Communication between nerves and mast cells is a prototypic demonstration of neuroimmune interaction. We have recently shown that direct nerve-mast cell cross-talk can occur in the absence of an intermediary transducing cell and that the neuropeptide substance P is an important mediator of this communication. Here we study the calcium signals in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3; mucosal-type mast cells) primed with substance P. RBL cells responded only slightly to stimulation with compound 48/80, however they responded to the stimulation when the cells had been primed with substance P (0.5 μM) for one week. The present results provide a foundation to study the neuroimmune cross-talk in a co-culture system.
Protein kinase C δ (PKC δ) plays a key regulatory role in a variety of cellular functions, including apoptosis, as well as cell growth and differentiation. We previously reported that apoptosis was induced by pretreatment with 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), an inhibitor of PKC, in mouse thymocytes. In the present study, we showed that a novel PKC δ isoform (PKC δII) was transiently expressed when thymocytes were pretreated with H-7. The analysis of the cDNA encoding PKC δII indicated that a 78 bp fragment was inserted into the caspase-3 sensitive site of the original PKC δ (PKC δI), presumably by alternative splicing. The PKC δII expressed in COS-1 cells was one product with a molecular mass of 81 kDa and with kinase activity similar to that of PKC δI. The expressed PKC δI protein (78 kDa) was in part cleaved into a 38 kDa fragment in vivo and in vitro, but the PKC δII protein was not. Cleavage of the PKC δI protein was inhibited by a specific inhibitor of caspase-3, indicating that PKC δII is insensitive to caspase-3. The PKC δII was highly expressed in the testis and ovary, and at a lower level in the thymocytes, brain and kidney, whereas PKC δI was detected in most tissues, suggesting that the function of PKC δII is different from that of PKC δI.
The sialic acid binding lectin from bullfrog Rana catesbeiana oocyte (cSBL) is known to have anti-tumor activity. In order to investigate the relationship between the net charge of cSBL and its anti-tumor effect, cSBL was modified with a water-soluble carbodiimide (EDC) in the presence of three kinds of nucleophiles, taurine, glycine methylester and ethylenediamine. cSBL having four carboxyl groups was partially modified (ca. 2 residues). The anti-tumor activity of modified cSBLs was in the order of ethylenediamine-modified cSBL>glycine methylester-modified cSBL>taurine modified cSBL≥native cSBL. The results suggested that anti-tumor activity seems to increase with the increase in positive net charge, possibly enhancing the interaction of cSBL with sialoglycoprotein on the surface of tumor cells. The ribonuclease activity of ethylenediamine-modified cSBL decreased with the progress of the reaction, but the number of internalized molecules in the tumor cell increased. Thus, for anti-tumor activity, a higher incorporation of cSBL with reasonable RNase activity seems to be more important than total RNase activity.
The glycolipid galactosyldiacylglycerol (GDG), containing C16 : 0 and C18 : 1 fatty acids, was isolated from the sea alga Petalonia bingbamiae as a potent inhibitor of the activities of mammalian DNA polymerase α (pol. α). GDG, however, had no effect on pol. α from a fish or a higher plant. The inhibition of pol. α by GDG was dose-dependent with an IC50 value of 54 μM. The compound did not influence the activities of other replicative DNA polymerases such as mammalian pol. δ, or repair-related enzymes such as mammalian pol. β. GDG also did not influence the activities of prokaryotic DNA polymerases such as the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, T4 DNA polymerase, Taq DNA polymerase, DNA polymerases from the higher plant, cauliflower, or DNA metabolic enzymes such as calf thymus terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase and deoxyribonuclease I. Kinetic analysis of the compound showed that pol. α was non-competitively inhibited with respect to both the DNA template and the nucleotide substrate. In this study, we demonstrated the structure-function relationship in the selective inhibition of pol. α by the glycolipid group.
