The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of saturated fatty acids and fatty amines against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antimicrobial activity of saturated fatty acids and fatty amines was determined by oxygen meters with multi-channels and disposable oxygen electrode sensors (DOX-96). Lauric acid, the most effective among the saturated fatty acids, showed antimicrobial activity at 400 μg/ml against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fatty amines depended on each hydrophobic chain length. The MIC of myristylamine was 1.56 μg/ml; most effective of the fatty amines. In time-kill curves, lauric acid and myristylamine produced a bactericidal effect and a bacteriostatic effect at 4-fold the MIC, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of lauric acid and myristylamine were decreased by human plasma. Cytotoxicity of 3 saturated fatty acids and 3 fatty amines was examined in cultured endothelial cells. Although cytotoxicity of fatty amines was severer than that of saturated fatty acids, myristylamine showed the highest value of apparent therapeutic index among them. DOX-96 was useful for screening antimicrobial substances, especially in the case of insoluble substances. We found that myristylamine showed anti-MRSA activity comparable to that of vancomycin and teicoplanin.
Homology modeling and inhibitory studies using substrate analogs were undertaken to construct a possible three-dimensional structure, including the putrescine-binding site, of rat spermidine synthase based on its primary sequence. Of the ten cysteine residues of the enzyme, six residues were chemically determined as sulfhydryl; similarly, one residue (C25) was determined as the disulfide. Using the model obtained from the Swiss-Model protein-modeling server, and based on the crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima enzyme, the three remaining residues were assigned as sulfhydryl. Discussions are presented on the counterpart of the C25 residue, based on the apparent role of the bacterial N-terminal peptide region in reinforcing the binding between protomers in a functional oligomeric form. The active sites of the bacterial and mammalian versions of the enzyme were very similar. The putrescine-binding site of the rat enzyme was investigated using IC50 values of the analogs of two known potent inhibitors, n-butylamine and trans-4-methylcyclohexylamine (4MCHA). Our results indicated that 5-amino-1-pentene and 4MCHA possess comparable inhibitory activities towards the enzyme.
In Japan, 8 lines of genetically modified (GM) potato (2 lines of NewLeaf® potato; NL, 3 lines of NewLeaf Plus® potato; NLP, and 3 lines of NewLeaf Y® potato; NLY) have already been authorized as safe for use in foods and feeds. We have developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the qualitative detection of the GM potatoes for the screening and the identification of NL, NLP and NLY. The gene encoding uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) was used as a taxon specific gene. We designed the primer pair to detect the cryIIIA genes as a screening method for GM potatoes because the gene should be inserted in all 8 lines of the GM potatoes. For identification of NL, NLP and NLY, we further designed three specific primer pairs for the different recombinant DNAs (r-DNA) specifically introduced into NL, NLP, or NLY. In addition, to identify the 3 lines of NLY that have been introduced with the same r-DNA, the three line-specific primer pairs for the border sequence between the r-DNA and genomic DNA of NLY 3 lines were designed. Six lines of GM potato used as the test material were specifically identified using the each primer pair under the same PCR condition. The detection limits of all the GM potatoes should be approximately 0.1%. Furthermore, the specificity and reproducibility of the methods were confirmed in a six-laboratory collaborative study.
We previously reported that the morphine alkaloid derivative buprenorphine hydrochloride (Bph) induces rapid apoptosis in NG108-15 nerve cells accompanied by the activation of caspase-3. Here, we found this kind of apoptosis was also accompanied by rapid loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, followed by the efflux of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and the activation of caspases-9 and -3. Together, these results strongly suggested the Bph death signal was routed through the mitochondrial pathway in NG108-15 cells. In these cells, serum-starvation induces a different apoptosis, which we exploited to investigate Bcl-2′s role as an apoptosis inhibitor. We made an NG108-15 transfectant, Bcl-2(P2), that stably expressed human Bcl-2, and used it to test Bcl-2′s effect on the serum-starvation-induced apoptosis in NG108-15 cells. Cell viability, DNA-ladder formation, and efflux of cytochrome c from the mitochondria were all detected, showing that the human Bcl-2 functioned normally in the Bcl-2(P2) cells. Although the apoptotic events tested were identical in the parental cells and transformants, Bcl-2 expression completely failed to inhibit Bph-induced apoptosis in the Bcl-2(P2) cells.
