Microchip electrophoresis has widely grown during the past few years, and it has showed a significant result as a strong separation tool for genomic as well as proteomic researches. To enhance and expand the role of microchip electrophoresis, several studies have been proposed especially for the low viscous separation media, which is an important factor for the success of microchip with its narrow separation channels. In this paper we show an overview for the done researches in the field of low viscous media developed for the use in microchip electrophoresis. For genomic separation studies polyhydroxy additives have been used enhance the separation of DNA at low polymer concentration of HPMC (Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose) which could keep the viscosity low. Mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide) as well as Hydroxyporpyl cellulose have been successfully introduced for chip separation. Furthermore high molecular mass polyacrylamides at low concentrations have been studied for DNA separation. A mixture of polymer nanoparticle with conventional polymers could show a better resolution for DNA at low concentration of the polymer. For the proteomic field isoelectric focusing on chip has been well overviewed since it is the most viscous separation media which is well used for the protein separation. The different types of isoelectric focusing such as the ampholyte-free type, the thermal type as well as the ampholyte-depended type have been introduced in this paper. Isoelectric focusing on chip with its combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) page or free solution could give a better separation. Several application for this low viscous separation medias for either genomic or proteomic could clearly show the importance of this field.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in various cells and affect many biologic processes. In this study, we examined the effects of 2-methyl-1,4-naphtoquinone (menadione; vitamine K3) on signal transduction in mast cells. Several lines of evidence suggest that H2O2 affects the antigen-induced responses in mast cells but its mechanism is not clearly understood. Unlike H2O2, menadione produces ROS only inside cells. Thus, it is possible to investigate the effects of ROS produced intracellularly. Pretreatment of mast cells (RBL-2H3) with menadione inhibited exocytotic secretion (degranulation) induced by antigen stimulation dose dependently. Menadione also inhibited the intracellular Ca2+ increase induced by antigen stimulation. Menadione did not inhibit the Ca2+ increase due to Ca2+ release from the intracellular calcium store in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, but inhibited the Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium. These results suggest that reactive oxygen generated inside RBL cells by menadione inhibited degranulation by decreasing Ca2+ influx through the store operated Ca2+ channel on the plasma membrane.
The objectives of this research were to determine simultaneously the contents of two stilbene tetramers, carasinol B (1) and kobophenol A (2), and one stilbene trimer, (+)-α-viniferin (3), in the roots, tubers, and leaves of Caragana sinica in various seasons. A HPLC method has been developed for efficiently quantifying the three analytes in the plant. Using this method, different samples of Caragana sinica were evaluated. The results showed that the contents of 1, 2, and 3 in the roots were much higher than those in the tubers, and the contents of stilbene tetramers were maximal in winter while the contents of the stilbene trimer were maximal in summer. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 could not be detected in the flowers of Caragana sinica in our detection ranges.
In our previous studies, serum mannan-binding protein (MBP) accelerated the uptake by cultured macrophages. The present study was initiated to investigate the kinetics of molecular interaction between mannosylated liposomes and MBP in more details and the effects of lipid composition on the interaction. The analysis was carried out by surface plasmon spectroscopy (SPR) methods, using rabbit serum MBP isolated by affinity chromatography. In SPR studies, neither conventional liposomes nor galactosylated liposomes indicated any interaction, but each mannosylated liposomes had a high response signal corresponding to molecular interaction with immobilized MBP. Association of mannosylated liposomes to serum MBP was not dependent on the lipid composition, suggesting a diffusion-controlled association. Dissociation of the mannosylated liposomes from serum MBP was extremely slow. DSPC/Chol/Man-C4-Chol (90 : 5 : 5, molar ratio) exhibited a slower dissociation rate than DSPC/Chol/Man-C4-Chol (60 : 35 : 5). Clustering of mannose residues on liposomal surfaces might be important in determining the binding affinity of mannosylated liposomes with MBP.
As part of a basic study on the prevention of cerebral injury, ajoene (0.5 mg/d) and oil-macerated garlic extract (OMGE, containing 0.5 mg ajoene/d) were administrated to stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) among 8 weeks from 9 weeks of age. In the control group, 3 of 10 rats died (30%), whereas all SHRSP treated by ajoene or OMGE survived. Our results suggested that ajoene and OMGE-treatment reduced the mortality and cerebral injury in SHRSP. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and the enzymatic activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the serum of stroke stage of SHRSP were measured. The results obtained were as follows; the TBARS level of the ajoene and OMGE-treated groups were lower than those of control groups. On the other hand, the GSH-Px and SOD activities of the ajoene and OMGE-treated groups were higher. Our results suggested that ajoene and OMGE were capable of having prophylactic effects on cerebral injury in SHRSP.
In the present study, we studied the neuroprotective effects of berberry extract (BE) against ischemic damage and the temporal and spatial alterations of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor type 1 (NR1) and NR2A/2B immunoreactivities in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient ischemia to examine anti-ischemic effects and its role in transient forebrain ischemia. In the vehicle-treated group, the percentage of cresyl violet positive pyramidal cells in the CA1 region was about 11.4% compared to the sham-operated group 4 d after ischemic insult. BE showed neuroprotective effects against ischemic damage after ischemia-reperfusion. In the BE-treated groups, about 60—75% of CA1 pyramidal cells were stained with cresyl violet 4 d after ischemic insult. We observed the percentage of berberine (7.45+0.85 mg/g in BE) by HPLC, which is active ingredient of BE. NR1 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region in the vehicle-treated group was significantly increased at 30 min after transient forebrain ischemia, while at this time the NR1 immunoreactivity in the BE-treated groups was significantly low compared to the vehicle-treated group. The pattern of NR2A/B immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the BE-treated group and its protein levels were similar to that in the vehicle-treated group after ischemic insult. These results suggest that BE has potent neuroprotective effects against ischemic damage via the reduction of NR1 activity.
Some Artemisia herbs are used for medicinal purposes. In particular, A. princeps and A. argyi are classified as ‘Aeyup’ and are used as important medicinal material in traditional Korean medicine. On the other hand, A. capillaris and A. iwayomogi, which are classified as ‘Injinho’ and ‘Haninjin’, respectively, are used for other purposes distinct from those of ‘Aeyup’. However, sometimes ‘Aeyup’ is not clearly discriminated from ‘Injinho’ and/or ‘Haninjin’. Furthermore, Artemisia capillaris and/or A. iwayomogi have been used in place of A. princeps and A. argyi. In this study, we developed an efficient method to discriminate A. argyi and A. princeps from other Artemisia plants. The RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) method efficiently discriminated various Artemisia herbs. In particular, non-specific primer 329 (5′-GCG AAC CTC C-3′), which shows polymorphism among Artemisia herbs, amplified 838 bp products, which are specific to A. princeps and A. argyi only. Based on nucleotide sequence of the primer 329 product, we designed a Fb (5′-CAT CAA CCA TGG CTT ATC CT-3′) and R7 (5′-GCG AAC CTC CCC ATT CCA-3′) primer-set to amplify a 254 bp sized SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, through which A. princeps and A. argyi can be efficiently discriminated from other Artemisia herbs, particularly, A. capillaris and A. iwayomogi.
As nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is essential for promoting inflammation-associated cancer, it is a potential target for cancer prevention in chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of pitavastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, on NF-κB activated by TNF-α in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Western blot revealed that the treatment of Huh 7 cells with pitavastatin at 0.1 μM inhibited the nuclear expression of NF-κB p65 induced by TNF-α. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that after the cells were incubated with pitavastatin alone or with pitavastatin and TNF-α for 24 h, pitavastatin significantly decreased the DNA binding activity of NF-κB induced by TNF-α. Subsequently, luciferase assay revealed that pitavastatin suppressed the transcriptional activity of the NF-κB promoter, which was clearly related to the HMG-CoA reductase activity because the addition of mevalonic acid (MEV) elevated the TNF-α activity. Moreover, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 had no major effect on the NF-κB inhibitory activity of pitavastatin. The inhibitory effect of pitavastatin is possibly independent of the Rho kinase pathway in inflammation-associated HCC cells is. Finally, the addition of TNF-α significantly increased IL-6 protein production, which was suppressed by the addition of pitavastatin. These results suggest that pitavastatin at a low dose (0.1 μM) inhibits NF-κB activation and decreases IL-6 production induced by TNF-α, and is therefore expected to be a new strategy for treating HCC.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) family of transcription factors, providing a negative feedback loop with a xenobiotic or endogenous ligand-dependent signal transduction mediated by the AhR. We sequenced full-length AhRR mRNA extracted from the heart of a male Wistar rat injected intraperitoneally with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) 24 h before. The 95.6 kb-long AhRR genome was clarified to consist of 11 exons and 10 introns. The constitutive expression of AhRR mRNA was prominent in males when compared with females in parallel with the sexual difference in AhR expression. Although AhRR was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues tested, the levels of AhRR expression were higher in the small intestine, where the 3-MC-dependent induction of CYP1A1 transcription was less significant, than in the heart, lung, liver, and kidney. The dose-dependent suppression of AhR-dependent transcriptional activation in both the presence and absence of 3-MC was observed in rat liver-derived RL-34 cells transiently transfected with the expression plasmid for AhRR in combination with the reporter plasmid.
Paecilomyces tenuipes is a famous Chinese medicinal entomopathogenic fungus that grows within the larvae of silkworms. 4β-acetoxyscirpendiol (4-MAS), a cytotoxic compound belonging to the scirpenol subfamily of trichothecene mycotoxin, was isolated from Paecilomyces tenuipes. To further elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of 4-MAS, evidences of its induction of apoptosis, together with the structurally related acetoxyscirpenol moiety mycotoxins (ASMs) such as, 15-acetoxyscirpenol (15-MAS), 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol (4,15-DAS), and 3α-acetyldiacetoxyscirpenol (TAS), in the human Jurkat T cell line were reported herein. In the MTT reduction and time-course cytotoxicity assays for monitoring cell viability, all the four ASMs that were tested exhibited cytotoxicity; single acetoxylation at C-4 of the scirpenol family resulted in relatively weak cytotoxicity, while acetoxylation at C-15 resulted in strong cytotoxicity regardless of the other acetoxylations at the C-3 and/or C-4 positions. Phosphatidylserine externalization was induced by all the ASMs that were treated at an early phase in a time-dependent manner, showing a typical apoptotic phenomenon, not a necrotic one. The ASMs also reduced the mitochondria's inner-membrane potential (ΔΨm) through flow cytometry analysis after staining these with DiOC6, a mitochondria-specific and voltage-dependent dye. Acetoxylation of ASM at C-15 increased ΔΨm disruption, but that at C-3 reduced the ΔΨm. The ASMs that were tested also cleaved 113 kDa PARP to an 89-kDa fragment through Western blot assay, suggesting the activation of caspase-3 and/or caspase-7 in the Jurkat T cell. DNA fragmentation was also observed to have been increased in a time-dependent manner by the ASMs that were tested in Jurkat T cells, resulting in the DNA fragmentation intensity order of 4,15-DAS>15-MAS>TAS>4-MAS. These data indicate that the Jurkat T cells that were treated with ASMs underwent typical cascades of apoptotic cell death.
Kojic acid is a natural product and normally used as a food additive and preservative, a skin-whitening agent in cosmetics, a plant growth regulator and a chemical intermediate. Using DNA microarray technology, the overall biological effects of kojic acid on the gene expression profiling of a human skin A375 malignant melanoma cells were examined. After treatment with kojic acid, a total of 361 differentially expressed genes were distinctively changed with 136 up-regulated genes and 225 down-regulated genes. We used the bioinformatics tool to search the gene ontology and category classification of differentially expressed genes that provided the useful information of expressed genes belonging to cellular component, molecular function and biological process in regulation of melanogenesis. Seven down-regulated genes of APOBEC1, ARHGEF16, CD22, FGFR3, GALNT1, UNC5C and ZNF146 that were typically validated by the real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis technology showed to be the tumor suppressor genes in melanoma cancer cells. Thus, microarray technology coupled with RT-qPCR offered a high throughput method to explore the number of differentially expressed genes responding to kojic acid and their biological functions, and led to more understanding of kojic acid effects on skin cancer therapy and related side effects. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes may become useful markers of skin malignant melanoma for further diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
Cordyceps militaris is a traditional herbal ingredient frequently used for tonic and medicinal purposes in eastern Asia. The hot water extract of its cultivated fruiting bodies demonstrated a potent cytotoxic effect against the proliferation of the human premyelocytic leukemia cell HL-60, with an IC50 of 0.8 mg/ml for a 12-h treatment. It induced the characteristic apoptotic symptoms in the HL-60 cells, including DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation, occurring within 12—16 h of treatment at a dose of 1 mg/ml. The activation of caspase-3 and the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase were detected during the course of apoptosis induction. These results indicate that the hot water extract of Cordyceps militaris fruiting bodies inhibited cancer cell proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3, and that the Cordyceps militaris extract may therefore have therapeutic potential against human leukemia.
