Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Online ISSN : 1347-5215
Print ISSN : 0918-6158
ISSN-L : 0918-6158
33 巻 , 9 号
選択された号の論文の31件中1~31を表示しています
Review
  • Jinwen Ge, Dongsheng Wang, Rong He, Huibin Zhu, Yuhong Wang, Shilin He
    原稿種別: Review
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1459-1465
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Serum pharmacological method has generally been used in herb studies. However, preparation of test serum for ex vivo experiment is an intricate process: besides pretreatment (heat or chemicals), it involves the proteolytic cascades of coagulation along with fibrinolysis, complement and kinin systems, as well as platelet and leukocyte activation resulting in release reactions. These processes deviate serum sample components away from the original in vivo state, and possibly also have effects on the absorbed herbal components and their downstream effectors in blood. The conclusions drawn from serum pharmacological method are at least partially uncertain in its validity. These processes can be avoided by anticoagulation. Compared to those of the serum, constituents of plasma are better reflectors of the in vivo physiological/pathological state and medicinal herb-induced changes. Therefore, we have advocated the adoption of plasma pharmacological method in ex vivo experiments of herb studies. Recent studies including our work demonstrated that the constituents and biological activities are partially different between absorbed medicinal herbs in plasma and serum. This review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the feasibility of plasma pharmacological method and discusses the reasons and facts that flaw the serum pharmacological method. But serum pharmacological method can be used if anticoagulants interfere with experiments. It should be emphasized that the domination between plasma and serum pharmacological methods is different depending on the usage. Indeed, the pros and cons of both methods as well as the appropriate choices of coagulants in different ex vivo experimental settings remain to be further elucidated.
Analytical Biochemistry
Regular Article
  • Atsuko Hioki, Ai Wakasugi, Kumi Kawano, Yoshiyuki Hattori, Yoshie Mait ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Analytical Biochemistry
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1466-1470
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, to establish the conditions of a drug release assay for PEGylated liposome formulations that relates with the drug stability profile in serum in vivo, the influences of incubation temperature and serum protein in the release buffer were examined using liposomal doxorubicin (DXR). In in vitro drug release assays, a PEGylated liposomal DXR in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C showed higher drug release rate than non-PEGylated formulation although PEGylated liposomal DXR had higher stability than an equivalent non-PEGylated formulation following intravenous injection. When bovine serum albumin (BSA) and increased temperature, 50 °C, were used to accelerate drug release from the liposomes and to mimic in vivo result, non-PEGylated liposomal DXR showed conversely higher release than a PEGylated formulation. Since high temperature increased BSA adsorption onto liposomes, BSA may cause non-PEGylated liposomes instability more than PEGylated ones, resulting in the reverse of the drug release rate of both liposomes. This finding suggested that the conditions in the drug release assay with PEGylated liposomal DXR may be able to be set by a combination of BSA and providing additional thermal energy.
Note
  • Shigehiro Yanagihara, Yuya Taniguchi, Mareto Hosono, Eiji Yoshioka, Ri ...
    原稿種別: Note
    専門分野: Analytical Biochemistry
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1596-1599
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Assessment of biological potency and its comparison with clinical effects are important in the quality control of therapeutic glycoproteins. Animal models are usually used for evaluating bioactivity of these compounds. However, alternative methods are required to simplify the bioassay and avoid ethical issues associated with animal studies. Negatively charged sialic acid residues are known to be critical for in vivo bioactivity of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). In this study, we used capillary zone electrophoresis, a charge-based separation method, to estimate the sialic acid content for predicting in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO. In vivo bioactivities of rhEPO subfractions were measured and compared with sialylation levels. The results obtained indicated that in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO is not simply correlated with the sialylation level, which suggests that it is difficult to predict biological potency from the sialic acid content alone. N-Glycan moieties as well as sialic acid residues may have a significant impact on in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO.
Biochemistry
Regular Article
  • Akihiro Michihara, Saki Ogawa, Yohei Kamizaki, Kenji Akasaki
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Biochemistry
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1471-1476
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the present study, we investigated the dose-dependent effect of δ-tocotrienol long term (48, 72 h) on the melanin content of cells treated with δ-tocotrienol, and whether cells treated with δ-tocotrienol for long a time show cytotoxicity. We also examined whether other enzymes responsible for melanin biosynthesis, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and -2 (TRP-2), are involved in the decrease in melanin levels. Protein levels in cells treated with 25 or 50 μM δ-tocotrienol for 48 h or 72 h were similar to those in control cells. Melanin content decreased by 44 (25 μM δ-tocotrienol) to 50% (50 μM) at 48 h, and by 14 to 21% at 72 h, compared to control levels. Tyrosinase activity, amounts of tyrosinase and TRP-1 decreased dependent on dose : by 50 (25 μM δ-tocotrienol) to 75% (50 μM), 20 to 45% and 42 to 82% at 48 h, and by 25 to 50%, 75 to 80% and 78 to 77% at 72 h, respectively. Although the amount of TRP-2 increased by 20% on treatment with 25 μM δ-tocotrienol for 48 h, it decreased by 52% on treatment with 50 μM δ-tocotrienol for 48 h. The amount of TRP-2 dose-dependently decreased by 55% and 75% on 72 h by treatment with 25 and 50 μM δ-tocotrienol, respectively. From these findings, δ-tocotrienol at up to 50 μM dose-dependently caused a reduction in melanin content by the decrease of TRP-1 and TRP-2 as well as tyrosinase, and no cytotoxicity.
