Onset of cancer and neurodegenerative disease occurs by abnormal cell growth and neuronal cell death, respectively, and the number of patients with both diseases has been increasing in parallel with an increase in mean lifetime, especially in developed countries. Although both diseases are sporadic, about 10% of the diseases are genetically inherited, and analyses of such familial forms of gene products have contributed to an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and pathogenesis of these diseases. I have been working on c-myc, a protooncogene, for a long time and identified various c-Myc-binding proteins that play roles in c-Myc-derived tumorigenesis. Among these proteins, some proteins have been found to be also responsible for the onset of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, retinitis pigmentosa and cerebellar atrophy. In this review, I summarize our findings indicating the common mechanisms of onset between cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, with a focus on genes such as DJ-1 and Myc-Modulator 1 (MM-1) and signaling pathways that contribute to the onset and pathogenesis of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.
Sulfatide is a 3-O-sulfated galactosylceramide that is abundantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, trachea, and particularly the central nervous system. Cellular sulfatide is mainly localized in the Golgi apparatus, cellular membrane, and lysosomes in cytosol. Since our earlier report showed that the influenza A virus specifically binds to sulfatide, we have investigated the roles of sulfatide in the influenza A virus lifecycle. The viral binding is independent of sialic acids, which function as virus receptors in virus attachment to the host cell surface. Sulfatide is recognized by the ectodomain of the viral envelope glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). Nascent HA is transported on the surface membrane of infected cells. The binding of HA with sulfatide on the cell surface induces apoptosis through potential loss of the mitochondrial membrane and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor in mitochondria, where PB1-F2 peptide from the viral gene is accumulated. In the nucleus of infected cells, viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes are formed from viral RNA genomes, viral nucleoprotein, and viral RNA polymerase subunits, and these complexes are selectively exported into cytosol through the nuclear membrane. The apoptosis significantly enhances the nuclear export of vRNP complexes, resulting in efficient formation of progeny viruses and facilitation of virus replication. At that time, activation of the Raf/mitogen-activated protein extracellular kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway through sulfatide is associated with virus replication. Our studies have demonstrated that sulfatide is not a viral receptor for virus infection, and that the binding of HA with sulfatide functions as an initiation switch for the formation of progeny viruses.
The spike glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA) of influenza A virus (IAV) has sialidase activity that cleaves the terminal sialic acids (viral receptors) from oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates. A new antigenicity of viral surface glycoproteins for humans has pandemic potential. We found “low-pH stability of sialidase activity” in NA. The low-pH stability can maintain sialidase activity under acidic conditions of pH 4–5. For human IAVs, NAs of all pandemic viruses were low-pH-stable, whereas those of almost all human seasonal viruses were not. The low-pH stability was dependent on amino acid residues near the active site, the calcium ion-binding site, and the subunit interfaces of the NA homotetramer, suggesting effects of the active site and the homotetramer on structural stability. IAVs with the low-pH-stable NA showed much higher virus replication rates than those of IAVs with low-pH-unstable NA, which was correlated with maintenance of sialidase activity under an endocytic pathway of the viral cell entry mechanism, indicating contribution of low-pH stability to high replication rates of pandemic viruses. The low-pH-stable NA of the 1968 H3N2 pandemic virus was derived from the low-pH-stable NA of H2N2 human seasonal virus, one of two types classified by both low-pH stability in N2 NA and a phylogenetic tree of N2 NA genes. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus acquired low-pH-stable NA by two amino acid substitutions at the early stage of the 2009 pandemic. It is thought that low-pH stability contributes to infection spread in a pandemic through enhancement of virus replication.
Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines are a promising therapeutic modality for cancer. Results from recent trials and approval of the first DC vaccine by the U.S. Food and Drugs Administration for prostate cancer have paved the way for DC-based vaccines. A total of 21 hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) patients with a life expectancy >3 months were randomised into two groups. DC loaded with recombinant Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (rPSMA) and recombinant Survivin (rSurvivin) peptides was administered as an subcutaneous (s.c.) injection (5×106 cells). Docetaxel (75 mg/m2 intravenous (i.v.)) and prednisone (5 mg, bis in die (b.i.d.)) served as control. Clinical and immunological responses were evaluated. Primary endpoints were safety and feasibility; secondary endpoint was overall survival. Responses were evaluated on day 15, day 30, day 60, and day 90. DC vaccination was well tolerated with no signs of grade 2 toxicity. DC vaccination induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reactivity and an immune response in all patients. Objective Response Rate (ORR) by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) was 72.7% (8/11) versus 45.4 (5/11) in the docetaxel arm and immune related response criteria (irRC) was 54.5% (6/11) compared with 27.2% (3/11) in the control arm. The DC arm showed stable disease (SD) in 6 patients, progressive disease (PD) in 3 patients, and partial remission (PR) in two patients compared to SD in 5 patients, PD in 6 patients, and PR in none in the docetaxel arm. There was a cellular response, disease stabilization, no adverse events, and partial remission with the rPSMA and rSurvivin primed DC vaccine.
Farfugium japonicum (L.) KITAM, named “Lian-Peng-Cao” in China, has been traditionally used in Chinese folk medicine to treat sore throat, cold and cough due to its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the anti-inflammatory action of 3β-angeloyloxy-8β,10β-dihydroxyeremophila-7(11)-en-12,8α-lactone (FJ1) isolated from Farfugium japonicum and its molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells were investigated. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that FJ1 with or without 3 µg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) had no significant cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was identified with a Griess reagent kit. The mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected by flow cytometry analysis. Western blot was used to examine the protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/p65, inhibitor of kappa B (IκB)-α, phosphorylated IκB-α (p-IκB-α), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) molecules, iNOS, and TNF-α. We discovered that FJ1 possesses anti-inflammatory effects that inhibit the release of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, including NO and ROS. The molecular mechanism of FJ1-mediated anti-inflammation is associated with decreasing phosphorylation of MAPK molecules, including extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), FJ1 also reverses IκB degradation and attenuates the mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB-related downstream inducible enzymes and cytokines, such as iNOS, TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells. The results suggest that FJ1 has anti-inflammatory properties, which indicates that F. japonicum can be utilized to treat inflammatory diseases. The potential mechanism is associated with the NF-κB and MAPK activation pathways in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
Niemann–Pick type C disease (NPC), an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, is an inherited disease characterized by the accumulation of intracellular unesterified cholesterol. A solubilizing agent of lipophilic compounds, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD), is an attractive drug candidate against NPC disease. However, establishment of the optimum dosage of HPBCD remains to be determined. In this study, we evaluated the effective dosage of HPBCD in NPC model (Npc1−/−) mice, and determined serum HPBCD concentrations. Subcutaneous injection of 1000–4000 mg/kg HPBCD improved the lifespan of Npc1−/− mice. In addition, liver injury and cholesterol sequestration were significantly prevented by 4000 mg/kg HPBCD in Npc1−/− mice. Serum HPBCD concentrations, when treated at the effective dosages (1000–4000 mg/kg), were approximately 1200–2500 µg/mL at 0.5 h after subcutaneous injection, and blood HPBCD concentrations were immediately eliminated in Npc1−/− mice. Furthermore, we examined serum HPBCD concentrations when treated at 40000 mg (approximately 2500 mg/kg) in a patient with NPC. We observed that the effective concentration in the in vivo study using Npc1−/− mice was similar to that in the patient. In the patient, systemic clearance and the volume of distribution of HPBCD were in accordance with the glomerular filtration rate and extracellular fluid volume, respectively. These results could provide useful information for developing the optimal dosage regimen for HPBCD therapy when administered intravenously to NPC patients.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) adjusts its size and architecture to adapt to change in the surrounding environment. Russell bodies (RBs) were originally described as dilated structures of the ER cisternae containing large amounts of mutant immunoglobulin. Similar structures are observed in a wide variety of mutant proteins accumulated in the ER. We previously prepared Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in which the expression of mutant antithrombin (AT) (C95R) was controlled with a Tet-On system and showed that RBs can be conditionally formed. However the precise architecture and intracellular behavior of RBs have been as yet only poorly characterized. To characterize the properties of RB, we prepared the same system using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused mutant and measured the dynamics and architecture of RBs. We observed the mobile nature of the molecule in the RB lumen and RBs were separated from the rest of the ER network by narrow tubes. Furthermore, we found that the RBs were not simply expanded ER membranes. The RB lumen is filled with misfolded proteins that are surrounded by ER membranes. In addition, RBs mostly maintain their structure during cell division, possess ribosomes on their membranes and synthesize AT(C95R)-GFP. Based on the characterization of the hydrodynamic radius of AT(C95R)-GFP and the effect of DP1, an ER-shaping protein, we propose that RBs are spontaneously formed as a result of the partitioning of the misfolded AT with the shaping protein.
