Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Online ISSN : 1347-5215
Print ISSN : 0918-6158
ISSN-L : 0918-6158
42 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の30件中1~30を表示しています
Reviews
  • Norimitsu Morioka, Yoki Nakamura, Fang Fang Zhang, Kazue Hisaoka-Nakas ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 857-866
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Chronic pain, including inflammatory, neuropathic pain, is a serious clinical issue. There are increasing numbers of patients with chronic pain due to the growing number of elderly and it is estimated that about 25% of the global population will develop chronic pain. Chronic pain patients are refractory to medications used to treat acute pain such as opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Furthermore, the complexity and diversity of chronic pain mechanisms hinder the development of new analgesics. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanism of chronic pain is needed, which would facilitate the development of novel analgesics based on novel mechanisms. With this goal, connexins (Cxs) could be targeted for the development of new analgesics. Connexins are proteins with 20 subtypes, and function as channels, gap junctions between cells, and hemichannels that sample the extracellular space and release molecules such as neurotransmitters. Furthermore, Cxs could have functions independent of channel activity. Recent studies have shown that Cxs could be crucial in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain, and modulation of the activity or the expression of Cxs ameliorates nociceptive hypersensitivity in multiple chronic pain models. This review will cite novel findings on the role of of Cxs in the nociceptive transduction pathway under the chronic pain state and antinociceptive effects of various molecules modulating activity or expression of Cxs. Also, the potential of Cx modulation as a therapeutic strategy for intractable chronic pain will be discussed.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Maho Yagi-Utsumi
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 867-872
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Dynamic conformational transitions and molecular assemblies are essential properties of proteins, and relevant to their biological and pathological functions. Neurodegenerative diseases are known to be caused by abnormal, toxic assemblies of related proteins, e.g., amyloid β (Aβ) in Alzheimer’s disease. Growing evidence indicates that the aggregation of various amyloidogenic proteins, including Aβ, can be highly enhanced at glycolipid membranes, suggesting that dynamic glycolipid-dependent conformational changes of proteins constitute crucial steps for their subsequent pathogenic amyloid fibril formation. It has also been proposed that several proteins, including molecular chaperones, can capture amyloidogenic proteins and thereby suppress their fibrillization. NMR spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for characterizing the conformational dynamics and intermolecular interactions of proteins, as well as for exploring transiently formed weak interactions among proteins in solution with various biomolecules, such as glycolipids. Our research group therefore attempted to elucidate the structural basis of protein–glycolipid and protein–protein interactions that either promote or suppress molecular assemblies of amyloidogenic proteins, using both solution and solid-state NMR methods in conjunction with other biophysical techniques. Our findings provide structural views of molecular processes involving amyloidogenic proteins of clinical and pathological interest and offer clues for the development of drugs to prevent and treat neurodegenerative diseases.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
Communication to the Editor
  • Shuchao Ma, Linan Wang, Ben Ouyang, Xinfa Bai, Qinglin Ji, Lei Yao
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 873-876
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    To establish a synthetic route to d3-poziotinib hydrochloride. Treatment of 4-chloro-7-hydroxyquinazolin-6-yl pivalate (1) with d3-methyliodide afforded the etherization product, which reacted with 3,4-dichloro-2-fluoroaniline to generate the key intermediate d3-4-(3,4-dichloro-2-fluorophenylamino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl pivalate (3). Followed the de-protection reaction, the nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction with tert-butyl 4-(tosyloxy)piperidine-1-carboxylate (TSP), and the de-protection reaction of t-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) group, and the amide formation reaction with acrylyl chloride, d3-poziotinib was obtained, which was converted to hydrochloride salt by treatment with concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl). Starting from a known compound 4-chloro-7-hydroxyquinazolin-6-yl pivalate (1), after 7 steps transformation, d3-poziotinib hydrochloride was obtained with a total yield of 9.02%. The structure of d3-poziotinib hydrochloride was confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and high resolution (HR)-MS. Meanwhile, the in vitro microsomal stability experiment showed that d3-poziotinib had a longer half time (t1/2 = 4.6 h) than poziotinib (t1/2 = 3.5 h).

