the liver of SHR/NDcp were also higher, but to a lesser extent. mRNA levels of SCD1 and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl6), but not Elovl5, in the liver of SHR/NDcp were remarkably higher than those of the other four groups of rats. These results suggest that the enhanced expressions of SCD1 and Elovl6 induced abnormalities in fatty acid profile in the liver of SHR/NDcp.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of skin thickness on the in vitro permeabilities of 3 model drugs with different physicochemical properties (nicorandil (NR), isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and flurbiprofen (FP)) through Sprague-Dawley rat (rat) or Yucatan micropig (YMP) skin. Intact, dermis-split, stratum corneum-stripped or stratum corneum-stripped and dermis-split rat or YMP skin (rat skin thickness: approximately 0.4, 0.9 or 1.2 mm; YMP skin thickness: approximately 0.4, 0.9, 1.8 or 2.8 mm) were set in Franz-type diffusion cells to determine the permeation rate, lag time and resistance ratio of the viable epidermis and dermis against whole skin (Rved/Rtot) of the drugs. The YMP skin permeabilities of the drugs decreased with an increase in the skin thickness, and significant differences were observed in the permeation rates and lag times between intact and dermis-split (0.4 mm) YMP skins. The decreases in the permeabilities of the drugs through the YMP skin were larger than those through the rat skin. The influence of resistances of ISDN and FP through the dermis-split rat or YMP skin was greater at 0.9 mm skin thickness than 0.4 mm skin thickness. The Rved/Rtot values for the YMP skins were relatively large for lipophilic drugs (ISDN and FP), and these ratios increased with an increase in the dermis thickness. These results suggest that in vitro skin permeation studies must be done using dermis-split (0.4 mm) skin with the thinnest dermis for predicting in vivo human percutaneous absorption rate.
Studies on drug disposition in inflamed skin are important for safe and effective application of topical drugs. Here, the absorption of flurbiprofen (FP) through inflamed skin was examined in vivo and in a skin-mimicking artificial model system. The model skin system consisted of a silicone membrane acting as a model stratum corneum, laminated dialysis membranes acting as a model of viable skin, and 2 microdialysis probes—one used for determination of FP concentration and one acting as a model vessel. This model system could be used for quantitative evaluation of complicated permeation processes. In the in vivo experiments, FP absorption was suppressed in rats with inflamed skin induced by an intracutaneous injection of a mixed solution of λ-carrageenan, zymosan, and casein. Bovine serum albumin solution was placed between the dialysis membranes in the model skin system to mimic protein leaching in skin; the results suggested that the delayed absorption of FP in inflamed skin was due to binding to serum proteins leaching in the tissue. Such a combination of in vivo experiments and a model skin system is useful for understanding complex phenomena in inflamed and damaged skin and reduces experimental animal use.
The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 μg/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3′-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 μM without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 μM) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation.
The high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (IgE) (FcεRI)-mediated activation of mast cells plays an important role in various allergic diseases. To assess the anti-allergic activity of natural vanadium-containing Jeju groundwater (JW), an in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) animal model and in vitro mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) was used. JW inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-dependent prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) generation in a dose-dependent manner, with a concomitant reduction of COX-2 protein expression in IgE-induced BMMCs. In addition, JW inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-dependent generation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) as well as degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that JW has dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitory activity. In addition, vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), which is the major vanadium component of JW, also inhibited PGD2 and LTC4 generation as well as degranulation in IgE-induced BMMCs. Furthermore, oral administration of JW dose-dependently inhibited mast cell-dependent passive anaphylactic reaction in IgE-sensitized mice. Taken together, these results suggest that JW may be useful in regulating mast cell-mediated allergic response through the suppression of eicosanoid generation and degranulation in mast cells.