Spatholobi Caulis has been used in Oriental medicine to treat cancer and blood stasis. In this study, the methylene chloride fraction of Spatholobi Caulis (MCSC) was examined to determine if it possesses anti-cancer activity via its apoptosis-inducing activity. MCSC exhibited a strong cytotoxic effect against human monocyte leukemia U937 cells (IC50=15.1 μg/ml). A TUNEL assay showed that the MCSC caused a characteristic ladder pattern of discontinuous DNA fragments and apoptotic bodies. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that MCSC significantly increases the number of apoptotic cells stained by annexin V+/PI− cells. Western blotting revealed that MCSC activated caspase-3 expression and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a concentration-dependent manner. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrated that MCSC significantly activated the caspase-3 activity compared with the untreated control by. Taken together, these results suggest that MCSC can induce apoptosis in U937cells via the caspase dependent pathway.
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine comprising p40 and p35 subunits produced mainly by monocytes and macrophages, and plays an essential role in the regulation of the differentiation of Th1 cells. Green tea polyphenols exhibit potent anti-oxidative activities and anti-inflammatory effects by modulating cytokine production. We investigated the effect of catechins on IL-12p40 production in murine macrophages induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pretreatment with several catechins at doses of 0.3—30 μM suppressed IL-12 p40 production by murine peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) and J774.1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Decreases in protein production were primarily due to down-regulation of the transcription of IL-12p40 mRNA. Of the various catechins, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was the most potent inhibitor, followed by (−)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG) and (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG). EGCG inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while EGCG augmented LPS-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK). In addition, both EGCG and GCG inhibited LPS-induced degradation of IκBα with concomitant inhibition of nuclear protein binding to NF-κB site and synthesis of IRF-1. These results suggest that gallate-containing catechins, particularly EGCG, inhibits LPS-induced IL-12p40 production in murine macrophages by inhibiting p38 MAPK while enhancing p44/p42 ERK, leading to the inhibition of IκBα degradation and NF-κB activation.
The ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A (ABCA) consists of the transporters mediating cholesterol release and regulated by cholesterol. As about 25% of total body cholesterol exists in the brain, sterol homeostasis is an important issue as far as central nervous system function is concerned. The purpose of this study was to clarify the mRNA expression of ABCA subtypes at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) using cultured rat and human brain capillary endothelial cells, TR-BBB and hBME cells, respectively. mRNA expression of ABCA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8/9 was detected in TR-BBB cells. In the brain capillary-rich fraction, mRNA expression of ABCA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8/9 was detected. ABCA2 and 5 mRNA were also detected in hBME cells. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that ABCA subtypes are expressed at the rat and/or human BBB. The expression of ABCA subtypes at the BBB is likely to contribute to sterol homeostasis in the central nervous system.
Brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs) make up the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and regulate the passage of therapeutic proteins as well as drugs from the cerebrovasucular circulation to the brain. In the present study, we transferred mouse or human interferon-β (IFN-β) gene via cationic liposomes into primary cultures of bovine BMECs developed as an in vitro model of the BBB. The gene-transferred BMECs secreted transiently a substantial amount of IFN activity more efficiently during the growth phase than at confluence. This was suggested to be due to a difference in the potential for plasmid incorporation between growing and confluent BMECs in a series of cell association experiments with 32P-labelled plasmid DNA. Furthermore, when BMEC monolayers in Transwell plates were transfected with the IFN-β-expression vectors from the upper side, IFN-β was predominantly detected in the upper compartments, suggesting polarized secretion of the transgene products in BMEC monolayers. These findings provide important basic information about therapeutic secretory protein gene delivery to BMECs.