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
Regular Articles
  • Yuka Terada, Naoki Higashi, Yuki Hidaka, Yasumasa Isomoto, Katsutoshi ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 877-885
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Orthovanadate (OVA), a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, induces contraction in endothelium-denuded mouse thoracic aortas. OVA-induced contraction was significantly (vs. control rings) suppressed by Rho kinase (Y-27632, 10 µM), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2, FR180204, 10 µM), Erk1/2 kinase (MEK, PD98059, 10 µM), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, AG1478, 10 µM), and Src inhibitors, and was partially suppressed by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, AS601245, 10 µM) and p38 (SB203580, 10 µM) inhibitors. However, a myosin light chain kinase inhibitor (ML-7, 10 µM) and a metalloproteinase inhibitor (TAPI-0, 10 µM) had no effect on OVA-induced contraction in mouse thoracic aortas. Phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) was abolished by inhibitors of Src, EGFR, MEK, Erk1/2, and Rho kinase, but not by inhibitors of JNK and p38. Erk1/2 phosphorylation by OVA was blocked by inhibitors of EGFR, Src, MEK, and Erk1/2, but not by Rho kinase inhibition. Src phosphorylation at Tyr-416 was abrogated by only Src inhibitor. EGFR phosphorylation at Tyr-1173 was suppressed by a Src inhibitor. These findings suggest that OVA induces contraction via activation of Src, EGFR, MEK, Erk1/2, and Rho kinase, leading to inactivation of myosin light chain phosphatase via MYPT1 phosphorylation.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Yangbiao He, Xujun Lang, Dong Cheng, Zhihao Yang
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 886-891
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/28
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Previous studies implicated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway in renal fibrosis and found that curcumin could suppress the expression of mTOR. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of curcumin against chronic renal failure (CRF) in a rat model induced by 5/6 nephrectomy through inhibition of mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling. A total of 70 male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into seven groups: a sham group, a CRF group, and five treatment groups. Except for the sham rats, all rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy to induce CRF. The 5/6 nephrectomized rats received treatment with curcumin vehicle, everolimus vehicle, curcumin, everolimus, or the combination of curcumin and everolimus. Everolimus, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, was used as a positive control. At the end of treatment, blood biochemical indexes, proteinuria and the kidney index were detected. Moreover, histological change was examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and protein expression levels were detected by Western blotting. The blood biochemical indexes, proteinuria, and kidney index were increased in the CRF group as compared to the sham group, which was accompanied by marked activation of the mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF pathway. However, curcumin, as well as everolimus, restored or ameliorated these changes. These results indicate that activation of the mTOR/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway plays an important role in the occurrence and development of CRF, and that curcumin has renoprotective effects by blocking activation of this pathway.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Wei Jiang, Maojian Chen, Chanchan Xiao, Weiping Yang, Qinghong Qin, Qi ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 892-899
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Triptolide has been indicated potent anti-cancer effect involving multiple molecular targets and signaling pathways. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved DNA-binding protein taking part in breast cancer development. The therapeutic effect of triptolide on HMGB1 has not been reported. Thus, our study aims to clarify the role of HMGB1 in triptolide-induced anti-growth effect on breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that triptolide significantly suppressed growth of breast cancer cells by inhibition of cell viability, clonogenic ability. Further studies evidenced that triptolide treatment not only inhibited HMGB1 mRNA expression, but also decreased supernatant level of HMGB1 in vitro. In line with these observations, exogenous recombinant HMGB1 (rHMGB1) promoted cell proliferation of breast cancer, and triptolide reversed the rHMGB1-promoted proliferative effect. As well, triptolide enhanced the anti-proliferative activity of ethyl pyruvate (EP) (HMGB1 inhibitor). Furthermore, downstream correlation factors (Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylated-nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65) of HMGB1 were significantly decreased in vitro after triptolide treatment. Consistantly, we confirmed that tumor growth was significantly inhibited after triptolide treatment in vivo. Meanwhile, immunohistochemical analyses showed that triptolide treatment significantly decreased the level of cytoplasmic HMGB1 and TLR4 expression, whereas the expression of NF-κB p65 was relatively higher in cytoplasm, and conversely lower in nucleus as compared to the control group. Collectively, these results demonstrate that triptolide suppresses the growth of breast cancer cells via reduction of HMGB1 expression in vitro and in vivo, which may provide new insights into the treament of breast cancer.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Kuizhong Shan, Yulei Wang, Haiqing Hua, Shukui Qin, Aizhen Yang, Jie S ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 900-905
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/29