The peel of Citrus sunki HORT. ex TANAKA has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of many diseases, including indigestion and bronchial asthma. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity activity of immature C. sunki peel extract (designated CSE) using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6 mice and mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the animal study, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride in the CSE-administered group decreased significantly compared to the HFD group. Also, CSE supplementation reduced serum levels of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, it significantly decreased the accumulation of fatty droplets in liver tissue, suggesting a protective effect against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Dietary supplementation with CSE reversed the HFD-induced decrease in the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which are related to fatty acid β-oxidation, in the epididymal adipose tissue. Also, CSE increased AMPK and ACC phosphorylation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CSE also enhanced lipolysis by phosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that CSE had an antiobesity effect via elevated β-oxidation and lipolysis in adipose tissue.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the anti-fatigue effect of Conclevan, which is mainly composed of liver hydrolysate, via a forced swimming test using mice. Conclevan was administered to mice for 6 weeks, and a forced swimming test was conducted to measure swimming time. After six weeks, the blood ammonia and glutamine concentrations were measured. In the Conclevan administration group, swimming time increased significantly compared to the swimming control group. In the swimming control group, an increase in blood ammonia and a decrease in blood glutamine were observed, relative to the non-swimming control group. In the Conclevan administration group, the increased blood ammonia and decreased blood glutamine induced by swimming were significantly reduced, compared to the swimming control group. The mRNA expression levels of the hepatic enzymes of the urea cycle (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, argininosuccinate synthetase, and arginase) and glutamine synthesis (glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase) were significantly increased in the Conclevan administration group, compared to the swimming control group. The results of this study demonstrated the anti-fatigue effects of Conclevan. This product may inhibit an increase in the fatigue-inducing ammonia concentration in the blood by increasing the expression of hepatic enzymes, which convert ammonia to urea, leading to increased swimming time. In addition, Conclevan may prolong swimming time by increasing the hepatic synthesis of glutamine, which is an important amino acid for supplying energy in muscles.
We attempted to develop anti-cataract eye drops using disulfiram (DSF) and low-substituted methylcellulose (MC), and evaluated their anti-cataract effect in terms of the lens opacification vs. age-profile curves using a one-exponential equation. The eye drops were prepared using 0.5% DSF and 2% MC (DSF eye drops), and ICR/f rats, a recessive-type hereditary cataractous strain, were used as the experimental model. Gelation of DSF eye drops containing MC was first observed at about 35°C, close to body temperature. In in vivo transcorneal penetration experiments using rabbit corneas, only diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) was detected in the aqueous humor, while DSF was not detected. The DDC penetration level of DSF eye drops containing MC was approximately 1.3-fold higher than that of DSF eye drops. The opacification rate constant (k) of ICR/f rat instilled with DSF eye drops with or without MC was lower, and the initial time of opacification (τ) was longer than those of ICR/f rats instilled with saline. Furthermore, the k of ICR/f rats instilled with DSF eye drops with MC was lower than that of ICR/f rats instilled with DSF eye drops without MC. In conclusion, the analysis of kinetic parameters including k and τ using a one-exponential equation provided useful information for clarifying the anti-cataract effect of eye drops. ICR/f rats instilled with DSF eye drops using a low-substituted MC-based drug delivery system demonstrated a delay in cataract development, probably resulting from an increase in the retention of DSF eye drops on the cornea.
Hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) are rate-limiting enzymes for cholesterol biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively. Involvement of inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin-1 (IL-1), in alterations of HMGR and Cyp7a1 gene expression during development of lead nitrate (LN)-induced hypercholesterolemia was examined in IL-1α/β-knockout (IL-1-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Lead nitrate treatment of WT mice led to not only a marked downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene at 6—12 h, but also a significant upregulation of the HMGR gene at 12 h. However, such changes were not observed at significant levels in IL-1-KO mice, although a slight, transient downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene and a minimal upregulation of the HMGR gene occurred at 6 h and 24 h, respectively. Consequently, LN treatment led to development of hypercholesterolemia at 24 h in WT mice, but not in IL-1-KO mice. Furthermore, in WT mice, significant LN-mediated increases were observed at 3—6 h in hepatic IL-1 levels, which can modulate gene expression of Cyp7a1 and HMGR. These findings indicate that, in mice, LN-mediated increases in hepatic IL-1 levels contribute, at least in part, to altered expressions of Cyp7a1 and HMGR genes, and eventually to hypercholesterolemia development.