The effect of regucalcin, a regulatory protein in the intracellular signaling process, on superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the cytosol of rat liver was investigated. The presence of zinc sulfate (10−6 or 10−5 m) or cupric sulfate (10−6 m) in the enzyme reaction mixture caused a significant increase in SOD activity, indicating that Cu/Zn-SOD may be present in the liver cytosol. SOD activity was significantly increased by the addition of regucalcin (0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 μM) to the reaction mixture. The presence of dithiothreitol (DTT; 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 mM), a protective reagent for the sulfhydryl group, caused a significant decrease in SOD activity. The effect of regucalcin (0.25 μM) in increasing SOD activity was not seen in the presence of DTT (1.0 mM). Meanwhile, SOD activity was significantly raised by the addition of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM; 0.5 or 1.0 mM), a modifying reagent for the sulfhydryl reagent. Regucalcin (0.25 μM) caused a significant increase in SOD activity in the presence of NEM (1.0 mM). The effect of regucalcin in increasing SOD activity may not involve the sulfhydryl group of SOD. This study demonstrates that regucalcin has an activatory effect on SOD in the liver cytosol of rats.
Tenascin-X (TNX) is a member of the tenascin family of glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix. We previously showed that TNX regulates the synthesis of triglyceride and the composition of triglyceride-associated fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to determine whether TNX controls the synthesis of phospholipids and the composition of phospholipid-associated fatty acids by using TNX-deficient (TNX−/−) mice and TNX-overexpressing fibroblast cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography of total lipids of the skin and sciatic nerves from wild-type and TNX−/− mice revealed that the amounts of major phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), in wild-type and TNX−/− mice are not different. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the major fatty acid compositions of PC and PE in wild-type and TNX−/− mice are almost the same. Fibroblast cells stably overexpressing TNX also showed almost the same amounts of PC and PE and almost the same fatty acid compositions of PC and PE as those in mock-transfected cells. These results suggest that TNX regulates the amount of triglyceride and the composition of triglyceride-associated fatty acids but not the amount and species of phospholipids or the composition of phospholipid-associated fatty acids.
This work aims at examining the effect of the concentrated methanol extract of Rubus croceacanthus Leveille (RCL) on mast cell-mediated anaphylactic-like reaction in a murine model. RCL inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic-like reaction. When RCL was given as pre-treatment at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg/ml, the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells induced by compound 48/80 or anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE) was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. RCL also inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-DNP IgE. In addition, RCL inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and A23187-induced tumor necrosis factor-α secretion from human mast cell line HMC-1 cells. These results indicate that RCL may possess a strong anti-anaphylactic activity.
Calcium channel blockers have become important tools in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders and other diseases. Hybridization of well established calcium antagonist subclasses was an attempt to optimize their pharmacological profile. The intension of this study was to investigate the electrophysiological properties of MM 10 and MM 11 two newly synthesized compounds structurally closely related to KT-362 (5-[3-[[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]amino]-1-oxopropyl]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,5-benzothiazepine fumarate) in various isolated guinea pig heart muscle preparations by means of the conventional intracellular microelectrode tech-nique. MM 10 (2,3-dihydro-1-[N-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-N-methylaminoacetyl]-1H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]thiazine fumarate) and MM 11 (2,3-dihydro-1-[N-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-N-methylaminopropionyl]-1H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]thiazine fumarate) exerted very similar effects though the action of MM 11 was more pronounced. Whereas action potential amplitude and maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax) in papillary muscle, left atria and spontaneously beating Purkinje fibers was not affected by the compounds in a concentration range from 3 to 30 μmol/l, action potential duration at 90% time to repolarization was significantly prolonged in a concentration-dependent manner. Action potential duration at 20% time to repolarization was decreased in spontaneously beating Purkinje fibers and remained unchanged in papillary muscles and left atria. In sinoatrial nodes both compounds reduced rate of activity, action potential amplitude, maximum upstroke velocity and slope of slow diastolic depolarization while time to repolarization was prolonged. In 3 out of 6 experiments with spontaneously beating Purkinje fibers, MM 11 (30 μmol/l) led to the occurrence of early afterdepolarizations with a take off potential between −50 and −60 mV. All observed effects were completely reversible during washout with drug-free physiological salt solution. From these results it was concluded that both compounds in addition to their calcium antagonistic properties might depress repolarizing potassium currents. In contrast to the mother compound KT-362 they do not seem to affect the fast sodium inward current. Replacement of the benzothiazepine nucleus by a pyridothiazine structure may weaken or even eliminate sodium channel blocking ability. Shortening of the side chain might result in a general loss in activity.