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 combined with oxaliplatin on the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the related mechanism. In this study, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was applied to examine the proliferation rate of hepatocellular carcinoma cell SMMC-7721 with different treatment. Flow cytometry was performed to examine apoptosis rate of hepatocellular carcinoma cells with different treatment. Immunofluorescence and Western blot methods were used to evaluate the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 in different groups. We found that ginsenoside Rg3, oxaliplatin or ginsenoside Rg3 + oxaliplatin significantly suppressed the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of SMMC-7721. Meanwhile, ginsenoside Rg3, oxaliplatin or ginsenoside Rg3 + oxaliplatin also significantly inhibited the expressions of PCNA and cyclin D1. Moreover, compared with ginsenoside Rg3 group and oxaliplatin group, the effect of ginsenoside Rg3 + oxaliplatin was more remarkable. Taken together, cells treated with oxaliplatin+ ginsenoside enhanced the anti-tumor effect and may inhibit the proliferation and promoted apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulating the expression of PCNA and cyclin D1.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Navakoon Kaewtunjai, Ratasark Summart, Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich, Banna ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 906-914
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/30
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men worldwide, and it is ranked first in the United States and Europe. Since prostate cancer is slow-growing, active surveillance for low-risk cancer has been increasingly supported by various guidelines. Most prostate cancers reactivate telomerase to circumvent the replicative senescence caused by the end replication problem; therefore, telomerase inhibition is potentially useful for the suppression of prostate cancer progression during this active surveillance or for the prevention of cancer recurrence after conventional therapies. In this study, we demonstrated that the perylene derivatives, PM2 and PIPER, could suppress human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and telomerase activity in the short-term treatment of androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC3 prostate cancer cells. Long-term treatment with subcytotoxic doses of these compounds in both prostate cancer cells showed telomere shortening and a significant increase in senescent cells. Although the acute cytotoxicity of PM2 was about 30 times higher than that of PIPER in both prostate cancer cells, the cellular uptake of both compounds was comparable as determined by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Hye-Lim Kim, Nam-Soo Kim, Hae-Yun Cho, Sang-Jun Park, Chae Kwan Lee, I ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 915-922
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/03/28
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    The goal of the present study focused on the adverse reaction of contrast medium (CM) via the induction of inflammatory molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Ultravist-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) gene expression was markedly increased in interleukin-4 (IL-4)-pretreated HUVECs in a time- and dose-dependent manner and was paralleled by concomitant production of MCP-1 and VCAM-1 proteins. MCP-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression by Ultravist in combination with IL-4 was mediated by the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2) signaling pathway. IL-4-pretreated Ultravist-stimulated HUVECs showed greatly increased migration and adhesion of THP-1 cells. Cell migration was decreased by treatment of CCR2 antagonist, and cell adhesion was also decreased by VCAM-1 blocking antibody. Furthermore, when tested in vivo under similar conditions, MCP-1 protein was significantly increased in Ultravist combined with IL-4-injected mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that MCP-1 blocking may be crucial in preventing the endothelial dysfunction induced by contrast medium in patients with inflammatory disease and atherosclerosis.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Kiyomi Nigorikawa, Takuma Matsumura, Hiromi Sakamoto, Shin Morioka, Sa ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 923-928
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Macrophages endocytose modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL) vigorously via scavenger receptor A (SR-A) to become foam cells. In the present study, we found that Sac1, a member of the Sac family of phosphoinositide phosphatases, increases the protein level of SR-A and upregulates foam cell formation. Mouse macrophages (RAW264.7) were transfected with short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against Sac1. Sac1 knockdown decreased cell surface SR-A levels and impaired acetylated LDL-induced foam cell formation. Transfection of Sac1-knockdown cells with shRNA-resistant flag-Sac1 effectively rescued the expression of SR-A. Glycosylation of SR-A was largely attenuated by Sac1 knockdown, but neither mRNA expression nor protein degradation of SR-A were affected. These results suggest that Sac1 maintains SR-A protein levels by modulating SR-A glycosylation.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Hiromi Funayama, Itaru Tashima, Satoru Okada, Takuya Ogawa, Hideki Yag ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 929-936
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) containing nitrogen (N-BPs) exhibit far stronger anti-bone-resorptive effects than non-N-BPs. However, repeated administration of N-BPs causes osteonecrosis selectively in jawbones. As BPs accumulate in large amounts within inflamed bones, any N-BP released from the pool accumulated within jawbones might directly act on cells in the surrounding soft-tissues and induce inflammation or necrosis. Here, we examined the local and systemic effects of zoledronate (the most potent N-BP with the highest incidence of jawbone-necrosis) on inflammatory cytokines in mice. Locally within ear-pinnas: (i) zoledronate induced long-lasting accumulation of interleuikin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, but not tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), (ii) zoledronate and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a cell-wall component of Gram-negative bacteria) mutually augmented the productions of IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α, and (iii) oxidronate (a toxic non-N-BP) by itself produced not only IL-1β and IL-18, but also TNF-α. In systemic experiments using intraperitoneal injection of zoledronate and/or LPS, (i) zoledronate by itself increased none of the above cytokines in serum, and (ii) in mice pretreated (3 d before) with zoledronate, the LPS-induced increases in serum IL-1β and IL-18 were greatly augmented with a delayed slight TNF-α augmentation. These results, together with previous ones, suggest that (a) pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 accumulate within cells in soft-tissues exposed to N-BPs, and infection may augment not only their production, but also the release of their mature forms, (b) IL-1β and IL-18 (possibly together with TNF-α) may play important roles in N-BP-induced inflammation and/or necrosis, and (c) mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects of BPs may differ between N-BPs and non-N-BPs.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Atsushi Kodaka, Yuki Hayakawa, Rawaa Jaffar AlSayegh, Tadashi Yasuhara ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 937-943