The metabolism of bisphenol A (BPA) was determined for 11 forms of human hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYPs) expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and for human steroidogenic CYP17 expressed in Escherichia coli. Additionally, the effect of BPA on the progesterone 17α-hydroxylase activity of CYP17 was investigated. CYP2C18 catalyzed BPA metabolism most efficiently, followed by CYP2C19 and CYP2C9. CYP2C9 and CYP2C18 exhibited the highest affinity (Km=3.9 μM) for BPA metabolism. The Vmax of CYP2C18 (8.10 nmol · min-1 · nmol CYP-1) was 5 times higher than that of CYP2C9. Although the Vmax of CYP2C19 was 1.5 times higher than that of CYP2C18, the affinity of CYP2C19 was 12 times lower than that of CYP2C9 and CYP2C18. Therefore the intrinsic elearance (Vmax/Km) of CYP2C18 was more than 5 times higher than that of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. On the other hand, BPA exhibited a competitive-type inhibition of the progesterone 17α-hydroxylase activity of CYP17 with a Ki value of 71 μM, whereas no metabolism of BPA by CYP17 was detected. These results suggest that BPA is mainly metabolized by the CYP2C subfamily in human liver, and that BPA inhibits human steroidogenic CYP17 activities.
Repetitive administration of propranolol (PL) in rats decreases the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D enzyme(s) in hepatic microsomes. We examined the properties of 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-OH-PL) as an inactivator of rat liver microsomal CYP2D enzyme(s) using bunitrolol (BTL) 4-hydroxylation and PL 5- and 7-hydroxylations as indices of CYP2D enzyme activity. Rat microsomal BTL 4-hydroxylase activity was inhibited by the addition of 4-OH-PL to the incubation medium. The inhibition was greater after preincubation of microsomes with 4-OH-PL in the presence of NADPH than in its absence. The type of inhibition kinetics of BTL 4-hydroxylase by 4-OH-PL was changed from a competitive type to a noncompetitive type by the preincubation. The inhibition of rat liver microsomal PL 5- and 7-hydroxylases by 4-OH-PL was blocked efficiently by co-incubation with quinine, a typical inhibitor of rat CYP2D enzyme(s), or to a lesser extent by BTL. However, quinidine, a diastereomer of quinine, did not significantly protect against the enzyme inactivation. The protective capacities of the substrate and inhibitors reflected their affinities for rat CYP2D enzyme(s). BTL hydroxylase was not affected by either 1,4-naphthoquinone or 1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene which are possible metabolites of 4-OH-PL. These results provide further evidence to support the notion that PL is biotransformed by rat CYP2D enzyme(s) to 4-OH-PL, which is further oxidized to a chemically reactive metabolite in the active site. The inactivation of CYP is likely the result of covalent binding of the reactive species to an amino acid residue of the active site.
We have reported that acute restraint stress inhibits small intestinal motility in rats. In order to clarify this inhibitory mechanism, we examined the effects of α- and β-adrenergic antagonists on the inhibition of small intestinal motility induced by restraint stress. This inhibition underwent recovery by propranolol (β1/β2-antagonist) or SR59230A (β3-antagonist), but not by atenolol (β1-antagonist), ICI-118,551 (β2-antagonist), prazosin (α1-antagonist) or yohimbine (α2-antagonist). These results suggest that β3-adrenoceptors play an important role in the inhibition of small intestinal motility caused by restraint stress.
We previously reported that chronic Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation causes wrinkle formation, decreases skin elasticity, and damages/curls dermal elastic fibers. Those UVB-induced wrinkles can be improved by treatment with retinoic acid or with a CO2 laser which results in a recovery of skin elasticity and a repair of elastic fiber linearity. We showed further that topical application of N-phenetyl-leucyl-tryptophane, an agent that specifically inhibits fibroblast-derived elastase, immediately after UVB irradiation inhibited UVB-induced wrinkle formation, maintained skin elasticity, and inhibited changes in the three-dimensional structure of dermal elastic fibers in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, the effects of an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L., which also inhibits fibroblast-derived elastase, was evaluated for possible inhibition of UVB induced wrinkle formation, maintenance of skin elasticity, and prevention of damage to the 3-dimensional structure of dermal elastic fibers. Hind limb skins of 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with UVB at a suberythemal dose 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Simultaneously, an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (at 0.2% (v/v) or 1% (v/v)) was topically applied 5 times per week immediately following each UVB irradiation and 1 d later. The extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. inhibited wrinkle formation, maintained skin elasticity, and inhibited the decrease of dermal elastic fiber linearity in the rat hind limb skin in a dose-dependent manner. We have confirmed that the inhibition of elastase activity in fibroblasts immediately after UVB irradiation using an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. prevents chronic photodamage following UVB irradiation.