To elucidate the pathophysiological significance of adenosine 3′-monophosphate (3′-AMP) forming enzyme in rats, the effect of iron lactate overloading on the enzyme activities and adenine nucleotide levels in the liver and spleen was examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet supplemented with 0%, 0.625% or 5.0% of iron lactate for 4 weeks. Iron deposition was found in periportal hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and macrophages of red pulp of the spleen. No significant changes in hematological parameters were detected. Although serum alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus levels elevated slightly in the 5.0% group, activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and levels of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine were not changed significantly. The ATP levels in the liver and spleen of iron fed groups were significantly decreased, but adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) levels were within control levels. On the other hand, the levels of ATP, ADP and AMP in the erythrocytes without mitochondria were not suppressed by the iron lactate overloading. Free activity of 3′-AMP forming enzyme, one of ribonucleases (RNase), was not changed in the liver of iron-overloaded rat, and total amount of 3′-AMP and adenosine formed after the treatment of the crude enzyme(s) with p-chloromercuribenzensulfonic acid, a SH blocker of RNase inhibitors, was decreased dose-dependently. On the contrary, free activity of 3′-AMP forming enzyme was enhanced dose-dependently in the spleen of iron-overloaded rat but the total activity was not changed. However, the free and total 3′-AMP forming enzyme activities in the liver and spleen of iron-overloaded rats became equal at the dosage of 5.0% of iron lactate. The results obtained suggested that iron loading might induce significant decrease in hepatic and splenic ATP levels via malfunction of their mitochondria and might lead dissociation of RNase–RNase inhibitor complex to activate 3′-AMP forming enzyme in both tissues.
Mite antigen has been suggested to play important roles in the onset and/or development of atopic dermatitis, and mite antigen-induced dermatitis models appear beneficial for the basic study of atopic dermatitis. In the present study therefore, we attempted to establish an allergic dermatitis model in mice using Dermatophagoides farinae crude extract as an antigen. Mite antigen solution at a concentration of 1 or 10 mg/ml was painted 5 times repeatedly at an interval of 7 d onto the ear of NC/Nga or BALB/c mice with or without simultaneous tape-stripping. Apparent biphasic ear swelling was observed after the 4th and 5th antigen applications in both strains of mice treated with 10 mg/ml of antigen solution. Thickening of the epidermis, fibrosis of the dermis, and the accumulation of inflammatory cells were also observed after the 5th application. The inflammatory changes were more evident in NC/Nga mice than in BALB/c mice and potentiated by tape-stripping. The ear swelling was accompanied by increased serum IgE, increased expression of interleukin-4 mRNA and decreased expression of interferon-γ mRNA in cervical lymph nodes and ears. These results indicate that ear swelling caused by repeated mite antigen application with simultaneous tape-stripping has a Th2-dominant background and that the inflammatory responses are expressed more potently in NC/Nga mice than in BALB/c mice. The dermatitis caused by mite antigen in NC/Nga mice appears to be a useful model for the basic study of atopic dermatitis.