Molecular and Cell Biology
Regular Articles
  • Geng Chang, Yansu Guo, Yaqiong Jia, Weisong Duan, Bin Li, Jixu Yu, Chu ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Molecular and Cell Biology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1477-1483
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Threohydroxyaspartate (THA) causes glutamate excitotoxicity in motor neurons in organotypic culture of rat spinal cord. Some drugs, including sulforaphane (SF) and riluzole, can protect motor neuron against excitotoxicity. It has been demonstrated that SF is a potent inducer of Phase II enzymes, while riluzole is a classic anti-glutamate agent. The objective of the current study is to investigate whether the combination of SF and riluzole is superior to either one used alone. In our study, the combination of SF with riluzole not only stimulates the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), but also reduces the extracellular accumulation of glutamate. When used at optimal doses, SF (10 μM) and riluzole (5 μM), either alone or in combination, all exert significant and similar neuroprotection, as measured by the number of motor neuron, medium malondialdehyde (MDA) level and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level. When used at low doses, the combination is better than each agent used alone. In conclusion, these results suggest the potential utility of combination use of SF and riluzole for protection of motor neuron against excitotoxicity.
  • Sachiko Juman, Naomi Yasui, Hiroto Okuda, Ai Ueda, Hiroko Negishi, Tom ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Molecular and Cell Biology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1484-1488
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    We investigated the inhibitory effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblasts to adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated for adipocytes given high glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1 μM dexamethasone (DEX), 500 μM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and 5 μg/ml insulin for 7 days. After differentiation, cells were stained with Oil-Red-O to detect oil droplets in adipocytes. Additionally, the cells were lysed and measured for triglyceride contents. Total RNA was isolated from differentiated cells on day 0, 4 and 7. Then, RNA was analyzed using reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CAPE dose-dependently suppressed oil droplet accumulation and reduced the droplet size. These findings showed that CAPE at concentrations of 25 to 50 μM could significantly inhibit triglyceride deposition (p<0.05). Treatment of 3T3-L1 with CAPE reduced the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPalpha). Fatty acid synthase (Fas) and adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein (aP2) are known to be associated with lipid metabolism in adipocytes, and both Fas mRNA and aP2 mRNA were significantly suppressed by CAPE treatment. These findings suggested that CAPE suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation to adipocytes through inhibition of PPARgamma, C/EBPalpha, Fas and aP2 expression.
Microbiology
Regular Article
  • Yaya Rukayadi, Sunghwa Han, Dongeun Yong, Jae-Kwan Hwang
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Microbiology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1489-1493
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Panduratin A, a natural chalcone compound isolated from the rhizome of fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) MANSF. A). The antibacterial activity of panduratin A against clinical enterococci isolates was compared in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) to those of commonly used antimicrobials, according to the CLSI guidelines. Time–kill curves were constructed to assess the concentration between MIC and bactericidal activity of panduratin A at concentrations ranging from 0× MIC to 4× MIC. The activity of panduratin A against biofilm-producing enterococcal strains was also evaluated. The growth of all clinical enterococci isolates (n=23) were inhibited by panduratin A at a concentration of 2 μg/ml. Panduratin A was able to kill all clinical enterococci isolates with a MBC of 8 μg/ml. The time–kill curves demonstrated that the bactericidal endpoint for clinical enterococci was reached after 30 min of incubation at a panduratin A concentration of 4× MIC. The growth of biofilm-producing enterococcal strains can be inhibited and eradicated by panduratin A at concentrations of ≤4 μg/ml and ≤16 μg/ml, respectively. The antibacterial activity of panduratin A against all clinical enterococci isolates was generally more potent than commonly used antimicrobials. Panduratin A has stronger activity against biofilm-producing enterococcal strains than daptomycin and linezolid. Panduratin A is an antimicrobial agent with high in vitro activity against clinical enterococci, including organisms resistant to other antimicrobials.
Pharmacology
Regular Articles
  • Wei Yun Zhang, Jung-Jin Lee, In-Su Kim, Yohan Kim, Jeong-Sook Park, Ch ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1494-1499
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The stimulation of glucose uptake into peripheral tissues is an important mechanism for the removal of glucose in blood and for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). Since recent results have demonstrated the beneficial effects of flavonoids in relation to DM, this study was designed to examine the effects of 7-O-methylaromadendrin (7-O-MA), a flavonoid isolated from Inula viscosa, on glucose uptake into liver and fat tissue, and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. 7-O-MA at 10 μM significantly stimulated insulin-induced glucose uptake measured by 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG) in both human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein (aP2) gene expression was increased by 7-O-MA in adipocytes, and both gene and protein level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) was also increased. Moreover, 7-O-MA stimulated the reactivation of insulin-mediated phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-linked protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) and adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in high glucose-induced, insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and this effect was blocked by either LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, or compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Therefore, these results suggest that 7-O-MA might stimulate glucose uptake via PPARγ2 activation and improve insulin resistance via PI3K and AMPK-dependent pathways, and be a potential candidate for the management of type 2 DM.