Berberine is a natural product that shows benefits for metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the effects of berberine on the improvement of vascular inflammation and remodeling in MS remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether berberine could prevent vascular remodeling and inflammation in the MS condition. A rat model of MS was established, and MS rats were divided into two groups: MS group without berberine treatment, and MS+B group with berberine treatment (each group n=10). Ten normal Wistar rats were used as controls (NC group). Vascular damage was examined by transmission electron microscopy and pathological staining. Compared to the NC group, the secretion of inflammatory factors was increased and the aortic wall thicker in the MS group. The MS+B group exhibited decreased secretion of inflammatory factors and improved vascular remodeling, compared to the MS group. In addition, the levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) were significantly decreased in the MS+B group compared to the MS group. In conclusion, our data show that berberine improves vascular inflammation and remodeling in the MS condition, and this is correlated with the ability of berberine to inhibit p38 MAPK activation, ATF-2 phosphorylation, and MMP-2 expression.
This study was performed to investigate the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, on bone metabolism and histology, and the action of captopril on the components of the skeletal renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and bradykinin receptor in normal male mice. The mice were orally administered captopril (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks with vehicle-treated mice as normal control. The histology of trabecular bone at the distal femoral end was determined by hematoxylin & eosin, Safranin O and Masson-Trichrome staining. The captopril-treated mice showed a decreased level of testosterone (p<0.05) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (p<0.05) in serum as compared to those in the control group. Captopril has detrimental effects on trabecular bone as demonstrated by the loss of cancellous bone mass and network connections as well as changes to the chondrocytes zone. The expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (p<0.05), renin receptor (p<0.01), angiotensin II (p<0.05) and bradykinin receptor 2 (p<0.05) was significantly up-regulated following the captopril treatment. Thus, the potential underlying mechanism of the damage of captopril on bone can be attributed the increased activity of local bone RAS and the activation of bradykinin receptor.
Sophora flavescens AITON（kurara, 苦参）has long been used to treat various diseases. Although several research findings revealed the biosynthetic pathways of its characteristic chemical components as represented by matrine, insufficient analysis of transcriptome data hampered in-depth analysis of the underlying putative genes responsible for the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical chemical components. In this study, more than 200 million fastq format reads were generated by Illumina’s next-generation sequencing approach using nine types of tissue from S. flavescens, followed by CLC de novo assembly, ultimately yielding 83325 contigs in total. By mapping the reads back to the contigs, reads per kilobase of the transcript per million mapped reads values were calculated to demonstrate gene expression levels, and overrepresented gene ontology terms were evaluated using Fisher’s exact test. In search of the putative genes relevant to essential metabolic pathways, all 1350 unique enzyme commission numbers were used to map pathways against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. By analyzing expression patterns, we proposed some candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of isoflavonoids and quinolizidine alkaloids. Adopting RNA-Seq analysis, we obtained substantially credible contigs for downstream work. The preferential expression of the gene for putative lysine/ornithine decarboxylase committed in the initial step of matrine biosynthesis in leaves and stems was confirmed in semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The findings in this report may serve as a stepping-stone for further research into this promising medicinal plant.