Action of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine-human serum albumin (CML-HSA) on neovascularization was investigated in cultured rat choroidal explant. Choroidal explants of normal male Wistar rats were cultured in fibrin gel with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing fetal bovine serum in the presence or absence of CML-HSA. Migrated cells were budded from 2nd day in culture and developed from cultured choroidal explants in a time-dependent manner. Budded and developed cells from the choroidal explant had a feature of fibroblasts, which had attenuated long cytoplasmic processes, long ellipsoid nuclei and numerous membrane-bound polymorphic vesicles. Immunostaining of the attenuated cells in fibrin bed with CD34 (a marker protein of vascular endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells) failed to disclose positive result. However the cells which were isolated from fibrin bed by collagenase were specifically stained with anti-CD34 antibody. The isolated cells did not form tube-like structures on collagen gel by 3 weeks in culture. CML-HSA significantly increased the number of total isolated cells and CD34+ cells as well as the number of vessel-like structures. These results indicate that CML-HSA overproduced immature blood vessels from cultured choroidal explants in fibrin gel, which consisted of CD34+ cells. The CML-HSA-induced formation of immature blood vessel may be implicated in various choroidal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration.
Although a blockade or lack of N-type Ca2+ channels has been reported to suppress neuronal pathological processes in several animal models of pain and ischemic brain injury, information is still limited regarding the neuroprotective effects of a dual L/N-type Ca2+ channel blocker, cilnidipine. In this study, we assessed the effects of cilnidipine in the rat focal brain ischemia model to analyze its potential utility for hypertensive patients with cerebral infarction. In an anesthetized rat model, cerebral vasodilator actions of cilnidipine were detected at hypotensive doses, which was less potent than those of an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nilvadipine. In the rat focal brain ischemia model, an anti-hypertensive and anti-sympathetic dose of cilnidipine could reduce the size of cerebral infarction, whereas an equipotent hypotensive dose of nilvadipine failed to affect it. These results suggest that N-type Ca2+ channel-blocking profile of cilnidipine may contribute its neuroprotective action in the animal focal brain ischemia model. Thus, treatment of hypertension with cilnidipine may prevent severe consequences after brain attack.
Oral administration of a novel immunomodulator, FTY720 (0.1 mg/kg, once a week), completely prevented the spontaneous development of dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. It also strongly suppressed hyper IgE production in serum, as well as hypertrophy of the epidermis and the degranulation of granulocytes in the skin, all of which were observed in mice in which the dermatitis had become established. These results strongly suggest that FTY720 is a promising candidate for treatment of human atopic dermatitis.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury (ARDS)/(ALI) involve the severe lung injury with pulmonary vascular hyper-permeability and hypoxemia induced by inflammatory reactions. Since ARDS/ALI carries high mortality, the development of new drugs against ARDS/ALI is required. We examined the effect of tranilast, an anti-allergic drug, on vascular hyper-permeability in the lungs and airways, and on hypoxemia, in oleic acid (OA)-induced acute lung injury, an animal model of ARDS/ALI. The increase in pulmonary and airway vascular permeability and the decrease in partial oxygen pressure of arterial blood induced by an intravenous injection of OA were drastically ameliorated by the oral administration of tranilast in a dose-dependent manner. This is the first report to prove that tranilast prevents pulmonary and airway vascular permeability and hypoxemia induced by OA. These results suggest that tranilast may be a candidate drug for the treatment of ARDS/ALI.
5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is an effective drug for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. A large group of flavonoids was investigated for their inhibitory effects on the N-acetyl-conjugation of 5-ASA in rat hepatocytes and subcellular preparations. When added to cultured hepatocytes, some flavonoids inhibited the production of N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AcASA) with potencies that depended on the specific structure of flavonoids. Among the flavonols, quercetin, kaempferol and galangin had inhibitory activity with a tendency to be more effective at increasing the number of hydroxyl substitutions in the B-ring. Flavones such as luteolin, apigenin and chrysin were as effective as the corresponding three flavonols above. 7,3′,4′-OH flavone was more effective than other simple flavones such as 7-, 5-, 3-, 7,3-, 7,4′- and 3′,4′-OH flavones. Isoflavones were relatively weak inhibitors. Taxifolin and catechins had little or no inhibitory effect. These data suggest that the presence of C7 hydroxyl substitution on the A-ring and the catechol group on the B-ring in the flavone structure is required for effective inhibitory activity. The inhibitory effect of flavonoids on N-acetyl-conjugation of 5-ASA was also examined by incubating 5-ASA with isolated liver cytosolic preparations. The active flavonoids in the cells inhibited the N-acetylation of 5-ASA in the cell-free enzymatic preparations with a potency comparable to that for cultured rat hepatocytes.