By means of heparin-affinity and glycyrrhizin (GL)-affinity column chromatographies (HPLC), a GL-binding phospholipase A2 (gbPLA2) was selectively purified from the synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This purified gbPLA2 was identified as a secretory type IIA PLA2 (sPLA2-IIA) since it was crossreacted with anti-sPLA2-IIA serum. The activity of purified sPLA2-IIA was inhibited by glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and a GA derivative (oGA) in a dose-dependent manner, but it was more sensitive to GA than GL. Furthermore, it was found that (i) purified sPLA2-IIA is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CK-II) in vitro; (ii) this phosphorylation induces in a significant stimulation of PLA2 activity; and (iii) oGA at one-tenth the concentration of GL inhibits the CK-II-mediated stimulation of sPLA2-IIA activity. These results show that (i) sPLA2-IIA is a GL-binding protein; and (ii) CK-II mediates stimulation of its PLA2 activity in vitro.
The effect of alkylpyrazine derivatives on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, picrotoxicin-induced convulsion and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in mouse brain were studied. The duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice was dose-dependently increased by 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP). The duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep was also increased by an administration route of intracerebroventricular injection. Sleep duration was also increased by the administration of isomers of DMP, 2-chloro-3,6-dimethylpyrazine (DMP-Cl) and 2-fluoro-3,6-dimethylpyrazine (DMP-F), but 3,6-dimethylpyrazine-2-thiol (DMP-SH) did not affect sleep duration. The interval until the appearance of picrotoxicin-induced convulsion was prolonged by DMP and DMP-Cl. Increased sleep duration was obtained by administering DMP in combination with aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and diazepam compared to a single injection. The interval until convulsion due to picrotoxin was also prolonged by the administration of DMP combined with diazepam and valproic acid (VPA). The interval until the appearance of bicuculline-induced convulsion was also prolonged by pretreatment with DMP. The GABA level in mouse brain was increased by the administration of AOAA, VPA, DMP and DMP-Cl. These results suggest that DMP and other derivatives may strengthen the GABAnergic system in the brain.
The effect of mosapride citrate (mosapride) on plasma levels of gastrointestinal peptides (motilin, gastrin, somatostatin, and secretin) was studied in five healthy volunteers. After a single oral administration of mosapride (15 mg), the plasma mosapride level (85.0±13.7 ng/ml) was highest in the 60-min sample after the administration and then the plasma level fell. Peak plasma motilin levels (18.6±1.7 pg/ml) were achieved 60 min after administration of mosapride (p<0.01 vs. placebo), and returned to baseline levels within a further 120 min. Plasma gastrin levels (42.4±3.6 pg/ml) increased 60 min after administration of mosapride (p<0.01 vs. placebo). Plasma somatostatin and secretin levels did not change significantly. These results suggest that the pharmacological effects of mosapride on gastrointestinal functions are closely related to changes in motilin-immunoreactive substance levels in human plasma.
We have previously reported that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) strongly inhibits the in vitro phenol sulfotransferase (P-ST) activity of a human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2. In the present study, we examined the ability of EGCG to inhibit the sulfation of 1-naphthol in intact Caco-2 cells. Sulfation of 1-naphthol was detected in Caco-2 cells after 2 h of incubation, and was observed to continue for 24 h, resulting in an accumulation of sulfated 1-naphthol. Sulfation was strongly inhibited by the addition of EGCG to the culture medium. The IC50 of EGCG was calculated to be 20 μM; this value is similar to that obtained from in vitro assays (14 μM) [Ref. Tamura et al., Biol. Pharm. Bull., 23, 695, (2000)]. These results indicate that catechins are capable of inhibiting P-ST activity in intact cells as well as in vitro. We believe that the inhibitory activity of catechins might be the mechanism by which catechins (and green tea) exert anti-carcinogenic activity against procarcinogenic compounds that require P-ST activation in vivo.