Controlling axon and dendrite elongation is critical in developing precise neural circuits. Using isolated cultures of dentate granule neurons, we succeeded in simultaneously monitoring the behaviors of axonal and dendritic outgrowth. Our previous study shows that cAMP contributes differentially to Sema3F-induced responses of axons and dendrites, but we report here that the cGMP modulation does not have such a striking axo-dendritic difference. Treatment with Sema3F induced collapse of about 90% growth cones, and pretreatment with 1 μM LY83583, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, partially alleviated the collapse of both axons and dendrites. Thus, unlike cAMP, cGMP modulates axonal and dendritic extension in a similar manner.
Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae is associated with asthma and several other respiratory illnesses. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is known to inhibit both immediate and late asthmatic responses. In this study, the inhibitory effect of DSCG on the growth of C. pneumoniae was examined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and pre-inoculation minimal cidal concentration (MCC) assays using HL cells and C. pneumoniae AR-39. DSCG below the clinically relevant concentration inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae in a dose-dependent manner in both the MCC and MIC assays. The inhibitory effect was also time-dependent in the MCC assay at 20 mg/ml of DSCG. These results warrant further clinical study on the connection between C. pneumoniae infections and use of DSCG.
A DNA fragment conferring drug resistance was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of Staphylococcus aureus N315 using a drug hypersensitive Escherichia coli KAM32 as the host. Although E. coli KAM32 cells were sensitive to many antimicrobial agents, transformed cells harboring a recombinant plasmid carrying the DNA region became resistant to several structurally unrelated antimicrobial agents, such as tetraphenylphosphonium chloride, Hoechst 33342 and norfloxacin. These results suggest that the cloned DNA fragment carries a gene(s) encoding a multidrug efflux pump. We partially determined the nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA and found the mdeA gene within it. The E. coli cells transformed with the mdeA gene showed efflux activity of Hoechst 33342. On the other hand, S. aureus cells transformed with mdeA showed elevated resistance to doxorubicin, daunorubicin, tetraphenylphosphonium chloride, Hoechst 33342, ethidium bromide and rhodamine 6G. Elevated energy-dependent efflux of ethidium was observed with transformed S. aureus. We found that the mdeA gene was expressed under normal growth conditions in S. aureus N315.
The effect of oral vitamin E administration on acute gastric mucosal lesion progression was examined in rats treated once with compound 48/80 (C48/80) (0.75 mg/kg, i.p.) in comparison with that of subcutaneously administered superoxide dismutase (SOD) plus catalase (CAT). Vitamin E (50, 100 or 250 mg/kg) administered at 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment reduced progressive gastric mucosal lesions at 3 h after the treatment dose-dependently, like SOD plus CAT administered at the same time point. The gastric mucosa of C48/80-treated rats had decreased Se-glutathione peroxidase activity and vitamin E, ascorbic acid, and hexosamine contents and increased myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content at 3 h after the treatment. Administered vitamin E attenuated all these changes found at 3 h after C48/80 treatment dose-dependently, like administered SOD plus CAT. C48/80-treated rats administered with vitamin E (100 or 250 mg/kg) had higher gastric mucosal vitamin E content than C48/80-untreated rats. Neither administered vitamin E nor SOD plus CAT had any effect on the increases in serum serotonin and histamine concentrations and the decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow found at 3 h after C48/80 treatment. In the gastric mucosa of C48/80-untreated rats administered with vitamin E, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content decreased with an increase in vitamin E content. These results indicate that orally administered vitamin E prevents acute gastric mucosal lesion progression in C48/80-treated rats possibly by suppressing oxidative stress, neutrophil infiltration, and mucus depletion in the gastric mucosa like administered SOD plus CAT.
We investigated the effects of a dietary astaxanthin (ASX-O) on oxidative parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), by determination of the level of nitric oxide (NO) end products nitrite/nitrate (NO2−/NO3−) and lipid peroxidation in ASX-O-treated SHR. Oral administration of the ASX-O significantly reduced the plasma level of NO2−/NO3− compared to the control vehicle (p<0.05). The lipid peroxidation level, however, was reduced in both ASX-O- and olive oil-treated groups. We also analyzed the post-treatment effects of ASX-O on the vascular tissues by examining the changes in the aorta and coronary arteries and arterioles. The dietary ASX-O showed significant reduction in the elastin bands in the rat aorta (p<0.05). It also significantly decreased the [wall : lumen] aerial ratio of the coronary arteries. These results suggest that ASX-O can modulate the oxidative condition and may improve vascular elastin and arterial wall thickness in hypertension.
The effects of hop extracts (Humulus lupulus L.) on histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and human basophilic KU812 cells were studied. Hop water extract (HWE) and XAD-4 50% methanol fraction of HWE (MFH) inhibited histamine release from rat mast cells induced by compound 48/80 at concentrations of 100 and 10 μg/ml, respectively. Almost the same findings were observed with A23187-induced histamine release from KU812 cells. Next, we studied the effects of hop extracts on antigen-induced nasal rubbing and sneezing in sensitized BALB/c mice. HWE caused a significant inhibition of nasal rubbing and sneezing at a dose of 500 mg/kg. MFH also inhibited nasal rubbing and sneezing dose-dependently. A significant difference was observed from 100 mg/kg in nasal rubbing and 200 mg/kg in sneezing. The effects of both extracts became clear after repeated administration. HWE and MFH significantly inhibited both nasal rubbing and sneezing, respectively, after consecutive treatment for 15 d at smaller doses compared with single administration. This finding indicates that the active component of hop is included in MFH, which was absorbed to Amberlite XAD-4 and eluted with 50% methanol. These results clearly demonstrated that hop extracts may be effective in the relief of symptoms of allergic rhinitis.
Immunomodulatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut milk extract (SA) were investigated in adjuvant induced arthritis by studying the alterations in humoral and cell mediated immune responses and also the anti-inflammatory effects by evaluating the changes in paw edema, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase activities. Pharmacological studies were also conducted with SA and indomethacin on experimental animals for evaluating the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic activities. The alterations in the humoral and cell mediated immunity were significantly reverted back to near normal levels on treatment with SA. The drug significantly reduced the elevation in the paw edema, TNF-α, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase levels when compared with adjuvant induced arthritic animals, which shows the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug. SA showed strong anti-inflammatory effects in xylene-induced ear edema and formalin-induced inflammation. In analgesic test, the extract elicited a potential activity on both acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as hot plate test showing its central and peripheral mediated action. The drug also elicited antipyretic action in yeast-induced hyperemia in rats. In addition, the extract did not produce any ulceration on gastric mucosa during ulcerogenic test and did not produce any serious adverse effects. All these effects are nearly similar to the activities of indomethacin except the ulceration where indomethacin produced significant ulceration. From this study, the protective immunological and pharmacological role of SA is demonstrated.