We examined the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on chromosomal damage in two ways; induction on its own and prevention against treatment of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chromosomal damage was evaluated by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in a human lymphoblastoid cell line, WIL2-NS cells. The GSE was composed of 89% proanthocyanidin with a degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 15. GSE did not induce chromosomal damage in WIL2-NS cells at GSE concentrations up to 5 mg/l. In contrast, pretreatment with GSE dose-dependently prevented H2O2-induced chromosomal damage at an effective dose of 0.3 to 1 mg/l. A similar preventive effect of GSE was not detected in tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage even at 5 mg/l. In a cell free system, GSE (<5 mg/l) directly scavenged H2O2, but produced slight amounts of H2O2 at higher concentrations (>50 mg/l). These results suggest that GSE is not genotoxic, but rather has an antigenotoxic effect against H2O2via direct scavenging action of H2O2.
The protective effect of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an antiulcer drug, against the acute toxicity and teratogenicity produced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was examined in C57BL/6J mice. When mice were co-treated, GGA reduced the loss of body weight gain and lethality produced by TCDD but hepatomegaly and thymic atrophy were not improved. Additionally, no protective effect of GGA was observed in the formation of cleft palate and hydronephrosis in mouse fetuses caused by maternal exposure to TCDD. To clarify the reducing mechanism by GGA, the Hsp70.1 mRNA levels in liver and intestine were analyzed. However, it was difficult to explain the effect of GGA from the induction of Hsp70.1. GGA had also no effect on the induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity by TCDD. These data suggest that GGA exhibits a protective effect against some forms of dioxin toxicity by a mechanism without involving inhibition of arylhydrocarbon receptor activation.
A series of 3-chloroquinoxaline-2-carboxamides were designed and prepared by the condensation of 3-chloro-2-quinoxaloylchloride with appropriate Mannich bases of the p-aminophenol in the microwave environment. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for serotonin3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonistic activities in longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) preparation from guinea pig ileum against the 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT. Compound 3g exhibited comparable 5-HT3 antagonistic activity (pA2 6.4) to that of standard antagonist Ondansetron (pA2 6.9), while the other compounds exhibited mild to moderate 5-HT3 antagonistic activities.
In the present study, we showed the inhibition of motility by trifluoromethyl ketone (TF) derivatives (1—8) in Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) cultures. Among them, 1-(2-benzoxazoyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-propanone (1) showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on the motility of P. vulgaris than other TF compounds at 10% MIC. Our results suggest the possibility of an inhibitory action of TF compounds on the proton motive forces by affecting the action of biological motor and proton efflux in the membranes, resulting in a reduction of the ratio of running and the increased number of tumbling and non-motile cells.
Inhibitory effects of extracts from peels of Citrus natsudaidai (natsumikan) encapsulated in hybrid liposomes (HL) composed of L-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate on the growth of tumor cells were examined. The extracts with lower polar solvents inhibited the growth of B-16 mouse melanoma and human lung carcinoma cells, although the extracts with higher polar solvents showed no antitumor activity. In particular, the inhibitory effects of extracts with lower polar solvents encapsulated in HL were enhanced as compared with those of free extracts. Fluorescence microscopic analysis indicated that the HL including petroleum ether extracts induced apoptosis in B-16 mouse melanoma cells. On the other hand, the viability of normal human fibroblast cells was even less affected by the extracts of natsumikan. These results suggest that hydrophobic antitumor agents should be present in peels of natsumikan.