  • Kiyoaki Yonesu, Tsuyoshi Nakamura, Yumiko Mizuno, Chie Suzuki, Takahir ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1500-1505
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    A sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) antagonist is expected to be an anti-angiogenic compound; however, there are few reports that demonstrated that a S1P1 inhibitor improved the disease state in an angiogenic animal model. Since we determined that a prototype S1P1 antagonist was an in vivo angiogenesis inhibitor, we developed the derivatives to acquire more effective compounds. In this report, we show the S1P1 antagonistic activity of some representatives, especially compound 5 {sodium 4-[(4-butoxyphenyl)thio]-2′-[{4-[(heptylthio)methyl]-2-hydroxyphenyl}(hydroxy)methyl]biphenyl-3-sulfonate}. The IC50 values calculated from an intracellular cyclic AMP measurement assay and a [33P]sphingosine-1-phosphate (Sph-1-P)/S1P1 binding assay were 38 and 200 nM, respectively. A subtype specificity test for the other Sph-1-P receptors showed that compound 5 was the S1P1-directional antagonist. It also inhibited the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated by Sph-1-P with the IC50 values of 18, 650, and 230 nM, respectively. A cytotoxicity assay concurrently performed with a tube formation assay supported the hypothesis that these biological effects were not due to its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, administration (10 mg/kg, intravenously) to anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats inhibited Sph-1-P-induced hypotension by 100—90% for 30 min. This is presumably through the inhibition of Sph-1-P-induced vasorelaxation, mainly by the blocking of S1P1 and/or S1P3. Taken together, these results show that compound 5 is an inhibitor of in vitro and in vivo Sph-1-P signaling, and that it will be useful to elucidate the in vivo effect of Sph-1-P on vascular endothelial cells.
  • Hsiu-Hao Lee, Ching-Hua Yeh, Yu-Tai Chen, Tzong-Cherng Chi, Juei-Tang ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1506-1510
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Thiazolidinediones (TZD) can cause adipose tissue accumulation and myocardial hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine if combined Metformin (Glucophage) and Rosiglitazone (Avandia) could reduce the risk of heart failure caused by Rosiglitazone in BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were treated with oral Rosiglitazone/Metformin twice daily for four weeks. Metformin or Rosiglitazone alone and non-treated mice acted as double control. Myocardial hypertrophy and associated side effects of the combined therapy were determined through isolated heart and body weights. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were applied to evaluate expression of sulfonylurea receptor 2A (SUR2A) and Kir 6.2. The activities of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) in the myocardium were also observed. Rosiglitazone/Metformin decreased body weight gain and food intake, and inhibited an increasing adipose ratio but did not reduce myocardial hypertrophy. Rosiglitazone increased Kir6.2/SUR2A, Kir6.2/SUR2B, and PPARα gene expression. The Rosiglitazone/Metformin combination further increased these gene expressions, especially PPARα. Metformin inhibits obesity but has no effect in reducing myocardial hypertrophy caused by Rosiglitazone. Whether Metformin can reduce side effects of TZDs in humans warrants further study.
  • Chuanxia Ju, Wang Yue, Zhihong Yang, Quanfang Zhang, Xue Yang, Zhantao ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1511-1516
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this study was to observe the antidiabetic effect and mechanism of chitooligosaccharides (COS). Type 2 diabetic rats were fed a high-energy diet together with an injection of streptozotocin (STZ). After 8 weeks of COS treatment, the changes in glycometabolism, insulin sensitivity, serum hepatic marker enzyme levels, liver glycogen content, expressions of glucose transporter GLUT-4, malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and morphology of the pancreas were observed. The results showed that COS significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), increased the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and improved oral glucose tolerance. COS increased liver glucokinase activity and glycogen content and upregulated the expressions of GLUT-4 mRNA in adipose and soleus muscle. They also raised the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced the malonaldehyde content in pancreas homogenate. Pancreas hematoxylin/eosin (HE) staining of the diabetic rats showed ruptured islet, but changes of pancreatic islet in the animals were minimized by administration of COS. The effect of COS on pancreatic β cell (INS-1) in vitro was also examined. It was found that COS played important roles in INS-1 cells by promoting proliferation, increasing glucose stimulated insulin release, upregulating the expressions of GLUT-2 mRNA and protecting against STZ-induced apoptosis. The results from the present study indicate COS have protective effect for type 2 diabetes by ameliorating insulin resistance, promoting the proliferation of β cells, increasing insulin secretion and protecting β cells.
  • Muneyoshi Okada, Natsuko Kosaka, Yoshikazu Hoshino, Hideyuki Yamawaki, ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1517-1521
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade by captopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expressions and development of left ventricular (LV) fibrosis induced by isoprenaline in rats. Rats were treated with subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (5 mg/kg/d) and with oral administration of captopril (30 mg/kg/d) or telmisartan (3 mg/kg/d) for 1 or 7 d. Hearts were excised at the day 2 and day 8. Degree of fibrosis was evaluated by Azan staining. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions were analyzed by Western blotting. Localization of MMP-9 expression in LV section was detected by immunohistochemical staining. At the day 8, myocardial fibrosis was observed in LV section from isoprenaline-treated rats. Captopril but not telmisartan significantly enhanced the isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis. MMP-9 expression at the day 2 and MMP-2 expression at the day 8 increased significantly in LV from isoprenaline-treated rats. Captopril had no influence on the MMP-2 expression, but significantly augmented the isoprenaline-induced MMP-9 expression. Telmisartan had no effect on the isoprenaline-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions. In immunohistochemical staining, MMP-9 positive-interstitial cells were extensively observed in LV sections from isoprenaline + captopril-treated rats at the day 2. The present study reveals that RAS blockade by captopril and telmisartan does not have suppressive effects on isoprenaline-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions as well as LV fibrosis. Furthermore, captopril may enhance LV fibrosis through promoting isoprenaline-induced MMP-9 expression in cardiac interstitial cells.