Developmental changes in dynamics of Na+ were studied in neuroblastoma×glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells during differentiation which was induced by dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2cAMP). Ratiometric Na+ imaging with a Na+-sensitive fluorescent dye SBFI (sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate) revealed that the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) was not affected by the application of high K+ (60 mM) solution to either control or differentiated cells. When cells were exposed to 50 μM veratridine (Vtd), an agonist of voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs), a significant increase in [Na+]i was observed in differentiated but not in undifferentiated cells. Calculated mean [Na+]i value increased from the basal 10.4 to 44.1 mM in response to 50 μM Vtd. This Vtd response was reversibly inhibited by tetrodotoxin (TTX), a specific blocker for VSSCs, in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=1 nM). It is suggested that VSSCs in NG108-15 cells are sensitive to TTX and Vtd and that the number of VSSCs increases during differentiation.
To clarify the drug-base interaction between diazepam (DZP) suppository and oleaginous base, we investigated the effect of simultaneous combination of oleaginous base on the absorption and on the anticonvulsant effect of DZP Suppository in rats. Simultaneous insertion of DZP suppository and oleaginous base significantly decreased maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the blood concentration–time curve (AUC) of plasma DZP concentrations. Administration of DZP suppositories (2.5, 5 mg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, and the anticonvulsant effect of DZP suppository (5 mg/kg) was reduced by simultaneous insertion of oleaginous base. In an in vitro study using a suppository release apparatus, simultaneous combination of DZP suppository and oleaginous base (1.5—98 mg) significantly decreased the accumulative release of DZP in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that when DZP suppository and oleaginous base are inserted simultaneously, the released DZP distributes partially to the oleaginous base, and this phenomenon is related to the decreases in the plasma concentration and the anticonvulsant effect of DZP.
Bestatin is an inhibitor of aminopeptidase N (APN)/CD13 and aminopeptidase B. In our previous report, bestatin inhibited the tumor cell invasion and the angiogenesis induced by the inoculation of B16-BL6 melanoma cells into mice and capillary formation on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. The results show that the enzymatic activity of APN is deeply involved in tumor invasion and angiogenesis. We investigated the effect of three bestatin derivatives on A375 human melanoma cells and in vitro. All the derivatives inhibited the activity of APN, but BE15 was most effective and controlled the migration of A375 cells and HUVECs and capillary formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, the bestatin derivatives had an inhibitory effect not only on aminopeptidase activity but also on cell motility. Compared with bestatin and the other derivatives, BE15 had a marked inhibitory effect on the formation of capillary structure by HUVECs in vitro. These results suggest that new anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic agents, which have a dual inhibitory effect on the degradation of the extra cellular matrix and cell motility, may be developed from bestatin.
Edaravone, a potent antioxidant, is currently being used in the management of acute ischemic stroke in relatively high-aged populations. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been shown to play important roles in neuronal cell death. We examined the role of MAPK pathways and the effect of treatment with edaravone in the brain after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in a bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) model with ischemia for 85 min followed by reperfusion for 45 min in aged rats. Western immunoblotting, immunostaining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), spectrophotometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling (TUNEL) and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining were performed to evaluate various proteins in the homogenate, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in the tissue sections, protein carbonyl, glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), apoptosis and infarct size, respectively. Our results showed that I/R injury resulted in a reduction of GSHPx, but protein carbonyl content and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased. The activation of JNK and its downstream molecule c-Jun was significantly increased after injury, whereas the activities of p38 MAPK and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 were slightly but not significantly increased. Edaravone (3 mg/kg, i.v.) treatment significantly reduced all of these changes. Our findings suggest that the JNK pathway differentially mediates neuronal injury in aged rats after BCAO, and edaravone treatment significantly reduces the neuronal damage after I/R injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK-c-Jun pathway with concomitant inhibition of overall MAPK activity in the brains of aged rats.
Thromboxane A2 receptor (TP) consists of two alternatively spliced isoforms, TPα and TPβ, which differ in their cytoplasmic tails. In the present study, we examined the difference in signal transduction of TPα and TPβ, using stably expressing cells of TPα and TPβ. The cells expressing TPα (TPα-SC2) and TPβ (TPβ-SC15) were selected based on the similar binding sites of [3H]-SQ29548, a TP antagonist. U46619, a TP agonist, elicited phosphoinositide hydrolysis in TPα-SC2 and TPβ-SC15 cells with a similar concentration-dependency. U46619 also caused the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in both TPα-SC2 and TPβ-SC15 cells. While the peak of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was observed 5 min after addition of U46619 in TPα-SC2 cells, the long lasting phosphorylation up to 60 min was in TPβ-SC15 cells. U46619-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 at 5 min was inhibited by pertussis toxin in both cells, suggesting that Gi is involved in the phosphorylation mediated via both TP isoforms. Interfering G12/13 activity by overexpression of p115-RGS reduced U46619-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in TPβ-SC15 cells, but not in TPα-SC2 cells. H89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), reduced U46619-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in TPα-SC2 cells, but not in TPβ-SC15 cells. These results indicate that Gi may be involved in TP-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in both isoforms. In addition, H89-sensitive kinase and G12/13 may be involved in TP-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in TPα and TPβ, respectively.
Previous studies reported that the total flavonoids from the stems and leaves of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (TFSS) could enhance and improve learning and memory abilities in experimental animals, and reduce the neuronal pathologic alterations induced by some reagents in mice. The present study examined whether TFSS can improve memory dysfunction, neuronal damage, and abnormal free radicals induced by permanent cerebral ischemia in rats. The permanent cerebral ischemic model in rats was produced by bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries. The influence of permanent cerebral ischemia on learning and memory was determined in the Morris water maze. The neuronal damage in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed by the neuronal morphologic observations. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were measured using thiobarbituric acid, nitrate reductase, xanthine–xanthine oxidase, and ammonium molybdate spectrophotometric methods, respectively. In learning and memory performance tests, cerebral ischemic rats always required a longer latency time to find the hidden platform and spent a shorter time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze. TFSS 17.5—70 mg·kg−1 daily orally administered to ischemic rats for 20 d, from day 16—35 after operation differently reduced the prolonged latency and increased swimming time spent in the target quadrant. In neuronal morphologic observations, daily oral TFSS 17.5—70 mg·kg−1 for 21 d, from day 16—36 after operation markedly inhibited the ischemia-induced neuronal damage. In addition, the increased contents of MDA and NO, and SOD activity, and the decreased activity of CAT in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex induced by cerebral ischemia were differently reversed. The reference drug piracetam (140 mg·kg−1 per day for 20—21 d) similarly improved impaired memory and neuronal damage but had no significant effects on free radicals in ligated rats. TFSS can improve memory deficits and neuronal damage in rats after permanent cerebral ischemia, which may be beneficial in the treatment of cerebrovascular dementia.