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) are generated by oxidation of linoleic acid in vivo and thought to mediate various pathophysiological responses. In this study, we examined the effects of HODEs on EL4 mouse lymphoma cell growth and found that 9-(E,Z)-HODE inhibited EL4 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas no such growth inhibition was observed with other isomers (9-(E,E)-, 13-(Z,E)-, or 13-(E,E)-HODE), suggesting that the growth-inhibitory effect of HODEs was stereospecific. Analysis by flow cytometry (FACS) with annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining showed that 9-(E,Z)-HODE induced apoptosis with G2/M phase arrest. We next examined the growth inhibition profile of 9-(E,Z)-HODE against a panel of 39 human cancer cell lines (JFCR39). The fingerprint of growth inhibition by 9-(E,Z)-HODE exhibited a high degree of similarity to that by MLN4924, an inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme. The intracellular NEDD8 (ubiquitin-like protein) expression in EL4 cells was decreased by the treatment with 9-(E,Z)-HODE as assessed by immunoblotting and flow cytometry. In conclusion, 9-(E,Z)-HODE specifically induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis, and the decrease of NEDD8 expression might be involved in this effect.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Kazuki Sato, Masanori Tachikawa, Michitoshi Watanabe, Yasuo Uchida, Te ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 944-953
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Leukocyte migration across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is an important step in the progression of brain dysfunction in systemic inflammation. The purpose of this study was to identify the key regulatory molecule(s) at the BBB among the cluster of differentiation (CD) antigens involved in leucocyte migration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation based on their absolute protein expressions. Here, we identified the absolute expression levels of 17 CD antigens in isolated brain capillaries (Bcap) of LPS-administered mice. Among them, the expression levels of CD54 and CD106 were dramatically increased in LPS-administered mice compared to the control by 6.21- and 3.67-fold, respectively. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the expression levels of CD11a/CD18, the counter-receptor for CD54, were similar to those of CD54 in Bcap of LPS-administered mice. On the other hand, the expression level of CD49d, part of CD29/CD49d complex, which is the counter-receptor for CD106, was under the limit of quantification. It is thus likely that CD54 at the BBB is predominantly involved in promoting leukocyte migration across the BBB in systemic inflammation. The expression levels of CD9, CD49c and CD97, which are thought to be involved in cell-to-cell interaction, were decreased by 40–60% in Bcap of LPS-administered mice. In contrast, the expression levels of 9 transporters, 2 receptors, and 1 tight junction-related protein in Bcap of LPS-administered mice were essentially unchanged compared to the control. These results suggest that enhancement of leucocyte migration in systemic inflammation involves dynamic changes of CD antigens without alterations of other major functional molecules.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
    Editor’s picks

    Leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key step in the progression of brain dysfunction in systemic inflammation. The key regulatory molecules at the BBB involved in leucocyte-endothelial interaction would be promising druggable targets. Sato et al. have established the LC-MS/MS-based comprehensive absolute protein quantification system for the cluster of differentiation (CD) antigens and identified the key molecules at mouse BBB in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation based on their absolute protein expressions. Their findings should be helpful in the development of BBB-targeting drugs to block leukocyte migration associated with central nervous system disorders.

  • Kanako Kondo, Keiichi Hiramoto, Yurika Yamate, Kenji Goto, Hidehisa Se ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 954-959
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Vitamin C is a natural nutrient with antioxidant properties and is used as a health supplement. In this study, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal administration of high-dose vitamin C (4 g/kg) on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis. We prepared a mouse ulcerative colitis model by administering DSS for 7 d along with high-dose vitamin C each day during DSS treatment. Ulcerative colitis induced by DSS was ameliorated by high-dose vitamin C administration. Blood levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and iron were elevated in DSS-treated mice but lowered by high-dose vitamin C administration. Contrarily, the levels of H2O2 and iron and the numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the colon were further increased by high-dose vitamin C administration. The expression levels of fibroblasts, collagen type I, and collagen type III decreased in the DSS-treated mice but increased in mice administered high-dose vitamin C. These results suggest that high-dose vitamin C administration can improve ulcerative colitis.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Ava Soltani Hekmat, Nahid Zare, Ali Moravej, Mohammad Hassan Meshkibaf ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 960-967
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/04/05
