Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Online ISSN : 1347-5215
Print ISSN : 0918-6158
ISSN-L : 0918-6158
最新号
選択された号の論文の25件中1~25を表示しています
Reviews
  • Kouichi Yoshinari
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1243-1252
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    Nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) are xenobiotic-responsible transcriptional factors that belong to the same subfamily and are expressed abundantly in the liver. They play crucial roles in various liver functions including xenobiotic disposition and energy metabolism. CAR is also involved in xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents. However, there are some open questions on the association between chemical carcinogenesis and these nuclear receptors. These include the molecular mechanism for CAR-mediated hepatocyte proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis. Another important question is whether PXR is associated with hepatocyte proliferation. We have recently reported a novel and unique function of PXR associated with murine hepatocyte proliferation: PXR activation alone does not induce hepatocyte proliferation but accelerates hepatocyte proliferation induced by various types of stimuli including CAR- or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activating compounds, liver injury, and growth factors. We have also reported a role of yes-associated protein (YAP), a transcriptional cofactor controlling organ size and cell growth under the Hippo pathway, in CAR-mediated hepatocyte proliferation in mice. In this review, I will introduce our recent results as well as related studies on the roles of PXR and CAR in xenobiotic-induced hepatocyte proliferation and their molecular mechanisms.

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  • Zhiqian Yu, Masahiro Shibazaki, Hirotada Otsuka, Haruhiko Takada, Masa ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1253-1267
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    Systemic platelet behaviors in experimental animals are often assessed by infusion of isotope-labeled platelets and measuring them under anesthesia. However, such procedures alter, therefore may not reveal, real-life platelet behaviors. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5HT or serotonin) is present within limited cell-types, including platelets. In our studies, by measuring 5HT as a platelet-marker in non-anesthetized mice, we identified stimulation- and time-dependent accumulations in liver, lung, and/or spleen as important systemic platelet behaviors. For example, intravenous, intraperitoneal, or intragingival injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a cell-wall component of Gram-negative bacteria), interleukin (IL)-1, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced hepatic platelet accumulation (HPA) and platelet translocation into the sinusoidal and perisinusoidal spaces or hepatocytes themselves. These events occurred “within a few hours” of the injection, caused hypoglycemia, and exhibited protective or causal effects on hepatitis. Intravenous injection of larger doses of LPS into normal mice, or intravenous antigen-challenge to sensitized mice, induced pulmonary platelet accumulation (PPA), as well as HPA. These reactions occurred “within a few min” of the LPS injection or antigen challenge and resulted in shock. Intravenous injection of 5HT or a catecholamine induced a rapid PPA “within 6 s.” Intravenous LPS injection, within a minute, increased the pulmonary catecholamines that mediate the LPS-induced PPA. Macrophage-depletion from liver and spleen induced “day-scale” splenic platelet accumulation, suggesting the spleen is involved in clearing senescent platelets. These findings indicate the usefulness of 5HT as a marker of platelet behaviors, and provide a basis for a discussion of the roles of platelets as both “defenders” and “guardians.”

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Regular Articles
  • Xi Wang, Zi Xiu, Yuru Du, Yiming Li, Juxiang Yang, Yuan Gao, Fangfang ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1268-1274
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    Increasing evidence shows depression relevant to oxidative stress and inflammation. Anti-inflammatory strategies or antioxidants have led to the development of new antidepressants. Brazilin is a natural product from the Chinese traditional medicine Caesalpinia sappan L., exerting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-platelet concentration, and anti-cancer effects. While the antidepressant effect of brazilin is largely unknown. In present study, we investigated the effects of brazilin on H2O2-induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells and on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors of chronically mild stressed (CMS)-induced depression mice. It was found that brazilin pre-treatment (both 10 and 20 µM) significantly increased cell viability and decreased cell apoptosis in H2O2-treated PC12 cells. Furthermore, repetitive administration of brazilin to CMS-induced depression mice by intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg) made the mice significantly lose their latency of feeding in novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSF), have more the sucrose preference in sucrose preference test (SPT), and more time spent in the central zone without affecting their crossing activity in open field test (OFT). These results suggested that brazilin can play a role in antidepressant and anxiolytic-like behaviors for CMS-induced depression mice probably through inhibiting the oxidative stress. Therefore, brazilin is worth to be further explored for treating depressive and anxiety disorders.