The central effects of hydroxydihydrocarvone (HC), an analogue of several monoterpenes, were evaluated in animal models. General behavior, locomotor activity, pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsions, and acetic acid-induced writhing were evaluated in mice. The compound caused palpebral ptosis, decreased the response to touch, and increased sedation (general behavioral profile). HC (50—200 mg/kg) caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the spontaneous motor activity of mice. This compound (100, 200 mg/kg) potentiated the pentobarbital sleeping time, indicating a depressant action. HC also protected the mice against PTZ-induced convulsions at 400 mg/kg. In the acetic acid-induced writhing, the antinociceptive activity of HC was demonstrated with a significant dose-dependent response at a dose range of 25—400 mg/kg. The present results provide evidence that HC has significant psychopharmacologic activity with depressant effects.
BR003 is a multi-herbal formula that contains twelve medicinal herbs. We investigated the effects of oral administration of BR003 to Wistar rats on (a) learning and memory using a passive avoidance test and (b) cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus using immunohistochemical analysis of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) expression. In the passive avoidance test, the retention time of the BR003-treated group was significantly longer than that of the control group (182.64±39.88 vs. 73.08±29.30 s, respectively; n=11; p<0.05). There were significantly more BrdU-immunoreactive cells in the DG in the BR003-treated group than in the control group (1281.07±151.16 vs. 818.01±132.98 cells per DG, respectively; n=11; p<0.05). These results suggest that the administration of BR003 not only improves learning and memory but also increases cell proliferation in the DG of the rat hippocampus.
Glucose deprivation is a fundamental feature of poorly vascularized solid tumors and leads to activation of the molecular chaperone GRP78, which is associated with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a stress-signaling pathway, in tumor cells. We recently isolated an active compound, M126, that inhibits transcription from a GRP78 promoter reporter construct. M126 was identified as valinomycin by various spectroscopic methods. We found that valinomycin prevents UPR-induced protein expression, such as GRP78 and GRP94. The GRPs-inhibitory action of valinomycin severe hypoglycemic and results in selective cell death of the stressed cancer cells. Our findings demonstrate that GRP78 may be an excellent target for the use of cancer chemotherapy in the treatment of solid tumors.
Previous studies have suggested that during forebrain ischemia, considerable Zn2+ is released from synaptic vesicles of gultamatergic neuronal terminals and accumulates in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, leading to delayed neuronal death. However, since a time lag exists between the accumulation of Zn2+ and the occurrence of ischemia and there are conflicting reports about the amount of Zn2+ released, the level of released Zn2+ during ischemia in vivo is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal change of extracellular Zn2+ in the hippocampal CA1 area using microdialysis and the accumulation of Zn2+ in hippocampal CA1 neurons with TSQ staining in rats with a transient forebrain ischemia. The level of extracellular Zn2+ in the CA1 area increased transiently reaching a peak 15 min after occlusion, then decreased with time, returning to the basal level 15 min after reperfusion. In addition, at this peak, the level of extracellular Zn2+ was about twice the basal level. Assessment of the intracellular Zn2+ in hippocampal neurons with TSQ revealed that Zn2+ accumulate at 24 h, but not 0 and 6 h after ischemia. These results suggest that, although the synaptic vesicular Zn2+ is released into the synaptic cleft during ischemia in vivo, the amount of released Zn2+ might not be so excessive, and it does not accumulate in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons immediately after ischemia.
The effect of hypothyroidism induced by thiamazole on the toxicity of amitriptyline was studied in chick embryos. Fertilized eggs of White Leghorns were incubated and investigated. 1.2 mg/0.2 ml/egg of thiamazole was injected into the albumen of fertilized eggs on the 9th day of incubation. The control group was given 0.2 ml/egg of physiological saline in the same manner. Amitriptyline at 1 mg/egg was injected into the air sac of fertilized eggs on the 16th day of incubation. Electrocardiograms were recorded 0 to 60 min after the injection. After the injection of amitriptyline into the thiamazole-treated eggs, the heart rate was significantly decreased compared with the untreated eggs. These findings indicate that hypothyroidism induced by thiamazole has a marked influence on the toxicity of amitriptyline in chick embryos.
Our previous study using the urethane-anesthetized guinea-pig model has shown that an IKs blocker chromanol 293B hardly affects the QT interval itself nor potentiates the IKr blocker-induced QT-interval prolongation. The former is in good accordance with the previous results in the human isolated intact ventricular tissue, but the latter is in sharp contrast with them. In this study, we characterized the ventricular repolarization ability of a newly developed halothane-anesthetized guinea-pig model by using IKr and IKs blockers. Intravenous administration of a selective IKr blocker d-sotalol (3 mg/kg) prolonged the QT interval by +27 ms. On the other hand, intravenous administration of chromanol 293B (1 mg/kg) prolonged the QT interval by +35 ms, and additional administration of the same dose of d-sotalol further prolonged the QT interval by +48 ms. These results suggest that the abundance of the repolarization reserve among the current and previous models may be in the order of the urethane-anesthetized guinea-pig heart>human intact ventricular tissue>halothane-anesthetized guinea-pig heart. Thus, the halothane-anesthetized guinea-pig model may be considered to be more sensitive than the previous models in predicting the QT-interval prolonging effects of new drugs in patients with high risks for the acquired long QT syndrome.
Methanol extracts of aerial flowering parts of four endemic Stachys taxa: S. anisochila VIS. et PANČIĆ, S. beckeana DÖRFLER & HAYEK, S. plumosa GRISEB. and S. alpina L. ssp. dinarica MURB. were investigated on their antioxidant activity. The extracts were studied for total antioxidant activity (TAA), along with 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and OH radical scavenging activity, and lipid peroxidation (LP). High correlations between total phenolics content, TAA and scavenging DPPH radical indicate that polyphenols are the main antioxidants. All Stachys extracts, with the exception of S. plumosa, exhibited high anti-DPPH activity (IC50<50 μg/ml). In concentration range from 6.25 to 50 μg/ml, all extracts scavenged OH radical above 40%, with maximal inhibitions for S. anisochila, S. alpina ssp. dinarica and S. beckeana extracts of 50.22%, 50.94% and 64.97%, respectively. Only S. plumosa extract achieved maximal activity of 60.67% at 100 μg/ml. As for LP, IC50 values for S. beckeana and S. alpina ssp. dinarica extracts were 25.07 and 49.00 μg/ml, respectively, while S. anisochila and S. plumosa extracts did not reach 50% of LP inhibition.