Some Keggin-structural (hetero)polyoxotungstates with a lacunary hole, such as undecatungstosilicate ([SiW11O39]8-, SiW11), greatly sensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to β-lactams. In this study, the effects of lacunary-substituted derivatives of SiW11 were tested to determine if the lacunary hole is required for the sensitizing effect. Initially, it was supposed that the hole functioned as a binding site that interacts with some bacterial components. However, most of the lacunary-substituted species had stronger effects than SiW11, indicating that the hole is not essential for the sensitizing effect. Undecatungsto(ferri)ferrosilicate ([SiW11O39Fe]6/5-) was the most potent compound tested, but undecatungstocobaltosilicate ([SiW11O39Co]6-) gave better results according to the fractional inhibitory concentration index. Small lipophilic cations enhanced the sensitizing effect, but bulky cations inhibited it. This suggests that a charge interaction between the tungsten compounds and some unknown materials in the culture medium or bacterial cells plays an important role in the sensitizing effect.
The antidiabetic activity of the rhizoma of Anemarrhena asphodeloides was investigated in KK-Ay mice, an animal model of genetic type 2 diabetes. The water extract of the rhizoma (AA) (90 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels from 570±29 to 401±59 mg/dl 7 h after oral administration (p<0.05) and also tended to reduce serum insulin levels in KK-Ay mice. AA-treated KK-Ay mice had significantly reduced blood glucose levels in an insulin tolerance test. Based on these results, the antidiabetic mechanism of AA may be due to decreased insulin resistance. In addition, the active components of AA were confirmed to be mangiferin and its glucoside.
We previously screened the anti-itching activities of 33 herbal medicines in substance P (SP)-induced itching model mice. One of the most potent antipruritogenic extracts, the methanol extract of fruits of Cnidium monnieri (Cnidii Fructus) was studied further. The chloroform-soluble fraction of the methanol extract markedly inhibited SP-induced scratching. Among 10 subfractions of the chloroform-soluble fraction, the CS-3 fraction had the most potent inhibitory effect on scratching. Each of 3 subfractions of CS-3 showed significant anti-scratching activities. However, inhibitory potencies were not different among the three and weaker than that of CS-3 itself at a same dose. These 3 subfractions of CS-3 mainly contained xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, bergapten, imperatorin and osthol. Single administration of osthol did not inhibit SP-induced scratching, and imperatorin very weakly subsided scratching. These results suggest that the strong antipruritic action was focused on the CS-3 fraction of the C. monnieri methanol extract, and it might result from the combined effects of these coumarin derivatives, or by undetermined minor compounds.
A series of 17 proanthocyanidins and structurally related compounds was tested for activity against Leishmania donovani amastigotes and promastigotes in vitro. Most of the polyphenols significantly inhibited the intracellular survival of L. donovani amastigotes (EC50 0.8—10.6 nM) when compared with the antileishmanial drug Pentostam® (EC50 10.6 nM), but all were inactive against the extracellular form (EC50 7.8 to >86 nM). Noteworhy is that all compounds exhibited only moderate or no cytotoxicity against the murine host cells (EC50 7.8 to >56 nM; >25 μg/ml). These polyphenols were further evaluated for immunomodulatory effects on macrophage functions, including release of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and interferon (IFN)-like properties using several functional assays. The results showed that all compounds induced murine RAW 264.7 cells only moderately to release NO (7—26 μM) relative to the reference stimulus IFN-γ/LPS (119 μM). The TNF-inducing potential of the polyphenols producing 50% lysis in murine L929 cells ranged from absent to 138 U/ml at the host cell subtoxic concentration of 50 μg/ml. The highest TNF-inducing activity was associated with those flavan-3-ols with galloyl groups (98—127 U/ml). For proanthocyanidins, it appeared that an increase in the flavanyl chain length did not enhance the induction of TNF-release (32—86 U/ml and below detection limits for oligomers and polymers, respectively). With interferon-like activities, phylloflavan and a prodelphinidin polymer showed appreciable cytoprotective effects, as reflected by the inhibition of the cytopathic effect of encephalomyocarditis virus on L929 fibroblast cells (38 and 36 U/ml, respectively). All remaining compounds displayed only negligible or moderate protective effects at subtoxic concentrations up to 25 μg/ml (<5 to 12 U/ml). These results indicate that proanthocyanidins and related compounds have favorable antileishmanial activity in vitro and might be considered as beneficial immunological response modifiers provided there are no bioavailability problems.
Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is known to induce apoptosis in cancer cells at lower IC50 values compared with values for normal cells. Apoptosis is inhibited completely by the addition of conditioned medium from cultured hepatocytes, whereas it is not prevented by conditioned media from tumor cells. We therefore studied the reason for the different response to GA-induced apoposis. GA-induced dRLh-84 cell death was completely abolished by the addition of peroxisome or cytosol as well as conditioned medium from primary cultured rat hepatocyte. As GA-induced cell death is known to be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular Ca2+, we determined the type of ROS generated by GA and found that GA generated hydrogen peroxide in culture medium. The addition of hydrogen peroxide generated by GA induced cell death in dRLh-84 cells. These results suggest that GA-induced cell death is mediated by hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, the inhibitory activity of hepatocyte medium on GA-induced cell death was completely abolished by anti-catalase antibody. When the amount of catalase antigen was determined by Western blotting analysis, conditioned medium and the cytoplasm of hepatocytes contained high concentrations of catalase. Conditioned media from various tumor cell lines did not contain catalase, and the cytoplasm contained only low levels of catalase. These results show that GA-sensitive cells, including various tumor cells, produce only small amounts of catalase and secreted little enzyme into media, suggesting a lack of protective machinery against GA. In contrast, GA-insensitive cells, including hepatocytes, produce large amounts of catalase and release it in medium, resulting in the development of insensitivity to GA. In conclusion, catalase contents in cells determine different sensitivity to GA.
Inhibitory activity of lignans isolated from Magnoliae fargesii CHENG on cell adhesion molecules on the surface of THP-1 human monocytic cell lines were investigated. Among 16 lignan components tested, six displayed relatively potent inhibitory activity on the expression of both intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1).
The substitution of gallic acid at the 3 position of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) increased the inhibition against topoisomerase I from calf thymus gland and topoisomerase II from human placenta, and the substitution of a hydroxyl group at the 3' position increased the inhibition against the topoisomerase I. These results suggested that the 3 and 3' positions of the EGCG molecule play important roles in the process of inhibition of topoisomerases I and II. EGCG showed strong inhibition against topoisomerases I from wheat germ, calf thymus gland and Vero cells, and showed weak or no inhibition against topoisomerases I from carcinoma cells such as A549, HeLa and COLO 201 cells. EGCG differentially inhibited the topoisomerases I from different sources.
The effect of mangiferin (MF) with exercise on bood lipids was studied in KK-Ay mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. MF (30 mg/kg) reduced the blood cholesterol (p<0.05) and triglyceride level (p<0.01) of KK-Ay mice with exercise 2 weeks after oral administration when compared with the control group. Diabetes also often has elevated lipid levels. Therefore, it may be that MF has beneficial effects on hyperlipidemia in type 2 diabetes.
Transdermal enhancement effects of electroporation applied only on the stratum corneum by two electrode types, the stamp-type electrode and the frog-type electrode, were investigated in vitro using excised rat skin. Carboxyfluorescein (CF) was selected as a model compound. The excised skin was set in a Franz type diffusion cell and a square wave electric pulse was applied to the stratum corneum under various electric pulse conditions. We determined the permeability of CF to the receptor compartment under these conditions. Voltage, electric pulse length, and number of electric pulses, were varied from 10 to 1000 V, 50 μs to 15 ms and 5 to 30 pulses, respectively. Flux rate was enhanced as the electric pulse condition strengthened. However, the maximum value was attained in the flux rate, above which no increase was observed despite strengthening of the electric pulse. Although at low electric pulses, the enhancement effect of the frog-type electrode was superior to that of the stamp-type electrode, the maximum flux rates were the same. These results indicate that electroporation on the stratum corneum using the stamp-type electrode or frog-type electrode, is useful for transdermal drug delivery.