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor agonist tandospirone versus that of the benzodiazepine hypnotic flunitrazepam in a rat model of long-term adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-induced sleep disturbance. Rats implanted with electrodes for recording electroencephalogram and electromyogram were injected with ACTH once daily at a dose of 100 µg/rat. Administration of ACTH for 10 d caused a significant increase in sleep latency, decrease in non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep time, and increase in wake time. Tandospirone caused a significant decrease in sleep latency and increase in non-REM sleep time in rats treated with ACTH. The effect of tandospirone on sleep patterns was antagonized by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635. In contrast, flunitrazepam had no significant effect on sleep parameters in ACTH-treated rats. These results clearly indicate that long-term administration of ACTH causes sleep disturbance, and stimulating the 5-HT1A receptor by tandospirone may be efficacious for improving sleep in cases in which benzodiazepine hypnotics are ineffective.
Biofilm is one virulence factor of bacteria. It contributes not only to bacterial adherence to many kinds of infection-establishing surfaces, but also to bacterial resistance against antimicrobial agents and antiseptic agents. Thus, inhibitors of bacterial biofilm formation should be useful in the prevention of infections. We found that a culture of Streptomyces sp. strain MC11024 showed inhibitory activity on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and isolated streptorubin B as an inhibitor of this formation in S. aureus. The biofilm formation of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) N315 was reduced to less than 30% at 1 µg/mL of streptorubin B, and at this concentration cell growth was not affected. Our study suggests that streptorubin B has the potential to be a leading compound of anti-infectious agents of S. aureus.
Corneal transplantation has been used to treat severe eye disease for decades, but the therapeutic effect of the operation is highly compromised by immunological allograft rejection. To improve the success rate of corneal transplantation, we studied the protective effects of cyclosporine nanomicelle eye drops (CNED) on immune rejection after high-risk corneal transplantation and its underlying mechanisms. The therapeutic effects against immune rejection of both conventional cyclosporine eye drop (CCED) and CNED in different concentrations were assessed and compared using animal models of corneal transplantation. In addition, the expression of nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB) as well as its target intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the corneal samples obtained from recipients treated with either CCED or CNED was also screened. The results showed that the CNED displayed significantly better effects at suppressing the immune response induced by corneal transplantation compared to CCED. CNED also significantly down-regulated the NF-κB and ICAM-1 expressions, indicating NF-κB might play an important role in the initiation of an immune response against the allograft. Our study demonstrates CNED may suppress the NF-κB pathway to attenuate the immune response, which highlights the possible therapeutic applications of cyclosporine nanomicelle eye drops in corneal transplantation.
L-Glutamate (L-Glu) is known to be a relaxant of pericytes and to induce changes in microcirculatory hemodynamics. Since the concentration of L-Glu which induces the dilation of retinal capillaries is reported to be high compared with the estimated concentration in the retinal interstitial fluid, it is hypothesized that some systems involving concentrative L-Glu release are present in retinal pericytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence of L-Glu-storing systems, which contribute to autocrine L-Glu release, in retinal pericytes using conditionally immortalized rat retinal pericytes (TR-rPCT1 cells), which express mRNAs of L-Glu-synthesizing enzymes from L-glutamine (L-Gln). TR-rPCT1 cells express the mRNAs of vesicular L-Glu transporter 1 (VGLUT1), indicating that L-Glu in the cytoplasm is taken up into VGLUT1-expressing vesicles of retinal pericytes. L-Glu and L-Gln are taken up into TR-rPCT1 cells via Na+-dependent saturable process(es) with a Km value of 22.4 µM and 163 µM, respectively. The [3H]L-Glu uptake was inhibited by ca. 50% in the presence of D-aspartate, a substrate of excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) subtypes, whereas substrates of alanine–serine–cysteine transporter (ASCT) subtypes exhibited only a weak inhibitory effect on [3H]L-Glu uptake compared with D-aspartate. Regarding the L-Gln uptake by TR-rPCT1 cells, the inhibitory effect of ASCT substrates on the [3H]L-Gln uptake was stronger than that of substrates of other neutral amino acid transport systems. Consequently, it was determined that EAAT1 and ASCT2 play a role in the transport of L-Glu and L-Gln, respectively, from retinal interstitial fluid to the cytoplasm of retinal pericytes.