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Alamandine is a new member of the angiotensin family. Here, we studied the mRNA and protein expression of cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the chronic phase of a rat model of 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertension (2K1C), and the effects of 2-week alamandine infusion on blood pressure, cardiac indices, and ACE2 mRNA and protein expression in the hearts. The rats were subjected to to sham-operation or placement of plexiglass clips around the left renal artery. Alamandine, at a dose of 600 µg/kg/d, was administered for 2 weeks via an osmotic mini-pump. At 18 weeks, after induction of hypertension, blood pressure and cardiac indices of contractility were measured using a Powerlab Physiograph system. The ACE2 mRNA and protein levels were determined using real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In the hypertensive rats, alamandine caused a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.001), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (p < 0.001) and, left ventricular systolic pressure (p < 0.001) and increase in the maximum rate of pressure change in the left ventricle (dP/dt(max)) (p < 0.05). Also, the ACE2 mRNA expression in the heart increased in the hypertensive rats compared to the normotensive rats (p < 0.05), and alamandine restored this to normal values, although these changes were only seen at the mRNA and not the protein level. Histological analysis of cardiac tissue confirmed that alamandine decreased cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in 2K1C hypertensive rats. Our results indicate that alamandine, which acts as a depressor arm of the renin–angiotensin system, could be developed for treating hypertension.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Emiko Ohashi, Keizo Kohno, Norie Arai, Akira Harashima, Toshio Ariyasu ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 968-976
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Previously, we reported that adenosine N1-oxide (ANO), which is found in royal jelly, inhibited the secretion of inflammatory mediators by activated macrophages and reduced lethality in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock. Here, we examined the regulatory mechanisms of ANO on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with a focus on the signaling pathways activated by toll-like receptor (TLR)4 in response to LPS. ANO inhibited both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion from LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells without affecting cell proliferation. In this response, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members (extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 and SAPK/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 was not affected by treatment with ANO. In contrast, phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and its downstream molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) (Ser9) was up-regulated by ANO, suggesting that ANO stimulated GSK-3β phosphorylation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. The phosphorylation of GSK-3β on Ser9 has been shown to negatively regulate the LPS-induced inflammatory response. Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has also been implicated in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes. As expected, ANO induced alkaline phosphatase activity and promoted calcium deposition in a mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line. The ANO-induced differentiation into osteoblasts was abrogated by coincubation with Wortmannin. Furthermore, ANO promoted insulin/dexamethasone-induced differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes at much lower concentrations than adenosine. The protective roles of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway in inflammatory disorders have been well documented. Our data suggest that ANO may serve as a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Promotion of osteogenic and adipocyte differentiation further suggests its application for regenerative medicine.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Insaf Bahrini, Rikinari Hanayama
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 977-981
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in 50–80% of the cases. Interferons (IFNs) and the nucleoside analog ribavirin form the basis of the treatment of this infection but are not considered sufficiently effective and cause several side effects. In this study, we developed a novel viral-specific drug delivery method. Enveloped viruses, including HCV, expose an anionic phospholipid, phosphatidylserine (PS), on their surface to mediate their binding and entry into cells for infection. To target such exposed PS on HCV, we developed a chimeric recombinant protein containing human IFN and mouse lactadherin (also known as milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8), which binds with high affinity to PS. The IFN–lactadherin fusion protein showed a high binding affinity toward PS and HCV and consequently blocked viral replication in the infected cells more efficiently than conventional IFN. Overall, these data suggest that conjugation with lactadherin facilitates the delivery of any protein drug to PS-exposing enveloped viruses.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Makoto Tsuiji, Kazuyuki Shiohara, Yoshinori Takei, Yoshinori Shinohara ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 982-988
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a variety of exoproteins that interfere with host immune systems. We attempted to purify cytotoxins against human leukocytic cells from the culture supernatant of S. aureus by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on a CM-cellulose column and HPLC on a Mono S 5/50 column. A major protein possessing cytotoxicity to HL60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells was purified, and the protein was identified as α-hemolysin (Hla, α-toxin) based on its molecular weight (34 kDa) and N-terminal amino acid sequence. Flow cytometric analysis suggested differential cytotoxicity of Hla against different human peripheral blood leukocyte populations. After cell fractionation with density-gradient centrifugation, we found that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were more susceptible to Hla than polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Moreover, cell surface marker analysis suggested that Hla exhibited slightly higher cytotoxicity against CD14-positive PBMCs (mainly monocytes) than CD3- or CD19-positive cells (T or B lymphocytes). From these results, we conclude that human leukocytes have different susceptibility to Hla depending on their cell lineages, and thereby the toxin may modulate the host immune response.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Takumi Matsuzaki, Masao Nakamura, Takehide Nogita, Atsushi Sato
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 989-995