  • Tsai-Hsiu Yang, Wen-Yueh Ho, Mei-Fen Shih, Kuen-Lin Leu, Yi-Szu Wen, C ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1522-1528
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    There is evidence that increased plasma cytokines, elevated brain levels of monoamines and hydroxyl radical production may be implicated in pathogenesis during heat stroke in rats. Acute treatment with a combined therapeutic approach has been repeatedly advocated in cerebral ischemia experiments. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combined agent (mannitol and dexamethasone) has beneficial efficacy to improve the survival time (ST) and heat stroke-induced damage in experimental heat stroke. Urethane-anesthetized rats underwent instrumentation for the measurement of colonic temperature, mean arterial pressure (MAP), striatal cerebral blood flow (CBF), heart rate, and neuronal damage score. The rats were exposed to an ambient temperature (43 °C) to induce heat stroke. Concentrations of the ischemic and damage markers, dopamine, serotonin, and hydroxyl radical production in corpus striatum, and the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were observed during heat stroke. After the onset of heat stroke, the heat stroke rats display decreased MAP, decreased CBF, increased the plasma levels of TNF-α, increased cerebral striatal monoamines and hydroxyl radical production release, and severe cerebral ischemia and neuronal damage compared with those of normothermic control rats. However, immediate treatment with the combined agent confers significant protection against heat stroke-induced arterial hypotension, systemic inflammation, cerebral ischemia, cerebral monoamines and hydroxyl radical production overloads, and improves neuronal damage and the ST in heat stroke rats. Our data suggest that administration of this combined agent seems to have more effective to ameliorate the heat stroke-induced neuronal damage and prolong the ST.
  • Shi-Ping Zhang, Xin-Gang Du, Xiao-Ping Pu
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1529-1533
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Xanthone compounds have been reported to inhibit cancer cell growth as well as possessing antioxidant properties. The xanthone compound 3-O-demethylswertipunicoside (3-ODS), extracted from Swertia punicea HEMSL, has not previously been demonstrated to have clear neuroprotective effects. In our study, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell death assay revealed that treatment of PC12 cells with 3-ODS ameliorated the decreased cell viability induced by exposure to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+), rotenone or H2O2. The acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) apoptosis assay demonstrated a significant suppression of cell death in PC12 cells. by 3-ODS treatment. 3-ODS increased the protein expression of both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DJ-1 expression in PC12 cells. The current study demonstrates that 3-ODS has potential neuroprotective effects mediated via the elevation of TH and DJ-1 protein levels.
  • Karine Maria Martins Bezerra Carvalho, Talita Cavalcante Morais, Tiago ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1534-1539
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Many plant-derived flavonoids including quercetin exhibit antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress play an important role in acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of quercetin on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Animal groups were pretreated with quercetin (25, 50, 100 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)), thalidomide (200 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) 1 h before hourly (×5) intraperitoneal injections of cerulein. A saline (0.9%, NaCl)-treated control group was included for comparison. Cerulein significantly enhanced the serum levels of amylase and lipase, and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activities, malondialdehyde and the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6, as well as the pancreatic wet weight/body weight ratio. Cerulein significantly reduced the serum levels of IL-10. Histological assessment of the pancreas showed tissue edema, neutrophil infiltration, acinar vacuolization, and cell necrosis and a marked increase in the immunoreactivity staining for TNF-α. Pretreatment with quercetin or thalidomide significantly attenuated the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis as evidenced by effective reductions in the pancreatic wet weight/body weight ratio, biochemical indices, proinflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde formation, and an increase in antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10. Quercetin treatment also markedly suppressed the histological changes such as pancreatic edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, acinar cell necrosis, and the expression of TNF-α. Taken together, these results indicate that quercetin ameliorates the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by acting as an antiinflammatory and antioxidant agent.
  • Yusuke Eto, Yasuo Yoshioka, Tatsuhiro Ishida, Xinglei Yao, Tomohiro Mo ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1540-1544
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Application of adenovirus vectors (Adv) in metastatic cancer treatment is limited. We previously demonstrated that covalent conjugation of polyethleneglycol (PEG) to Adv enhances therapeutic effects and decreases toxic side-effects after systemic administration, but the level of immune response to PEGylated Adv (PEG-Ad) was not examined. Here, we examined the effect of PEGylation of Adv on the production of anti-Adv antibodies and antitumor response. We constructed a set of PEG-Ad using 5-kDa PEG, with modification rates of 30%, 45% and 90%. After systemic administration of Advs to rats, we examined the level of anti-Adv immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM in serum. The levels of anti-Adv IgG and anti-Adv IgM in rats treated with unmodified Adv were higher than those in control group. Rats treated with PEG-Ad that had a 90% modification rate showed lower level of anti-Adv IgG and anti-Adv IgM than those treated with unmodified Adv, whereas rats treated with PEG-Ad that had a 30% or 45% modification rate showed a similar level of anti-Adv IgG and IgM to those treated with unmodified Adv. Systemic administration of PEG-Ad that had a 90% modification rate, and expressed tumor necrosis factor-α, significantly reduced the number of metastatic colonies in the lung compared to unmodified Adv, with negligible side effects. These results suggest that systemic administration of PEG-Ad with an appropriate PEG modification rate has the potential to reduce the production of antibodies against Adv and increase the therapeutic response against metastatic cancer.