Angiogenesis is the process of new vessel formation from pre-existing blood vasculature and is critical for continuous tumor growth. We previously reported that an ethanolic extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns (EEGS) and its active constituent, cytochalasin H, have anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivovia suppression of endothelial cell functions. In the present study, EEGS and cytochalasin H were observed to efficiently inhibit tumor growth in an in ovo xenograft model without significant toxicity. We repeatedly observed the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects of EEGS in representative animal models. These results suggest that EEGS and its active constituent, cytochalasin H, are potential candidates for the development of anti-angiogenic cancer drugs.
Gaucher disease (GD) is one of the most common lysosomal storage disorders and is caused by an inherited deficiency in glucocerebrosidase. Resveratrol is a phytoalexin that has many beneficial activities, including anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to determine if resveratrol has a therapeutic effect on primary fibroblast cells derived from a patient with type II GD. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were performed to determine the effect of resveratrol on cell viability. The expression patterns of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3, acetyl-coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), E3-binding protein (E3BP), and citrate synthase (CS) were evaluated by Western blotting to characterize the effect of resveratrol treatment on GD cells. TLC was performed to determine glucosylceramide levels in resveratrol-treated GD cells. Resveratrol increased GD cell viability compared to untreated control cells. Further, resveratrol treatment dose-dependently decreased the apoptotic factors AIF, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 levels, whereas ACAT1, E3BP, and CS expression dose-dependently increased. TLC analysis showed reduced levels of intracellular glucosylceramides in resveratrol-treated GD cells. These findings demonstrate that resveratrol can reduce cellular stress resulting from glucosylceramide accumulation, and suggest that resveratrol should be studied further as a novel therapeutic agent for GD.
Buccal tablets of ritodrine (RD) hydrochloride (HCl), called RD-HCl, were prepared using the direct compression method with alginate (AL), lactose (LC), magnesium stearate (ST), and microcrystalline cellulose (MC) as excipients. The tablets were evaluated based on hardness, and tablets weighing 80 mg and with hardness of greater than 30 N were chosen as appropriate ones. As a result, tablets composed of RD-HCl (4 mg)/LC (38.5 mg)/ST (0.5 mg)/MC (37 mg) and RD-HCl (4 mg)/AL(7 mg)/LC (28.5 mg)/ST (0.5 mg)/MC (37 mg), called D9 and D10, respectively, were selected. These tablets were further evaluated based on in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption studies in rats. D9 rapidly released RD, achieved an effective plasma concentration from 15 min to 7 h after its buccal administration, and did not exceed the toxic plasma level of 80 ng/mL. D10 gradually released RD, and maintained an effective concentration from 1 h to 7 h after its buccal administration, without exceeding the toxic plasma level. The absorption was more prolonged in D10 than D9. Their in vivo release was considered to be caused gradually from the amount of RD remaining in the oral cavity at 7 h, in particular D10. The superior retention of D10 in plasma and oral cavity appeared to be related to its higher mucoadhesive properties. Although these results were obtained using rats, they suggest that the chosen tablets should have adequate characteristics from the viewpoints of plasma levels.