We examined the combined effects of the calcium channel blockers 1,4-dihydropyridine (benidipine) and benzothiazepine (diltiazem) on cardiohemodynamics in anesthetized dogs. Benidipine (3 μg/kg) lowered blood pressure (BP) slightly and continuously increased coronary flow (CF). Diltiazem (300, 1000 μg/kg) decreased BP, heart rate (HR), and the maximum rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (LV dP/dt max) with the increase of doses. Diltiazem increased CF, though it was transient when compared to benidipine. A combination of benidipine (3 μg/kg) and diltiazem (300 μg/kg) showed continuous decreases in BP, HR, and LV dP/dt max, and an increase in CF that was similar to that recorded for the benidipine group. The level of double product (DP: systolic BP×HR, an index of myocardium energy consumption) in the combination group was significantly lower than that of the benidipine group. The plasma concentrations of benidipine and diltiazem in the combination group were similar to those of the groups receiving either drug. These results demonstrate that the combination of benidipine and diltiazem increases CF more continuously than diltiazem alone, and decreases DP more potently than benidipine alone, indicating that the combination therapy possesses favorable properties as a treatment for angina pectoris. Therefore, the combination of benidipine and diltiazem is suggested as a useful treatment for improving the clinical benefits of monotherapy for angina, compared with the use of diltiazem alone at higher doses.
The oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role at the early stages of atherosclerosis. Thus, the prevention of LDL-oxidation by antioxidants may arrest the progression of atherosclerosis. Two quinoline alkaloids, 3,8-dihydroxyquinoline (1) and 2,8-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyquinoline (3), and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2) were isolated from the dried body of Scolopendra subspinipes. Compounds 1—3 exhibited antioxidant activities on copper-mediated (1: IC50=2.6 μM, 2: IC50=8.2 μM, 3: IC50=63.0 μM), AAPH-mediated oxidation (1: IC50=3.9 μM, 2: IC50=9.9 μM, 3: IC50=71.8 μM), and SIN-1-mediated oxidation (1: 70%, 2: 52%, 3: 29% at 5.0 μM) in the TBARS assay. The antioxidant activities of compounds 1—3 were tested with respect to other parameters, such as the lag time of conjugated diene fromation, relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of ox-LDL, and apoB-100 fragmentation on copper-mediated LDL-oxidation. In addition, compounds 1—3 showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrasyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and compound 1 also exhibited metal chelating activity.
Plant phenolic compounds isolated from a 70% aqueous acetone extract of the leaves of Malus doumeri A. CHEV. var. formosana (KAWAK. & KOIDZ.) S. S. YING, a type of Taiwanese indigenous plant, were evaluated for potential application in the field of skin care. A phytochemical investigation of the active fractions resulted in the isolation of seven compounds of which the structures were identified by spectroscopic characterization. In the present study, the isolated phenolic compounds were evaluated for their free radical-scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the superoxide radicals, anti-elastase, and for their anti-matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity in human skin fibroblast cells. Of these compounds, 3-hydroxyphloridzin (2), 3-hydroxyphloretin (6), and quercetin (7) exhibited the strongest DPPH and superoxide radical-scavenging activities. The IC50 values of these compounds were 9.2, 7.7, and 15.4 μM, respectively, for the DPPH radical, and 25.0, 19.6, and 42.6 μM, respectively, for the superoxide radical. 3-Hydroxyphloridzin (2) and 3-hydroxyphloretin (6) also showed xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 52.1 and 22.4 μM, respectively. In the test for elastase inhibitory activity, phloretin (5) and 3-hydroxyphloretin (6) were the most potent compounds. Phloretin (5), 3-hydroxyphloretin (6), and quercetin (7) showed better inhibition of MMP-1 production in fibroblast cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the active phenolic compounds from M. doumeri var. formosana have been isolated, reported, and described. The above results suggest that the extract of M. doumeri var. formosana containing phenolic compounds could be suitable naturally occurring active constituents for use in anti-aging or cosmetic products.
Progression of the desertification in northern China has been causing damage to wild Ephedra plants on which we depend for most of supply of the traditional herbal medicine, “Ma huang.” The Chinese government encourages the cultivation of Ephedra plants, and Ephedra fields have been reclaimed in the original Ephedra habitats in recent years. We surveyed 7 Ephedra fields that have been recently developed in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region to collect information on Ephedra plant cultivation, especially pertaining to crop species. Specimens taken from those Ephedra fields were genetically and morphologically analyzed, and their ephedrine alkaloid content was examined. DNA analyses of Ephedra specimens, including DNA sequencing of ITS (internal transcribing sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA) and trn L/F (intron of trnL and intergenic spacer between the trnL and trnF of chloroplast DNA) region and species-specific amplification of trn L/F were conducted to identify Ephedra species. Based on the results of DNA sequencing and morphological determination, the crops grown in 6 fields ware identified as Ephedra sinica, while co-planting of E. sinica and E. intermedia was found in one field where a higher appearance rate of plants with varied morphology from wild Ephedra plants was observed. Furthermore, direct sequencing of the PCR product of the trn L/F region of some specimens from the field and their species-specific PCR showed ambivalent result. Cloning and sequencing of the PCR product of the trn L/F region of those specimens DNA suggested their heteroplasmy, containing both E. sinica- and E. intermedia-type chloroplasts. On the other hand, the profile of the ephedrine alkaloid content was clearly correlated with the result of direct sequencing of the trn L/F region; the specimens showing the E. sinica-type sequence contained more ephedrine than pseudoephedrine, and the specimens of the E. intermedia-type more pseudoephedrine.
To investigate whether or not the radical scavenging activity of ginseng is enhanced by heat processing, we evaluated the scavenging effects of white ginseng (WG), red ginseng (RG, steamed ginseng at 98—100 °C) and sun ginseng (SG, steamed ginseng at 120 °C) on nitric oxide, superoxide (O2−), hydroxyl (·OH) radicals and peroxynitrite (ONOO−). Heat-treated ginseng (RG and SG) showed better O2−, ONOO− and ·OH-scavenging activities than WG. In particular, the radical scavenging activities of SG were stronger than those of RG. Furthermore, we evaluated the radical scavenging activities of maltol, salicylic acid, vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid, known as principal antioxidant components of ginseng, in WG, RG and SG, and also investigated their contents. Of the tested compounds, maltol, vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid exhibited ONOO−-scavenging activity. In addition, maltol and p-coumaric acid showed strong ·OH-scavenging activity. Moreover, the content of maltol was remarkably increased in a temperature-dependent manner by heat processing, implying that maltol was closely related to the radical scavenging activity of heat-processed ginseng. These findings indicate that SG may act as a free radical scavenger and protect against damage caused by oxidative stress related with these radicals.