Kanzo-bushi-to (KBT) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), which is used in Japan to treat rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, we investigated the suppressive effect of KBT on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and further studied the underlying mechanism. CIA was induced in male DBA/1J mice by immunization with bovine type II collagen, followed by a booster injection 21 d later. KBT was given at a dose of 430 mg/kg/d from three days before the first immunization to the end of the experiment. KBT suppressed CIA development effectively and further protected focal bone erosion and bone destruction as evidenced by the reduced histological score. Histochemical examination revealed that KBT decreased TRAP-positive cells at the synovium-bone interface and at the sites of focal bone erosion, coincident with the findings that RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio was significantly reduced by KBT treatment. KBT also decreased mRNA levels of M-CSF and iNOS in joints and of iNOS in peritoneal macrophages. In conclusion, KBT prevented osteoclast generation by decreasing RANKL/OPG ratio and M-CSF mRNA levels, resulting in reduction in bone erosion and destruction. In addition, KBT has anti-inflammatory effect such as the suppression of iNOS expression in peritoneal macrophages and joints of CIA mice. These finding suggests that KBT is a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA.
Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 μg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 μg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 μg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 μg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH–H2O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC50 values less than 20 μg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC50 value of 5.1 μg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC50 1.3 μM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC50 2.5 μM).
Sho-saiko-to, one of the most frequently prescribed Kampo medicines, is used clinically to treat chronic hepatitis and has shown confirmed clinical efficacy. The present study investigated whether Sho-saiko-to can suppress cytotoxicity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production in endotoxin-treated J774A.1 cells. Sho-saiko-to (10—20 μg/ml) did not affect the proliferation of J774A.1 cells, while a high concentration (50 μg/ml) of Sho-saiko-to induced a slight reduction in cell viability. Treatment with Sho-saiko-to (10—50 μg/ml) significantly inhibited endotoxin (10 μg/ml)-induced cytotoxicity in J774A.1 cells. In addition, Sho-saiko-to (20 μg/ml) suppressed TNF-α production by endotoxin (1 μg/ml)-activated J774A.1 cells. These findings suggest that the Kampo prescription Sho-saiko-to suppresses cytotoxicity or TNF-α production in macrophages treated with endotoxin and that it may be useful in improving septic shock symptoms. Sho-saiko-to may therefore protect against some of the various disturbances caused by endotoxins through its ability to inhibit TNF-α production in septic shock.
The hexane, acetone and methanol extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense leaves were fractionated following a three bioassay guide: high HIV-1 RT inhibition, low cytotoxicity on MT2 cells and high inhibition of HIV-1 IIIb/LAV replication. This led to the isolation of three anti HIV-1 dipyranocoumarins: calanolides A and B and soulattrolide. In contrast, other isolated compounds such as apetalic acid, isoapetalic acid, a structural isomer of isoapetalic acid, friedelin, canophyllol and amentoflavone were devoid of HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity. Calanolide C was also obtained as a natural product and showed moderate inhibitory properties.
To investigate the mechanism responsible for the increased bioavailability of propranolol in bilateral ureter-ligated (BUL) rats, the intestinal absorption and hepatic extraction of propranolol and metoprolol were evaluated. The initial absorption rate of these drugs after intra-intestinal administration was only slightly increased in the BUL rats, whereas the blood drug concentration in these rats was higher than that in control rats. The blood propranolol and metoprolol concentrations during intra-portal infusion in the BUL rat were significantly higher than that in the control rat. In the presence of NADPH, the intrinsic metabolic activity of metoprolol in hepatic microsomes was not altered by BUL. On the other hand, the NADPH generation rate in the hepatic cytosol in the BUL group was lower than that in the control group. These results indicate that the absorption rate-dependent decrease in hepatic first-pass clearance of propranolol and metoprolol due to saturation kinetics is marginal, and that the hepatic metabolic activity and extraction of the drugs is significantly decreased in BUL rats probably due to the reduced NADPH generation rate in the liver.