We examined the in vivo effects of intravenously administered 2′-deoxycytidine (dCyd) on tumor growth and survival time in mice bearing SP2/0-Ag14 (SP2/0) myeloma tumors. Administration of dCyd tended to decrease the tumor volume and significantly decreased the tumor weight. A single intravenous administration of dCyd significantly increased survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. The effect of dCyd on tumor growth was maintained for at least 1 week after the final administration. The net amount of dCyd in the kidney, liver, and spleen of the tumor-bearing mice increased 2.5 to 5.3 fold compared with the amount in non-tumor-bearing mice. Our results suggest that the increase in dCyd in the mice inoculated SP2/0 myeloma cells plays an important role for the growth suppression of the tumor.
This is the first study to detect 2-methyl-4′-(methylthio)-2-morpholinopropiophenone (MTMP) from an intravenous injection bag solution by GC-MS. In previous studies, several other photoinitiators were reported to be very cytotoxic. Therefore, we theorized that photoinitiators such as MTMP might also have adverse cellular effects. The purpose of this study was to quantitate the amounts of contaminants from plastic containers such as those used for peripheral parenteral nutrition and to determine the cytotoxicity of such extracts on human monocytes. The sample extraction procedure for GC-MS analysis involved a liquid-phase extraction. The solvent was evaporated under a stream of nitrogen at 50°C. The residue was dissolved in n-hexane and injected into a GC-MS. Normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), isolated from the buffy coat by centrifugation, were suspended in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) heat-inactivated fetal calf serum. In the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cells (1×104) were treated with MTMP for 24 h or 48 h at 37°C. From the GC-MS analysis, 5.62±1.03 μg/mL of MTMP was found in the BFLUID® Injection 500 mL solution. In the MTT assay, MTMP decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner for both the 24 h and 48 h incubation periods. Our findings suggest that photoinitiators could promote adverse effects in patients. Future studies will clarify the possible health risks of photoinitiator accumulation in human cells.
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been reported to exhibit a variety of biological effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. The extent of an in vitro glycation reaction mixture of collagen and glycolaldehyde was assayed to investigate the inhibition of glycolaldehye-derived advanced glycation end products (glycol-AGEs) formation with GNPs in collagen, which is a major protein component of the human dermis. GNP-treated collagen showed significantly less glycation (56.3±4.2%) than an untreated glycation control. Moreover, GNP-treated glycation in a collagen lattice model significantly decreased the AGEs distribution in the model system. Taken together, these results suggest that GNPs have the potential for use in the prevention of glycation-induced skin aging.
It is known that the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) would be associated with genetic factors. To investigate the susceptibility to psychiatric disorders, e.g. MDD, schizophrenia etc., it is necessary to compare the genetic differences of objective polymorphisms between in patients and in relative contol subjects. Recently, an increasing number of studies focused on the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein 1 (CREB1) and Piccolo (PCLO) on MDD. However, there was no report about genetic characterization of polymorphisms in between MDD patients and healthy subjects in Japanese population. We analized genotype distributions and allele frequencies of CREB1 rs4675690 and PCLO rs2522833 polymorphisms in 267 Japanese subjects, respectively. In CREB1 rs4675690, C allele frequency (0.41) was lower than T allele (0.59). While in PCLO rs2522833, A allele frequency (0.45) was lower than C allele (0.55). Our findings may be useful for investigating the genetic factors concerning the susceptibility to MDD in Japanese population.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) selectively retro-transports and degrades unfolded proteins accumulated in the ER. We have demonstrated that the ubiquitin ligase HRD1 involved in ERAD was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Furthermore, the HRD1 level was negatively correlated with amyloid β (Aβ) production levels. Here we found that the HRD1 protein level decrease was due to its insolubilization. Moreover, these protein levels extracted from detergent insoluble fraction were positively correlated with those of SEL1L and Aβs (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Thus, the insolubilization-induced decrease in the HRD1 and SEL1L levels might involve in Aβ generation.