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    An Intact form of lactoferrin (LF) is known to be absorbed from the small intestine and transported into the blood circulation. We reevaluated the cellular uptake and release of LF using an enterocyte model of human small intestinal cells derived from the Caco-2 cell line. In contrast to a previous report, we observed that intact bovine LF was taken up into seven and 21 d-cultured Caco-2 cells and successfully released back into the culture medium, even though the human intestinal LF receptor, intelectin-1, was not immunochemically detectable. Similar observations were made for human LF and its derivatives (the N-terminal half of LF designated N-lobe and Fc fusions). These observations regarding the uptake and release of intact LF in Caco-2 cells were consistent with in vivo observations. Therefore, we propose that the uptake and release of intact LF by Caco-2 cells should be assessed as a potential in vitro model of in vivo LF absorption in human intestines.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Furan Song, Naoyuki Sakurai, Ayaka Okamoto, Hiroyuki Koide, Naoto Oku, ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 996-1003
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    A small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system using dioleylphosphate–diethylenetriamine conjugate (DOP-DETA)-based liposomes (DL) was assessed for systemic delivery of siRNA to tumors. DL carrying siRNA capable of inducing efficient gene silencing with low doses of siRNA were modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG-DL/siRNA) for systemic injection of siRNA. The biodistribution of DL and siRNA in the PEG-DL/siRNA was studied by using radiolabeled DL and fluorescence-labeled siRNA, respectively. DL in the PEG-DL/siRNA showed a high retention in the plasma, accumulation in the tumor, and low accumulation in the liver and spleen after intravenous injection. The in vivo effects of PEGylation were observed only when distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-PEG but not distearoylglycerol (DSG)-PEG were used. This result suggests that the electrostatic interaction between lipid molecules on the surface of PEG-DL/siRNA was a critical determinant for the in vivo effect of PEGylation. When PEG-DL/siRNA (0.1 mg/kg siRNA) was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, in vivo gene silencing was observed in subcutaneous tumors. These results indicate that PEG-DL/siRNA designed in this study is a promising formulation for systemic use of siRNA.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Yumena Suzuki, Chawanphat Muangnoi, Wuttinont Thaweesest, Polsak Teera ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 1004-1012
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Oxyresveratrol (ORV) is a naturally extracted compound with many pharmacological activities. However, information about the crystalline form is not known when considering the development of a form for oral dosage. Cocrystal engineering offers drug molecular understanding and drug solubility improvements. Thus, we attempted cocrystallization of ORV using 10 carboxylic acids as a coformer at a 1:1 M ratio. Each combination was processed with liquid-assisted grinding, solvent evaporation and a slurry method, then characterized by powder X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD), conventional and low-frequency Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The solubility, dissolution and permeation studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers were conducted to evaluate the ORV samples. A screening study revealed that an ORV and citric acid (CTA) cocrystal formed by ethyl acetate-assisted grinding had characteristic PXRD peaks (14.0 and 16.5°) compared to those of ORV dihydrate used as a starting material. Low-frequency Raman measurements, with peaks at 100 cm−1, distinguished potential cocrystals among three processing methods while conventional Raman could not. An endothermic melt (142.2°C) confirmed the formation of the novel crystalline complex. The solubility of the cocrystal in the dissolution media of pH 1.2 and 6.8 was approximately 1000 µg/mL, a 1.3-fold increase compared to ORV alone. In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed that the cocrystal and physical blend were not toxic at concentrations of 25 and 12.5 µM ORV, respectively. The ORV-CTA cocrystal enhanced the cellular transport of ORV across Caco-2 monolayers. Therefore, cocrystallization could be used to improve aqueous solubility and permeability, leading to better oral bioavailability of ORV.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Shengquan Hu, Zhichang Zhao, Yeming Ni, Hongxing Xin, Hong Yan, Xiuqin ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 1013-1018
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    A novel series of 4-aryl-5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-one derivatives were designed as a phosphoinositide 3-kinase α (PI3Kα) inhibitor by scaffold hopping. The target compounds, characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and high resolution (HR)-MS, were synthesized from diethyl malonate and ethyl chloroacetate by nucleophilic substitution, ring-closure, chlorination and Suzuki reaction, etc. The biological activities were evaluated with cytotoxic activity in vitro on Uppsala 87 Malignant Glioma (U87MG) and prostate cancer-3 (PC-3) by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). The results showed that compound 9c displayed the higher inhibition than the positive control PI-103, and high PI3Kα inhibitory activity with IC50 of 113 ± 9 nM in the same order of magnitude as BEZ235. In addition, the Log Kow values and molecular docking studies were performed to further investigate the drug-like properties of target compounds and interactions between 9c and PI3Kα.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Haruka Kawahara, Naoki Miyashita, Koki Tachibana, Yusuke Tsuda, Kyohei ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 1019-1024