  • Yoshinori Funakami, Eiji Itoh, Taeko Hata, Tetsuyuki Wada, Seiji Ichid ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1545-1549
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Stress is closely associated with the manifestation and progress of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). For the purpose of establishing experimentally the relationship between IBS and stress, the transportation capacity of the small intestine in specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART)-stressed animals was studied using charcoal transportation method. The charcoal suspension was administered orally into the stomach of fasting mice. Mice were sacrificed after a certain time and %charcoal transit (%CT) of the small intestine was measured. The %CTs in SART-stressed mice were greater than those in unstressed or continuously cold-stressed mice. This increase in %CT remained for 1 week after discontinuation of SART stress loading. Cholinergic blockers decreased %CTs in SART-stressed mice. Increases in %CT by a cholinesterase inhibitor were less in SART-stressed mice than in unstressed mice. Increases of %CT in SART-stressed mice were suppressed by Neurotropine. These results suggested that the parasympathetic hypertonicity, not just cold, played a role in the increases in the transportation capacity in SART-stressed mice and that these animals can be a useful tool for elucidation of the mechanism of IBS.
  • XinHua Liu, LiLong Pan, Yang Zhuo, QiHai Gong, Peter Rose, YiZhun Zhu
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1550-1554
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to have pro-angiogenic properties in mammals. In this study, we examined H2S played the role in pro-angiogenesis mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α under hypoxic conditions. Rat brain capillary endothelial cells (ECs) were treated with NaHS (a H2S donor) pretreated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) conditioned media. ECs proliferation was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. ECs migration was assessed by chemotaxis chamber assay. Angiogenesis-associated gene expression levels were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) accumulation was analyzed by Western blotting. HIF-1 binding activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). We found H2S induced both endothelial proliferation and migration in mimic hypoxic condition. In addition, H2S promoted VEGF and HIF-1α mRNA levels. H2S also significantly upregulated HIF-1α and VEGF protein levels and increased HIF-1α binding activity under hypoxic condition. Our findings suggest that HIF-1/VEGF is involved in H2S promotes proliferation and migration of ECs.
Note
  • Dexin Kong, Kanami Yamazaki, Takao Yamori
    原稿種別: Note
    専門分野: Pharmacology
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1600-1604
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Identification of new uses for existing drugs is known to be an efficient approach in drug discovery. The identification of a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor is important in terms of cancer chemotherapy because PI3K is implicated in many types of cancer. In an effort to discover new PI3K inhibitory compounds, we recently carried out a screening of Screening Committee of Anticancer Drugs (SCADS) library, a compound library mainly composed of antitumor drugs and kinase inhibitors. As a result, six new PI3K inhibitory compounds were identified each of which displayed over 60% inhibition of PI3Kα at 10 μM. Baicalein, the most potent of these inhibitors, exhibited 73% inhibition at 1 μM. Further characterization of Baicalein and Akt inhibitor VIII showed that both compounds displayed comparable inhibition against PI3Kβ and δ, but relatively weak activity against PI3Kγ. Growth inhibition effects of Akt inhibitor VIII and Baicalein on human cancer cell line panel JFCR39 were also investigated, and the mean logarithm of the concentration required for 50% growth inhibition of cells (Log GI50) was determined to be −5.59 and −4.70, respectively. In addition, COMPARE analysis of the two compounds together with known PI3K inhibitors was carried out by using PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 as a seed. Our results show that Akt inhibitor VIII displays a similar fingerprint to that of ZSTK474 (r=0.633), while Baicalein does not (r=0.126). These findings suggest the inhibition profile of Baicalein in cells is different from that of a typical PI3K inhibitor.
Medicinal Chemistry
Note
  • Nan Hee Kim, Young Sook Kim, Yun Mi Lee, Dae Sik Jang, Jin Sook Kim
    原稿種別: Note
    専門分野: Medicinal Chemistry
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1605-1609
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    High sugar levels found in diabetic cataract cause the opacification of lenses by osmotic changes induced via the aldose reductase (AR)-mediated polyol pathway. In this study, puerariafuran, a 2-arylbenzofuran from Pueraria lobata, investigated the inhibitory effects upon AR, antioxidant contents and enzyme activities in the lens. The effect of puerariafuran on xylose-induced lens opacity was also examined. Puerariafuran showed potential inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 22.34 μM against rat lens AR. The xylose-induced opacity of lenses was significantly improved when treated with puerariafuran. Xylose exposure of rat lenses significantly decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and treatment with puerariafuran significantly increased these factors. These results suggest that puerariafuran may provide a potential therapeutic approach for prevention of diabetic complications, such as cataracts.