We purified a sterol with antitumor activity from the edible mushroom Sarcodon aspratus (BERK.) S. ITO and identified it as 5α,8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol (9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (9(11)-DHEP)). Purified 9(11)-DHEP was a more effective inhibitor of HL60 leukemia cell growth and stronger apoptosis-inducer than 5α,8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (ergosterol peroxide (EP)) that we had previously identified as an apoptosis inducer. Moreover, 9(11)-DHEP selectively suppressed the growth of HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells but not WI38 normal human fibroblasts. After 5 d incubation of HT29 with 7 μM 9(11)-DHEP, the number of S phase cells decreased from 23 to 15% of total diploid cells and 17% became hypodiploid. Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, WAF1, Cip1) (CDKN1A), which has been shown to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT29 cells, was induced by 9(11)-DHEP. These results suggest that 9(11)-DHEP inhibits HT29 cell growth by inducing CDKN1A expression, thus causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
This study was carried out to investigate the protective potential of Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu, comprising six crude drugs, on coronary heart disease which is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model, which shows an elevation in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and atherosclerosis, was employed. The control rats fed a diet of 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid showed the highest cholesterol levels in serum and feces relative to those fed a normal diet, however, the rats administered Kangen-karyu extract showed reductions in these levels without changes in liver cholesterol, indicating that the reduction of serum total cholesterol by Kangen-karyu extract probably arises from an increase in cholesterol excretion. Furthermore, the administration of Kangen-karyu extract significantly prevented the elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, known as marker enzymes of liver damage. The elevated serum levels of LDL cholesterol were lowered, however, the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was significantly elevated by Kangen-karyu extract and these were dose-dependent decreases in the atherogenic index to 15.2, 8.8 and 7.5 at oral doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg from the 19.4 control value, respectively. In addition, Kangen-karyu extract inhibited LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner, and the elevated level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in control rats showed a decline by the administration of Kangen-karyu extract. The present study suggests that Kangen-karyu could play a protective role against hypercholesterolemia through the regulation of cholesterol levels and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
A new ursane-type triterpenoid, weigelic acid (1), and seven known compounds, ursolic acid (2), ilekudinol A (3), corosolic acid (4), ilekudinol B (5), esculentic acid (6), pomolic acid (7), and asiatic acid (8) were isolated from the leaf and stem of Weigela subsessilis. The structure of the new triterpenoid was established as 1β,2α,3α,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. In addition, the isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-complement activity against the classical pathway of the complement system. Of these, compounds 1—2 and 4—8 exhibited anti-complement activity with IC50 values of 152, 90, 130, 51, 56, 4, and 163 μM, respectively, whereas 3 was inactive. This shows that a carboxylic group of ursane-type triterpenoids seems to play an important role in inhibiting the hemolytic activity of human serum against erythrocytes.
Melanogenesis stimulation activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of five Piper species, namely Piper longum, P. kadsura, P. methysticum, P. betle, and P. cubeba, were examined by using cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Among them, the extract of P. methysticum rhizome (Kava) showed potent stimulatory effect on melanogenesis as well as P. nigrum leaf extract. Activity-guided fractionation of Kava extract led to the isolation of two active kavalactones, yangonin (2) and 7,8-epoxyyangonin (5), along with three inactive kavalactones, 5,6-dehydrokawain (1), (+)-kawain (3) and (+)-methysticin (4), and a glucosylsterol, daucosterin (6). 7,8-Epoxyyangonin (5) showed a significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Yangonin (2) exhibited a weak melanogenesis stimulation activity.
The bioassay-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the root barks of Cudrania tricuspidata furnished three hepatoprotective compounds, gerontoxanthone A (2), cudraflavone B (4), gericudranin E (5), together with four prenylated xanthones, cudraxanthone B (3), isocudraxanthone K (6), cudraxanthone C (7), cudraxanthone H (8), and a prenylated flavanone, euchrestaflavanone C (1). Compounds 4 and 5 showed significant hepatoprotective effects with the EC50 values of 37.39±0.4 and 39.87±0.7 μM, respectively, and compound 2 showed moderate hepatoprotective effect with an EC50 value of 125.9±1.5 μM, against tacrine-induced cytotoxicity in Hep G2 cells. Silybin as positive control showed an EC50 value of 84.76±0.5 μM. Isocudraxanthone K (6) is a new compound.
The aim of this study was to characterize the antioxidant activity of three ascorbic acid (AA) derivatives O-substituted at the C-2 position of AA: ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G), ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA-2P), and ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AA-2S). The radical-scavenging activities of these AA derivatives and some common low molecular-weight antioxidants such as uric acid or glutathione against 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+), or galvinoxyl radical were kinetically and stoichiometrically evaluated under pH-controlled conditions. Those AA derivatives slowly and continuously reacted with DPPH radical and ABTS+, but not with galvinoxyl radical. They effectively reacted with DPPH radical under acidic conditions and with ABTS+ under neutral conditions. In contrast, AA immediately quenched all species of radicals tested at all pH values investigated. The reactivity of Trolox, a water-soluble vitamin E analogue, was comparable to that of AA in terms of kinetics and stoichiometrics. Uric acid and glutathione exhibited long-lasting radical-scavenging activity against these radicals under certain pH conditions. The radical-scavenging profiles of AA derivatives were closer to those of uric acid and glutathione rather than to that of AA. The number of radicals scavenged by one molecule of AA derivatives, uric acid, or glutathione was equal to or greater than that by AA or Trolox under the appropriate conditions. These data suggest the potential usage of AA derivatives as radical scavengers.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacogenetic variability in the disposition of carvedilol in the Japanese population. Five or 10 mg of carvedilol was orally administered to 54 healthy Japanese subjects (22—44 years old), and blood samples were taken at 2 and 6 h after dosing. We determined the polymorphic alleles of CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, UGT2B7, and MDR1 in each subject. The whole blood concentration of R- and S-carvedilol was measured by an HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters in individual subjects were estimated by the Bayesian method using the nonlinear mixed effects model (NONMEM) program. We then examined the effect of the genetic polymorphisms on the variability in the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol using a multiple regression analysis. The oral clearance (CL/F) and also apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of both enantiomers were significantly lower in the subjects with the CYP2D6*10 allele than those with the CYP2D6*1/*1, *1/*2, or *2/*2 genotype, confirming our previous finding that the bioavailability (F) and systemic clearance (CL) of R- and S-carvedilol in the liver is significantly altered in Japanese with the CYP2D6*10 allele. On the other hand, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, CYP3A5*3, UGT2B7*2, and MDR1C3435T did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol in Japanese subjects.