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) plays a critical role in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis, function and structural dynamics. Peptides that mimic apoA-I have a short amphipathic α-helical structure that can functionally recapitulate many of the same biologic properties of full-length apoA-I in HDL. Hence, they might be expected to have clinical applications in the reduction of atherosclerosis. However, nonspecific cellular efflux of cholesterol induced by apoA-I mimetic peptides might cause side effects that are, as yet, unidentified. In this study, we developed a photo-activatable peptide, 2F*, which is an 18 amino acid peptide mimicking apoA-I bearing an internal photocleavable caging group that is designed to assume an α-helical structure in response to a light stimulus and trigger efflux of cholesterol from cells. Without light irradiation, 2F* peptide showed a low tendency for the formation of α-helices, and therefore did not associate with lipids and failed to induce efflux of cholesterol. In addition, 2F* did not cause hemolysis under our experimental condition. Mass spectrometry indicated that, after light exposure, the caging group detached from 2F* and it assumed the α-helical structure in the presence of lipids, and enhanced cholesterol efflux from cells. Photo-activatable peptides such as 2F* that control cholesterol efflux following light stimulus may be useful for future atherosclerosis-reducing therapies.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
Notes
  • Hisahiro Yoshida, Minori Takahashi, Misuzu Honda, Hideaki Amayasu, Mas ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 1025-1029
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is a widely used laxative. Because many antipsychotic drugs are lipophilic-basic-compounds, their solubility decreases with increasing pH and changes markedly as the pH of the solution approaches their pKa. It is highly important to clarify the effect of co-administration of MgO on the serum drug concentration for effective, safe, and appropriate medication therapy. However, the relationship between MgO administration and the serum concentration of antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia has not been reported. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of MgO administration on the concentration of antipsychotic drugs in the blood of patients with schizophrenia. The serum concentrations of biperiden, zotepine, and risperidone were assayed using an LC/MS system. The correlation between the daily dose of MgO and the relative-drug-concentration (rCp) in each patient was examined. As the MgO dose was increased, the risperidone concentration decreased. The correlation coefficient decreased for risperidone, zotepine, and biperiden, in the same order. To clarify the difference in the suppression potency of MgO on the three drugs, the relationship between the physical properties and the correlation coefficients of each drug was carefully examined. A strong correlation was observed between the pKa and the correlation coefficient. Patients with schizophrenia are often prescribed antipsychotic drugs, which have anticholinergic action and tend to suppress gastric acid secretion. We concluded that basic drug absorption might be suppressed due to an increase in the stomach pH following MgO administration. Therefore, MgO co-administration is better to avoid while taking antipsychotic drugs and anticholinergic drugs.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Hirokazu Kito, Weibin Du, Hiroshi Nakazawa, Kaare Lund, Katsuyo Ohashi ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 1030-1033
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    House dust mite (HDM) sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in the form of SLIT-tablets is now an established treatment option for HDM allergy and HDM-induced allergic asthma. In SLIT-tablet immunotherapy allergen extracts are formulated as dry tablets and administered under the tongue where it must be solubilized in saliva in order to be able to interact with the immune system of the sublingual mucosa. Solubilization of the extract must occur within a short time span of about one minute after administration, determined by the sublingual holding time recommended by the manufacturer. Currently, two types of HDM SLIT-tablets are available. Both tablet types contain natural HDM extracts from two common HDM species as the active ingredient, but differ with regard to formulation as one tablet type is based on a freeze-dried tablet formulation while the other is based on a compressed formulation. HDM extracts contain a number of major and minor allergens, which in combination provide the allergenic activity that drives the immunological response and in turn the clinical efficacy of the tablets. Here, a biologically relevant human immunoglobulin E (IgE)-based assay is used to compare the ability of the two HDM SLIT-tablet types to deliver HDM allergenic reactivity from the dry tablet into soluble form. The experiments demonstrate that the freeze-dried formulation delivers HDM allergenic activity into solution faster and more efficiently than the compressed formulation.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Ayami Sato, Tsunetaka Arai, Momoka Fusegi, Akira Ando, Tomohiro Yano
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 1034-1037
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. We focused on the anticancer activity of tocotrienol (T3) and have reported that a new redox-inactive T3 derivative (6-O-carboxypropyl-α-tocotrienol; T3E) exerts stronger inhibitory effects on MM cell growth than that of T3 in vitro. Furthermore, we have revealed some mechanisms of T3E that are involved in anti-MM effects. However, the effect of T3E in vivo remains unclear. In this study, we compared the plasma concentrations of T3E to that of T3 using mice to clarify differences in pharmacokinetics. Blood was sequentially collected after oral administration of T3 or T3E, and plasma concentrations were analyzed by HPLC. The area under the plasma T3 and T3E concentration–time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24 h) of T3E was two times higher than that of T3. In addition, we evaluated the effect of T3E oral administration on tumor growth using a xenograft model of mice that were transplanted with human MM cells (H2052 cell line). Tumor volume was significantly reduced without body weight loss in mice orally administered 150 mg/kg T3E once per 2 d for 10 d, which suggests that T3E has potential anti-MM effects.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Katsutaka Oishi, Hiroki Okauchi
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 1038-1043