Pharmacognosy
Regular Article
  • Yohei Sasaki, Maemi Suzuki, Takayuki Matsumoto, Tomokazu Hosokawa, Tsu ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Pharmacognosy
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1555-1560
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    We investigated the vasorelaxant activity of the methanolic extracts of Sappan Lignum (CSE) and its constituents, brazilin, sappanchalcone, and protosappanins A—E, on rat aorta and mesenteric artery. By comparing the vasorelaxant activity of CSE and brazilin on both blood vessels, we found that CSE contained active constituents other than brazilin. When added to brazilin, sappanchalcone and protosappanin D showed vasorelaxant activity on both blood vessels precontracted with phenylephrine. We clarified that the vasorelaxant activity of brazilin was endothelium-independent, while that of sappanchalcone was endothelium-dependent, on both blood vessels. On the other hand, the vasorelaxant activity of protosappanin D was independent of the endothelium of the aorta and dependent on the endothelium of the mesenteric artery. Experiments on sappanchalcone and protosappanin D using NG-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin revealed the involvement of nitric oxide and prostaglandin as endothelium-derived relaxation factors (EDRFs). The anti-oketsu effect of Sappan Lignum might be attributable to the interaction of those compounds. We could partly evaluate the anti-oketsu activity of Sappan Lignum using both the aorta and the mesenteric artery. Through this study, we showed the importance of comparing the effects on the aorta and the mesenteric artery as we found that natural compounds showed different mechanisms of action on the two blood vessels.
Notes
  • Eunjin Shin, Kyeong-Mi Choi, Hwan-Soo Yoo, Chong-Kil Lee, Bang Yeon Hw ...
    原稿種別: Note
    専門分野: Pharmacognosy
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1610-1614
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the course of screening anti-adipogenic activity of natural products employing the preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1 as an in vitro assay system, the EtOAc fraction of the stem barks of Fraxinus rhynchophylla DENCE (Oleaceae) showed significant inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation as assessed by measuring fat accumulation using Oil Red O staining. Activity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of six coumarins such as esculetin (1), scopoletin (2), fraxetin (3), fraxidin (4) esculin (5) and fraxin (6). Among the six coumarins isolated, esculetin (1) showed the most potent inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation, followed by fraxetin (3). Further studies with interval treatment demonstrated that esculetin (1) exerted inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation when treated within 2 d (days 0—2) after differentiation induction. We further investigated the effect of esculetin (1) on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), one of the early adipogenic transcription factors. Esculetin (1) significantly blocked the induction of PPARγ protein expression and inhibited adipocyte differentiation induced by troglitazone, a PPARγ agonist. Taken together, these results suggest that esculetin (1), an active compound from F. rhynchophylla, inhibited early stage of adipogenic differentiation, in part, via inhibition of PPARγ-dependent pathway.
  • Tae-Joon Shin, Sun-Hye Choi, Byung-Hwan Lee, Mi Kyung Pyo, Sung-Hee Hw ...
    原稿種別: Note
    専門分野: Pharmacognosy
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1615-1619
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Quercetin is a low molecular weight flavonoid found in dietary fruits and vegetables. Quercetin, like other flavonoids, has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. However, relatively little is known about how quercetin achieves its neuroprotective abilities. The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor is one of several excitatory receptors, which play an important role in postsynaptic neurotransmission. Over-stimulation of ionotropic glutamate receptor including AMPA receptors is closely associated with excitatory neurotoxicities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of quercetin on the glutamate-induced inward current (IGlu) in Xenopus oocytes that heterologously express human AMPA receptor and stargazin, an auxiliary subunit of AMPA receptor. IGlu was measured using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. In oocytes injected with cRNAs coding AMPA receptor (GluR1) and stargazin, quercetin inhibited IGlu in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 was 84.9±15.0 μM. Quercetin action on IGlu was attenuated by increasing glutamate concentration, and was membrane holding potential-dependent. These results show a possibility that quercetin interacts with AMPA receptor, which was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and that quercetin action on IGlu of AMPA receptor could be one of contributions of quercetin-mediated neuroprotections.
  • So-Jung Won, Yo Sook Ki, Kyung-Sook Chung, Jung-Hye Choi, Ki Hwan Bae, ...
    原稿種別: Note
    専門分野: Pharmacognosy
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1620-1626
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the present study, we investigated the effect of 3α,23-isopropylidenedioxyolean-12-en-27-oic acid (IPA), an active compound isolated from Aceriphyllum rossii, on the apoptotic activity and the molecular mechanism of the action in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Treatment with IPA significantly increased externalization of phosphatidylserine residues and apoptotic DNA fragmentation as shown by Annexin V staining and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining, respectively. In addition, IPA induced the activations of caspase-8, -9, -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) in HeLa cells. Pretreatment with a specific caspase-8, -9, or -3 inhibitor neutralized the pro-apoptotic activity of IPA in HeLa cells. Furthermore, IPA was found to induce the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and the increased ratio of mitochondrial Bax/Bcl-2. Moreover, we demonstrated that IPA triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as shown by changes in cytosol-calcium level, activation of μ-calpain and caspase-12, and up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153). IPA-induced apoptosis was substantially reduced in the presence of an intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA/AM. Taken together, these results suggest that both mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress contribute to IPA-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer HeLa cells.