Tioconazole (TCZ) is an imidazole antifungal agent with broad spectrum activity. Percutaneous absorption and intracutaneous distribution of TCZ solution have been compared with TCZ cream, miconazole nitrate (MCZ) solution and bifonazole (BFZ) solution following a single topical application to abdominal skin of guinea pigs. Following application of TCZ solution, TCZ concentrations in the stratum corneum, epidermis-cutis and subcutaneous tissue were higher than those after TCZ cream application suggesting superior percutaneous penetration after TCZ solution application. The percutaneous penetration after applications of MCZ solution and BFZ solution was comparable to that of TCZ cream, but inferior to that of TCZ solution. TCZ concentrations in the stratum corneum were much higher than those in epidermis-cutis and subcutaneous tissue after applications of both TCZ formulations. The majority of applied TCZ remained in the stratum corneum at high levels for a long duration. TCZ concentrations in the stratum corneum within 24 h after applications of both TCZ formulations were more than several hundred times higher than the minimum inhibitory concentrations against most of the dermatophytes and yeasts. The effectiveness of both TCZ formulations against dermatophytoses may be due to this favorable pharmacokinetic property in the skin tissues, together with its potent antifungal activity. Percutaneous absorption of TCZ after applications of both formulations was negligible suggesting that these treatments are unlikely to produce systemic side effects.
The effect of camellia oil on the permeation of flurbiprofen (FP) and diclofenac sodium (DFS), used as model drugs, through rat and pig skin was examined. Two different types of camellia oil were used: one of them was purified by distillation and the other was purified by filtration without heating. The distilled camellia oil (DCO) and the filtered camellia oil (FCO) were applied to the skin as a pretreatment. Permeation of FP through the skins pretreated with FCO and DCO was enhanced, while that of DFS was suppressed. The effects of FCO were greater than those of DCO as far as enhancement and suppression were concerned. The effect of FCO on FP permeation could be due to oleic acid, one of the major components of FCO. On the other hand, FCO and oleic acid had opposite effects on the penetration of DFS. This result suggests that other active components which suppress the permeation of DFS may be present in FCO. Since the penetration-suppressing agents will be useful for skin care products, studies of such agents will be important in the future.
The oral bioavailability of tacrolimus is low and varies considerably in humans due to first-pass metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and the active efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein. This study was undertaken to elucidate the usefulness of rectal administration of tacrolimus as an alternative route to improve its bioavailability. Tacrolimus powder was suspended in a suppository base (witepsol H-15) and the tacrolimus suppository was inserted into the anus of the rats. For comparison, tacrolimus was suspended in 0.5% sodium methylcellulose solution and administered orally to rats. The dose of tacrolimus was fixed to 2 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected periodically up to 24 h after dosing, and tacrolimus concentrations were assayed by microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The whole blood concentrations of tacrolimus after rectal administration were much greater than those after oral administration. The Cmax and AUC0—24 h values after rectal administration were 3.9- and 6.9-fold greater than those after oral administration, respectively. These results clearly suggest a possibility that rectal administration of tacrolimus is capable of improving its bioavailability and cutting the costs of tacrolimus treatment.
We have developed novel procedures for preparing human hair protein films (Pre-cast and Post-cast methods). The light brown films obtained by these procedures were too fragile to apply to human skin. We found that the film was also formed when the hair proteins extracted by the Shindai method were directly exposed to the solution containing MgCl2, CaCl2, NaCl or KCl. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the surface of the novel protein films was smooth. The protein films mainly consist of α-keratins and matrix proteins. After drying, the films became translucent and flexible during folding, indicating the possibility that these protein films are useful for practical applications. Hence, we prepared gauze-coated protein films to reinforce their physical strength and tested the influence on human skin. A patch test showed that the protein films made from individual and multiple human hairs only slightly stimulated rubor and anthema, itching, drying, smarting and pain on the contact area of arm skin.