In this study, the antiproliferative effects of vinblastine (VLB), paclitaxel (TXL), doxorubicin (DXR), daunorubicin (DNR) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were assessed in the human cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa-Ohio (HeLa) and Hvr100-6 cells, established by growing the parental HeLa cells in the presence of progressively greater concentrations of VLB in the culture medium. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the induction of MDR1 (P-glycoprotein) in Hvr100-6 cells with no alterations in levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). Resistance to VLB, TXL, DXR and DNR was found in Hvr100-6 cells with relative resistances of ca. 300, 4000, 50 and 200, respectively, whereas no resistance was found to 5-FU. The reversal effects of antifungal drugs, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and amphotericin B on multidrug resistance were also assessed using Hvr100-6 cells. Itraconazole was found to have potent reversal effect on the resistance to VLB and TXL, but the others had no such effect. This reversal effect of itraconazole was concentration-dependent, with dose modifying factors of 3.2, 10.1 and 435.7 at 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 μM of itraconazole, respectively. In addition, this reversal effect of itraconazole was explained by the inhibition of accumulation of the anticancer drugs.
Previously, we established a method to assess drug metabolism capacity based on a pharmacokinetic estimation of the quantity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in vivo (PKCYP-test) by introducing an apparent liver-to-blood free concentration gradient in vivo (qg). The qg values were determined as the ratio of in vivo-in vitro clearance. In this study, we examined the application of the PKCYP-test to the clearance of acetanilide and caffeine mediated by CYP1A2 using rat models in which the levels of CYP enzymes were reduced. Rats fed a choline-deficient diet (CD-fed) and aged rats were used as models for a low level of CYP in the liver. In both rat models, the contribution (fCYP) of CYP1A2 to the in vivo intrinsic clearance values (CLint) of acetanilide and caffeine metabolism was less than unity, suggesting that other metabolic pathways are involved in the CLint. The in vivo clearance for CYP1A2 was estimated by multiplying fCYP by CLint, then the value of qg was determined as the ratio of in vivo-in vitro clearance. We predicted the level of CYP1A2 in CD-fed and aged rats, based on the clearance of acetanilide mediated by CYP1A2, using the qg value of control rats. The clearance of caffeine mediated by CYP1A2 in CD-fed and aged rats, as estimated from the predicted level of CYP1A2, correlated with the observed values. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the PKCYP-test can be applied to CYP1A2 for drugs metabolized by multiple CYP isozymes, and/or to models involving reduced CYP.
Menthol derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their promoting activity on the percutaneous absorption of ketoprofen and skin irritation in vivo, choosing O-ethylmenthol (MET) as the mother compound. The compound having a C-3 postionned n-butyl group (1-O-ethyl-3-n-buthylcyclohexanol, OEBC) indicated the most promoting activity and caused relatively little skin irritation. In order to understand enhancement mechanism of OEBC an in vitro permeation study of ketoprofen was performed. The time course of the cumulative amounts of drug permeated through the rat skin exhibited a linear relation after an initial lag time. This was analyzed in membrane diffusion model and the diffusion and partition parameters of ketoprofen were estimated. Both parameters were remarkably enhanced when a hydrogel containing a small quantity of OEBC (0.5%) was applied. Furthermore, to clarify the site of action of OEBC, we also investigated in vitro permeation study of ketoprofen employing different skins of state, reversed skin and stratum corneum stripped skin. When OEBC was added to the hydrogels which were applied to the reversed and stripped skins, almost no changes of the flux were observed compared with the control (without OEBC). These results suggested that the site of action of OEBC was stratum corneum. Morphological changes of the stratum corneum surface were microscopically observed with 0—2% OEBC. The spaces between the stratum corneum cells treated with 0.5—2% OEBC became extended and the shape of each cell became clear. This may suggest that the site of action of OEBC was the intercellular of stratum corneum. Furthermore, an electron spin resonance study was performed to investigate the effect of OEBC on the intercellular lipid bilayer fluidity of the stratum corneum and the rotational correlation times were calculated. 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) were used as the spin label. In use of OEBC, the fluidity of TEMPO labeled the stratum corneum lipid increased as the addition of OEBC. The results suggested that OEBC promote the penetration of drugs by enhancing fluidity of the local lipid bilayers around TEMPO.