Biopharmacy
Regular Articles
  • Martins Emeje, Olajide Olaleye, Christiana Isimi, Joseph Fortunak, Ste ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Biopharmacy
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1561-1567
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Oral sustained release matrix tablets of zidovudine (ZDV) were prepared using different types, proportions and blends of carbopol 71G (C71) and a plant gum obtained from Abelmoschus esculentus (AEG). The effect of various formulation factors like polymer proportion, polymer type and pH of the dissolution medium on the in vitro release of the drug was studied, using the half change technique, in 900 ml of dissolution medium, at 100 rpm. Release kinetics were analyzed using Zero-order, Higuchi's square-root and Ritger–Peppas' empirical equations. In vitro release performance as revealed by the time taken for 70% of the drug to be released (t70%), showed that the release rate decreased with increase in polymer proportion. Matrix tablets containing 10 and 20% AEG were found to exhibit immediate-release characteristics. Matrix tablets containing 30% AEG showed t70% value of 204 min and extended the release up to 5 h, while matrix tablets containing 30% carbopol showed t70% value of 234 min and extended the release up to 6 h. Three blends of AEG and C71 at the ratio of 1 : 2, 2 : 1 and 1 : 3 showed t70% values of 132, 312 and 102 min respectively and extended the release up to 8 h. Mathematical analysis of the release kinetics indicated that the nature of drug release from the matrix tablets followed Fickian and anomalous release. Drug release from matrix tablets of zidovudine containing blends of AEG and C71 demonstrates the advantage of blending a natural and synthetic polymer over single polymer use.
  • Katsuya Narumi, Ayako Furugen, Masaki Kobayashi, Sho Otake, Shirou Ita ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Biopharmacy
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1568-1573
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Skeletal muscle is the major producer of lactic acid in the body, but its oxidative fibers also use lactic acid as a respiratory fuel. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 has been suggested to play a major role in influx of L-lactic acid for oxidation. The regulation mechanism of MCT1 was characterized utilizing rhabdomyosarcoma cells as an in vitro skeletal muscle model. The uptake of L-lactic acid via MCT1 was studied in the presence of various intracellular regulatory pathways, including pathways mediated by protein kinases A, C and G (PKA, PKC and PKG), protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), and Ca2+/calmodulin modulators. The results showed that PKG-, PTK-, and Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated regulatory pathways play no role in the regulation of L-lactic acid uptake, but a role for PKC- and PKA-mediated pathways was apparent. Uptake of L-lactic acid appeared to be stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a PKC activator) via an increase in Vmax of transport processes with no alteration in Km. In parallel, PMA treatment also resulted in an increase in the level of MCT1 expression. On the other hand, exposure to 8-Br-cAMP, a cAMP analog, and to forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, resulted in a significant decrease in L-lactic acid uptake. Additionally, 8-Br-cAMP reduced Vmax but not Km values. Parallel to the decrease in Vmax of L-lactic acid uptake, the level of MCT1 expression was decreased in response to incubation with 8-Br-cAMP. These results indicate the possible involvement of a PKC- and PKA-mediated pathway associated with expression of MCT1 and lactate transport.
  • Yoshimasa Ito, Noriaki Nagai, Yoshikazu Shimomura
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Biopharmacy
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1574-1578
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    We have studied the effect of disulfiram (DSF) solution containing 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (DSF eye drops) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in experimentally induced ocular hypertension in rabbits. In both in vitro and in vivo transcorneal penetration experiments using rabbit corneas, only diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) was detected in the aqueous humor, while DSF was not detected. The amount of DDC penetration for 0.25% DSF eye drops was about 4-fold that for 0.1% DSF eye drops in in vivo transcorneal penetration experiments. The elevation in IOP was induced by the rapid infusion of 5% glucose solution (15 ml/kg of body weight) through the marginal ear vein, and IOP was measured with an electronic tonometer. The induced elevation in IOP was reduced by the instillation of 0.1—0.5% DSF eye drops, and the IOP-reducing effect increased with the increase in DSF concentration in the drops. Nitric oxide (NO) levels increased in the aqueous humor following the infusion of the 5% glucose solution, and this increase was also suppressed by the instillation of DSF eye drops. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the instillation of DSF eye drops has an IOP-reducing effect in rabbits with experimentally induced ocular hypertension, probably caused by the suppression of NO production.
Note
  • Hidefumi Mukai, Shigeru Kawakami, Haruyuki Takahashi, Kyosuke Satake, ...
    原稿種別: Note
    専門分野: Biopharmacy
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1627-1632
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is generally recognized that in vivo gene transfection is one of the most important techniques used in the post-genome era. Above all, naked plasmid DNA transfection has attracted much attention because of its advantages including convenience of preparation and handling and lack of toxicity associated with the transfection agents. We have investigated tissue pressure-mediated transfection performed by light and controlled pressure of the target tissue after normal intravenous injection of plasmid DNA. So far, we have demonstrated that plasmid DNA and small-interfering RNA (siRNA) are very efficiently transfected into murine kidney, liver and spleen without causing marked tissue damage. In this study, in order to understand the key physiological phenomena affecting transgene expression, we performed a set of experiments involving tissue pressure-mediated transfection, including the biodistribution and cellular transport of plasmid DNA and activation of transcriptional factors and obtained the following results: i) plasmid DNA transfer to the target tissue and its cells increased although the transferred fraction was small compared to the total administered plasmid DNA, ii) a transient increase in cellular translocation of plasmid DNA was induced, and iii) transcriptional factors were activated. Taking all these results into consideration, it would appear that tissue pressure-mediated transfection enhances plasmid DNA transfer to the target tissue and its cells and also activation of the transcriptional process. This information will allow a better understanding of in vivo transgene expression based on naked plasmid DNA transfection involving tissue pressure-mediated transfection.