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Consuming food at uncommon times during the day might be associated with obesity in experimental animals and humans. We previously reported that mice become obese and their metabolism becomes disrupted when they consume food during the daytime (sleep phase feeding; SPF), but not during the nighttime (active phase feeding; APF). The goal of the present study was to clarify whether the molecular circadian clock is associated with the mechanisms that underly the metabolic disorders in mice brought about by SPF. We compared the effects of dominant negative Clock gene mutation on metabolic disruption and obesity brought about by SPF in mice. The consumption of food during SP increased body weight, adipose tissue mass and lipogenic gene expression in metabolic tissues, as well as hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in wild-type and Clock mutant mice, and there were no significant differences between genotypes except for the body weight increase which was attenuated by the Clock mutation. Temporal expression of Per2 was synchronized to feeding rhythms in the liver of both genotypes, although the expression of Dbp, a representative clock-controlled gene, was significantly damped in peripheral tissues of Clock mutant mice. These findings suggest that the molecular clock is not essentially associated with metabolic disruption caused by SPF. Desynchronized food consumption and central clock-dependent behaviour as well as rhythmic metabolic mechanisms might be associated with the metabolic disruption caused by SPF.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Kengo Nakahara, Kana Fujikawa, Hideki Hiraoka, Ikuko Miyazaki, Masato ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 1044-1047
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule that has various effects via S-nitrosylation, a reversible post-translational modification that affects the enzymatic activity, localization, and metabolism of target proteins. As chronic nitrosative stress correlates with neurodegeneration, the targets have received focused attention. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a pivotal role in the induction of gene expression to control inflammatory responses. MIF acts as a ligand for CD74 receptor and activates the Src-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. MIF also elevates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which contributes to the viability of neurons. Here, we show that MIF is S-nitrosylated by a physiological NO donor. Interestingly, the induction of S-nitrosylation resulted in a loss of MIF activity following stimulation of the Src and p38 MAPK signaling pathways and the induction of BDNF expression. Our results shed light on the pathogenic mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Takayuki Matsumoto, Keisuke Takayanagi, Shota Kobayashi, Mihoka Kojima ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 1048-1053
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Previous research has indicated that high insulin affects vascular function. Equol is an active metabolite of daidzein, an isoflavone produced from soy by intestinal microbial flora, with beneficial effects on the vascular system. This study investigated whether equol was beneficial for vascular function under high insulin conditions. Using organ culture techniques, rat carotid arteries were treated for 23 ± 1 h with a vehicle, high insulin (100 nM), or equol (100 µM) plus high insulin (100 nM). Vascular isometric forces were measured by the organ bath technique. In each endothelium-intact ring, the contractions induced by high-K+, noradrenaline, or by serotonin (5-HT) were similar for the vehicle, insulin, and equol + insulin treatments. Contractions induced by a selective 5-HT2A receptor agonist (TCB2) increased with insulin treatment (vs. vehicle), but less so with equol + insulin. Under basal conditions, a selective 5-HT2B receptor agonist (BW723C86) did not induce contraction; following precontraction by a thromboxane analog, it induced contraction but not relaxation. These responses were similar across the three treatments. Acetylcholine-induced relaxations were also similar for the three treatments. In the endothelium-denuded preparations, 5-HT-induced contraction was augmented with insulin treatment (vs. vehicle) but less so by equol + insulin treatment. These differences in 5-HT-induced contractions were eliminated by iberiotoxin, a large-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel (BKCa) inhibitor. These results suggest that equol exerts a preventive effect on the enhancement of 5-HT-induced contraction by high insulin (possibly mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor), and that these effects may be attributed to the activation of BKCa channels in vascular smooth muscle.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
  • Noriyuki Akahoshi, Akira Yokoyama, Tomoko Nagata, Asumi Miura, Shotaro ...
    2019 年 42 巻 6 号 p. 1054-1057
    発行日: 2019/06/01
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Mental retardation is the most common feature among inborn errors of amino acid metabolism. Patients with homocystinuria/homocysteinemia caused by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency suffer from thromboembolism and mental retardation from early ages; therefore, detection by newborn screening is performed. Furthermore, elevated levels of serum homocysteine during pregnancy are associated with the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in newborns. However, the causes of such central nervous system (CNS) defects are unknown. We found previously impaired learning abilities in Cbs-deficient (Cbs−/−) mice (but not NTD births). Here, we investigated the amino acid profiles of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from Cbs−/− mice. Mice deficient in cystathionine γ-lyase (Cth), a downstream enzyme of CBS in transsulfuration, as well as wild-type mice, were analyzed as controls. Cbs−/− and Cth−/− mice were smaller than wild-type mice, and CSF yields in Cbs−/− mice were lower than the others. CSF amino acid levels were generally lower than those in serum, and compared with the dramatic amino acid level alterations in Cbs−/− mouse serum, alterations in CSF were less apparent. However, marked upregulation (versus wild-type) of aspartic acid/asparagine (Asp/Asn), glutamine (Gln), serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), methionine (Met), total homocysteine, and citrulline, and downregulation of lysine (Lys) were found in Cbs−/− mouse CSF. Because similar regulation of total homocysteine/citrulline/Lys was observed in the CSF of Cth−/− mice, which are free of CNS dysfunction, the reduced CSF volumes and the level changes of other amino acids could be relevant to Cbs−/−-specific CNS defects.

    Graphical Abstract Fullsize Image
feedback
Top