Tight junctions (TJs) of the epidermis play an important role in maintaining the epidermal barrier. TJ breakdown is associated with skin problems, such as wrinkles and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Clinical studies have reported that topical nifedipine is effective in reducing the depth of wrinkles and improving TEWL. However, it remains unknown whether nifedipine influences the TJ function in the epidermis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of nifedipine on epidermal barrier dysfunction in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) treated with sodium caprate (C10), a TJ inhibitor. Nifedipine reversed the C10-decreased transepithelial electrical resistance values as a measure of disruption of the epidermal barrier. Immunocytochemical observations revealed that nifedipine improved the C10-induced irregular arrangement of claudin-1, a key protein in TJs. Taken together, these findings suggest that nifedipine prevents epidermal barrier dysfunction, at least in part, by reconstituting the irregular claudin-1 localization at TJs in C10-treated NHEKs.
A quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model of the fetal–maternal blood concentration ratio (F/M ratio) of chemicals was developed to predict the placental transfer in humans. Data on F/M ratio of 55 compounds found in the literature were separated into training (75%, 41 compounds) and testing sets (25%, 14 compounds). The training sets were then subjected to multiple linear regression analysis using the descriptors of molecular weight (MW), topological polar surface area (TopoPSA), and maximum E-state of hydrogen atom (Hmax). Multiple linear regression analysis and a cross-validation showed a relatively high adjusted coefficient of determination (Ra2) (0.73) and cross-validated coefficient of determination (Q2) (0.71), after removing three outliers. In the external validation, R2 for external validation (R2pred) was calculated to be 0.51. These results suggested that the QSAR model developed in this study can be considered reliable in terms of its robustness and predictive performance. Since it is difficult to examine the F/M ratio in humans experimentally, this QSAR model for prediction of the placental transfer of chemicals in humans could be useful in risk assessment of chemicals in humans.
The ubiquitin–proteasome pathway plays an important role in regulating apoptosis and the cell cycle. Recently, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to have antitumor effects and have been used in anticancer therapy for several cancers such as multiple myeloma. Although some flavones, such as apigenin, chrysin and luteolin, have a specific role in the inhibition of proteasome activity and induced apoptosis in some reports, these findings did not address all flavone types. To further investigate the proteasome-inhibitory mechanism of flavonoids, we examined the inhibitory activity of 5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone, baicalein and 5,6,7,4′-tetrahydroxyflavone, scutellarein on extracted proteasomes from mice and cancer cells. Unlike the other flavones, baicalein and scutellarein did not inhibit proteasome activity or accumulate levels of ubiquitinated proteins. These results indicate that flavones with hydroxy groups at positions 5, 6 and 7 of the A-ring lack the anti-proteasome function.
Irciniastatin A is a pederin-type marine product that potently inhibits translation. We have recently shown that irciniastatin A induces ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 with slower kinetics than other translation inhibitors. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, irciniastatin A induced a marked and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and induced little activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, the TNF receptor 1 shedding induced by irciniastatin A was blocked by the MAP kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126, but not by the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Thus unlike other translation inhibitors that trigger ribotoxic stress response, our results show that irciniastatin A is a unique translation inhibitor that induces a potent and sustained activation of the ERK pathway, and thereby promotes the ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 in A549 cells.
We have previously reported that impaired skin barrier function was induced by small intestinal injury in mice. Therefore, we postulated that other intestinal diseases might also influence skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluated the skin barrier function of hairless mice with colon carcinoma that was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In mice treated with these drugs, we observed elevated transepidermal water loss and reduced skin hydration levels, compared to those in the control mice. In addition, plasma nitrogen di/trioxide (NO2−/NO3−) levels were significantly elevated, and expression of type I collagen was significantly reduced in the treated mice, compared to those in control. These results suggest that impaired skin barrier function occurs in mice when colon carcinoma is present.