Miscellaneous
Regular Articles
  • Kyong-Hwan Bang, Jei-Wan Lee, Young-Chang Kim, Dong-Hwi Kim, Eung-Ho L ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Miscellaneous
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1579-1588
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study describes an efficient approach for developing sequence tagged sites (STS) for Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER, and their applications for line discrimination. By using the methylation filtering (MF) technique, a genomic library was constructed, in which clone inserts were derived from the hypomethylated regions of ginseng genome. A methylation unfiltered genomic library was also constructed and the clone inserts were compared to those from the MF library in terms of sequence characteristics. Sequence analysis revealed that MF efficiently enriched the protein coding region of P. ginseng, for which the repetitive DNA appeared to be as little as 2.5 fold lower than clones in the unfiltered library, and also indicated that the P. ginseng genome may contain a large fraction of methylated repetitive DNA elements. A total of 99 and 100 highly stringent STS primer sets were designed from the filtered and unfiltered library, respectively. Amplification products were tested for latent polymorphism across six cultivars of P. ginseng and other 2 Panax species using six endonucleases recognizing four-bases. STS primer sets described here will be useful for marker-assisted selection, genome mapping and line discrimination of P. ginseng or its cultivars from other Panax species.
  • Kohei Sano, Takashi Temma, Yuji Kuge, Takashi Kudo, Junko Kamihashi, S ...
    原稿種別: Regular Article
    専門分野: Miscellaneous
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1589-1595
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Since membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is exclusively expressed in tumors and is closely associated with metastasis and invasion, MT1-MMP is a potential target of radiotracers for the evaluation of tumor malignancy. In this study, we planned to visualize MT1-MMP in vivo by a two-step pre-targeting strategy using a streptavidin (SAv)-biotin system combined with anti-MT1-MMP monoclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) (anti-MT1-MMP monoclonal antibody (mAb)). Streptavidinylated anti-MT1-MMP mAb was synthesized by reacting biotinylated anti-MT1-MMP mAb with SAv. In the pre-targeting study, FM3A mouse breast carcinoma-implanted mice were injected with anti-MT1-MMP mAb-SAv, followed 72 h later with radioiodinated biotin, (3-[123/125I]iodobenzoyl)norbiotinamide (123/125I-IBB). Biodistribution and imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT) data were collected at several time points in the 24 h period following introduction of the tracer. The comparison groups were injected with 125I-IBB alone or with 125I-IBB pre-targeted with negative control IgG-SAv. In the pre-targeting study for MT1-MMP, within 1 h of tracer injection, rapid tumor uptake and abrupt clearance from the blood of radioactivity (2.22, 0.87% injected dose/g at 1 h) were observed. The tumor to blood (T/B) radioactivity ratios were significantly higher than those from mice dosed with the pre-targeting negative control (p<0.0001). 125I-IBB alone did not accumulate in tumors. SPECT/CT image analysis of FM3A bearing mice showed high-contrast tumor images after 3 h with minimal blood-pool activity. The present study that uses a pre-targeting method showed high T/B radioactivity ratios and clear tumor images of MT1-MMP. This imaging method may be useful for the clinical diagnosis of malignant tumors.
Note
  • Ying Hui, Tomoko Yasuda, Shin Yasuda, Ming-Yih Liu, Yoichi Sakakibara, ...
    原稿種別: Note
    専門分野: Miscellaneous
    2010 年 33 巻 9 号 p. 1633-1637
    発行日: 2010/09/01
    公開日: 2010/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Prolonged exposure to high level of estrogen is a known risk factor for breast carcinogenesis. It has been suggested recently that nitrative stress may be an etiologic factor for breast carcinogenesis. Since sulfation plays a major role in the homeostasis of estrogens and their metabolites, we attempted in the present study to find out whether nitrative stress may affect the homeostasis of estrogens through sulfation. Metabolic labeling experiments revealed that the amount of sulfated 17β-estradiol or 4-methoxyestradiol decreased dramatically in MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells incubated in the presence of 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) or diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA NONOate), two nitric oxide donors commonly used to simulate nitrative stress conditions. In searching for the mechanism underlying the decrease of the sulfation of 17β-estradiol and 4-methoxyestradiol, we demonstrated in an in vitro nitration experiment, that the human cytosolic sulfotransferase isoform 1E1 (SULT1E1), a major estrogen-sulfating enzyme, lost its estrogen-sulfating activity proportionately to the degree of nitration on tyrosine residues. Moreover, cell lysates prepared from MCF-10A cells treated with SIN-1 or DETA NONOate also showed much lower 4-methoxyestradiol-sulfating activities, compared with those determined with cell lysate prepared from control MCF-10A cells.
feedback
Top