We investigated the effect of infusion rate and experimental renal failure on the pharmacodynamics of cefoselis (CFSL)-induced seizures. As an animal model of CFSL-induced seizures, male Wistar rats received an intravenous infusion of CFSL at one of three different rates (1.4—5.8 g/h/rat) until the onset of maximal seizures (which occurred after 8.0 to 36.0 min of infusion). Samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood (for serum), and brain were obtained immediately after stopping infusion of CSFL. The serum concentration of CFSL at the onset of seizures increased with increasing infusion rate, but brain and CSF concentrations of CFSL at the onset of seizures were not affected by the infusion rate. Ureter-ligated (UL) and control rats received an intravenous infusion of CFSL at 1.4 g/h/rat until the onset of seizures. Then the same procedure as used to determine the effect of infusion rate on the concentrations of CFSL was carried out. Renal failure was associated with a significant decrease in the amount of CFSL required to induce seizures. Serum, brain, and CSF concentrations of CFSL in UL rats were significantly lower than those in control rats. These results indicate that the experimental strategy and animal model in this investigation would be useful to assess the effects of diseases and other variables on the pharmacodynamics of CFSL-induced seizures and that renal failure is one of the risk factors for neurotoxicity of CFSL.
Iron chlorin e6 (FeCe6) has recently been proposed to be potentially antimutagenic and antioxidative. However, the antioxidant property of FeCe6 has not been elucidated in detail. In this study, we investigated the ability of FeCe6 to scavenge hydroxyl radical and to protect biomolecules and mammalian cells from oxidative stress-mediated damage. In electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments, FeCe6 showed excellent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, whereas its iron-deficient molecule, chlorin e6 (Ce6) showed little effect. FeCe6 also significantly reduced hydroxyl radical-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) formation and benzoate hydroxylation in a dose-dependent manner. The rate constant for reaction between FeCe6 and hydroxyl radical was measured as 8.5×1010 M-1 s-1 by deoxyribose degradation method, and this value was much higher than that of most hydroxyl radical scavengers. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of FeCe6 was also confirmed by ESR study and cytochrome c reduction assay, but its in vitro activity appeared to be less efficient in comparison with other well-known SOD mimics. In addition, FeCe6 appreciably diminished hydroxyl radical-induced DNA single-strand breakage and protein degradation in Fe-catalyzed and Cu-catalyzed Fenton systems, and it significantly protected human endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) toxicity. These results suggest that FeCe6 is a novel hydroxyl radical scavenger and may be useful for preventing oxidative injury in biological systems.
We have synthesized new polycationic bactericides, poly[oxyethylene(dimethyliminio)trimethylene(dimethyliminio)ethylene dichloride] (OXD) and poly(hexamethyleneguanidine phosphate) (HEP), in order to develop more active but less skin-irritative bactericides. The effects of these bactericides on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the degree of their irritations on skin were compared with those of a widely used low molecular-weight cationic bactericide, benzalkonium chloride (BAC), and a polycationic bactericide, poly[2-hydroxyethylene(dimethyliminio)methylene chloride] (2HYC). The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of OXD for 10 min contact incubation was 16 μg/ml against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae, and >1000 μg/ml against MRSA. The MBC of HEP for 10 min contact incubation was 16 μg/ml against P. aeruginosa, 32 μg/ml against E. coli and K. pneumoniae, and 64 μg/ml against S. marcescens and MRSA. Itch, edema, erythema, heat, injury, desquamation and keratinization caused by skin irritation were examined in 21 subjects by patch tests. Only one subject treated with OXD experienced edema, and one subject with HEP experienced keratinization. However, BAC caused itch in 3 subjects, edema in 1, erythema in 10 and desquamation in 2, indicating that the incidence of skin irritation of BAC was higher than that of OXD or HEP. OXD and HEP had sterilization ability similar to BAC, however, they were less skin-irritative than BAC. This indicates that OXD and HEP can be used as safe bactericides.