P-Glycoprotein (Pgp) locates in several tissues in the living body and acts as an efflux pump for many drugs. In this study, the usefulness of intravenous rhodamine 123 (Rho123) administration as a marker for detecting the inducing effect of Pgp by drugs was identified, and the relationship between excretion clearances of Rho123 via Pgp and its expression during treatment with the representative Pgp inducers rifampicin (RFP), dexamethasone (DEX) and St. John's Wort (SJW) were examined in rat liver, intestine and kidney. After pretreatment with RFP (10 mg/kg/d) for 4 d, DEX (50 mg/kg/d) for 4 d or SJW (15 mg/kg/d) for 7 d orally, the biliary excretion of Rho123 after intravenous administration (0.2 mg/kg) increased significantly by 40%, 55% and 14%, respectively, and the intestinal excretion increased significantly by 24%, 50% and 27%, respectively, as compared with the controls. In contrast, there were no notable changes in the urinary excretion of Rho123 among rats that received these inducers. Western blot analysis with a monoclonal antibody for Pgp (C219) showed that Pgp levels in the small intestine and liver in the inducer-treated rats increased markedly as compared with the controls. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the induction levels of Pgp in the liver or small intestine and their clearance ratios (r2=0.7583, p<0.05), but not in the kidney. These observations suggest that the excretion clearances of Rho123 from blood circulation to the small intestine or to the bile after its intravenous administration are useful indicators to assess the Pgp function in the presence of Pgp inducers.
Studies using the closed loop and everted sacs of the rat small intestine recently prompted us to suggest that carrier-mediated transport is involved in the intestinal absorption of glycerol. Although it could be mediated by a novel carrier system, little information is available. The aim of the present study was to kinetically characterize carrier-mediated glycerol transport in the perfused rat small intestine to help in identifying the carrier involved and to explore the possibility that the carrier might be used as a pathway for oral drug delivery and a target for drug development. In situ single-pass perfusion was conducted using a 10-cm midgut segment of the male Wistar rat, and the absorption of [3H]glycerol was evaluated by its disappearance from the intestinal lumen. The absorption of glycerol was saturable and significantly reduced by removing Na+ from the perfusion solution, suggesting the involvement of a Na+-dependent carrier-mediated transport system. The concentration-dependent absorption profile was successfully analyzed by assuming Michaelis–Menten type carrier-mediated transport and simultaneous passive (diffusive) transport. The maximum transport rate (Jmax) was 77.0 pmol/s/cm2 and the Michaelis constant (Km) was 1.04 mM, giving a Jmax/Km of 7.39×10−5 cm/s. The membrane permeability coefficient for passive transport (Pm,d) was 6.89×10−5 cm/s, slightly smaller than Jmax/Km. Therefore, it could be the major mechanism of intestinal glycerol absorption in the low concentration range where carrier-mediated transport conforms to linear kinetics represented by Jmax/Km. Furthermore, carrier-mediated glycerol transport was found to be inhibited by glycerol 3-phosphate, monoacetin and diglycerol, indicating that the carrier system may be shared by these structural analogues. Thus, the present study has successfully demonstrated and characterized carrier-mediated glycerol transport in the perfused rat small intestine which is a physiologically relevant model.
A blood microdialysis technique coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was used to investigate the pharmacokinetics of unbound ketoprofen in rats after intravenous administration of a lipid-soluble ketoprofen derivate, ketoprofen isopropyl ester (KPI), loaded into lipid microspheres (LM) and ketoprofen solution. A microdialysis probe was inserted into the jugular vein of male Wistar rats. KPI-loaded LM or ketoprofen solution (24 mg/kg, i.v.) was then administrated via a femoral vein. Dialysate samples were analyzed using HPLC. The in vitro and in vivo recovery rate of the microdialysis probe was 30.42±0.74% (n=3) and 40.27±2.74% (n=3), respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters for ketoprofen after intravenous administration of KPI-loaded LM and ketoprofen solution exhibited no statistically significant differences. The results of this pharmacokinetic study indicate that the microdialysis technique can be widely applicable to investigations of in vivo free-drug of microcarrier systems.
The purpose of this study is to characterize transport of acebutolol through the corneal epithelium. Cultured normal rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCEC) were used to investigate the drug transport. Primary RCEC were seeded on a filter membrane of Transwell-COL® insert coated with fibronectin and were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F-12 with various supplements. Measurements of acebutolol permeability through RCEC layer were carried out to assess transcellular permeability coefficient (Ptranscell) in the absence or presence of inhibitors. Paracellular permeability coefficient (Pparacell) was calculated by permeability coefficient of hydrophilic drugs (Pcell). The transcellular permeability of acebutolol from apical side to basal side (A-to-B) showed concentration-dependency. The acebutolol flux in the A-to-B direction was smaller than that of opposite direction. Sodium azide, verapamil, and cyclosporin A enhanced the transcellular permeability of acebutolol in the A-to-B direction. Acebutolol permeability through an excised rabbit cornea was also increased by verapamil. Thus, it was suggested that acebutolol was actively secreted via P-glycoprotein in a corneal epithelium.
The influence of plant product magnolol (0—100 μM) on the contractile activity of isolated colonic muscle strips in guinea pig and related mechanism were investigated. Magnolol did not affect the base tone of colon muscle strips, but it dose-dependently inhibited 40 mM KCl-, 1 μM carbachol (CCh)- and 10 μM serotonin (5-HT)-induced contractions at concentrations higher than 10 μM. And also, magnolol inhibited the 5-HT- or CCh-induced muscle contraction in calcium-free buffer. Furthermore, magnolol inhibited the KCl-induced contraction under the condition of procaine. In addition, inhibition rate of nifedipine plus magnolol on muscle strips was lower than that of nifedipine alone. Moreover, magnolol dose-dependently decreased the velocity of pellet propulsion in the concentration range of 0.1—10 μM, and totally inhibited pellet propulsion at the concentration higher than 30 μM. Thus, it can be concluded that magnolol may 1) block receptor-operated cation channels and the voltage dependent Ca2+ channel, and 2) inhibit calcium release from the sarcolemmal membrane (SR) through blocking InsP3-sensitive and ryanodine-sensitive pathways. This explains, at least partially, that Cortex magnoliae officinalis exerts therapeutic effects on gastrointestinal disease through relaxation of GI tract smooth muscles.
We isolated a highly serine protease-producing Bacillus subtilis strain (PRY) from a clinical sample and identified it through biochemical testing and ribosomal DNA sequencing. The PRY strain exhibited a robust swarming behavior and was able to digest human transferrin efficiently, concomitantly with the production of catechol-siderophore in the exponential growth phase. The growth of PRY was in proportion to increased iron availability resulting from transferrin destruction. These results suggest that proteases of the B. subtilis PRY strain may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of human infections by facilitating siderophore-mediated iron uptake from transferrin and swarming motility.