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  • Xing-Xu Du, Xue Tao, Shuang Liang, Jin-Ying Che, Shuo Yang, He Li, Jia ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1275-1281
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/06/01
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    Polysaccharide is a key bioactive component of Schisandra chinensis and has significant pharmacological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of acidic polysaccharide from Schisandra chinensis (SCAP). Type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats were developed by giving a high-fat diet (HFD) combined with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ), and administered orally with SCAP (25, 50 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the rat’s serum were measured. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and pathological changes of pancreas were observed. Furthermore, expressions of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein (BAX), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and Cleaved Caspase-3 in pancreatic islet were detected. The results showed that SCAP decreased FBG, TG, TC, LDL-C and MDA levels, increased insulin, HDL-C levels and SOD activity, improved the pathological changes in pancreatic islet. Furthermore, SCAP inhibited the up-regulation of phosphorylated JNK, BAX and Cleaved Caspase-3 proteins, and increased Bcl-2 protein expression. These data indicate that SCAP has a therapeutic effect in T2D rats, and the mechanism may be related to its protection against β-cells apoptosis by regulating apoptosis-related proteins expression to alleviate the injury caused by the oxidative stress.

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  • Qinyu Pei, Rui Wang, Chunhua Shu, Xiuying Pei, Xue Li, GuoJing Gou
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1282-1294
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/18
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    The purpose of the paper is to study the differences in cell death mechanism of MGC-803 induced by “dextran-magnetic layered double hydroxide-fluorouracil” (DMF) drug delivery system and 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), respectively. The inhibitory effect on the proliferation was detected via CCK-8. The morphology of cell death was detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Intracellular ATP, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Cytosolic Free Ca (Ca2+) level were detected via some methods. The result showed that DMF had more obvious effect in suppressing proliferation compared with 5-Fu, and changed cell death pattern of 5-Fu from apoptosis to oncosis. The ATP decrease, MMP loss, Ca2+ increase, the activation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) and calpain-1 were significant after DMF exposure. However, DMF did not result in ROS accumulation. DMF could involve in activation of porimin, and the cascade reaction of caspases-3, -7, -9, and -12 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) through Western blot. DMF showed a stronger injury on nuclear membrane in the cascade reaction of caspases-6, -8 and lamin-A. DMF triggered rapid depletion of ATP, which was consistent with the phenotype of oncosis. Endogenous mitochondrial apoptosis might not be the main cause of cell swelling. DMF could induce strong endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) effect, there might be some signaling pathways related with ERS during the process of oncosis. The calpain system might not be a key factor for structural damage in oncosis induced by DMF. DMF could induce the caspases cascade reactions similar to apoptosis, but inflicted a more strong damage on nuclear membrane and PARP.

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  • Kahori Shimizu, Moe Ono, Akane Imoto, Hideki Nagayama, Naho Tetsumura, ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1295-1302
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    Obesity is characterized by abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which leads to the development of metabolic syndrome. Because oxidative stress is increased in obesity, antioxidants are regarded as suitable agents for preventing metabolic syndrome. Here, we examined the impact of cranberry, which contains various antioxidants, on metabolic profiles, including that during the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. We observed that oxidative stress was diminished in mice that were fed HFD diets supplemented with 1 and 5% cranberry powder as compared with that in HFD-fed control mice. Notably, from 1 week after beginning the diets to the end of the study, the body weight of mice in the cranberry-treatment groups was significantly lower than that of mice in the HFD-fed control group; during the early treatment phase, cranberry suppressed the elevation of serum triglycerides; and adipocytes in the adipose tissues of cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice were smaller than these cells in HFD-fed control mice. Lastly, we examined the effect of cranberry on NAFLD, which is one of the manifestations of metabolic syndrome in the liver. Histological analysis of the liver revealed that lipid-droplet formation and hepatocyte ballooning, which are key NAFLD characteristics, were both drastically decreased in cranberry-supplemented-HFD-fed mice relative to the levels in HFD-fed control mice. Our results suggest that cranberry ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic disturbances, particularly during the early treatment stage, and exhibits considerable potential for preventing the progression of NAFLD.

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  • Hao Huang, Zhao-jun Wang, Hai-bin Zhang, Jian-xia Liang, Wen-dong Cao, ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1303-1309
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the articular cartilage is a major risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). To determine the mechanistic basis of AGE action in OA, we treated human articular chondrocytes with AGEs, and found that they not only up-regulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but also inhibited AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and decreased sirtuin 1 (SIRT-1) levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist restored the inhibited AMPK and SIRT-1 by AGEs. Pre-treatment of the cells with the agonists or antagonists of AMPK and SIRT-1 respectively abolished and augmented the inflammatory state induced by AGEs. Furthermore, AMPK agonist also restored the levels of SIRT-1 in the AGE-stimulated chondrocytes. Our findings indicate AGEs induce an inflammatory response in human articular chondrocytes via the PPARγ/AMPK/SIRT-1 pathway, which is therefore a potential target in OA therapy.

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  • Qifei Zhao, Hongrong Li, Liping Chang, Cong Wei, Yujie Yin, Hongying B ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1310-1321
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/28
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    Qiliqiangxin capsule (QLQX) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that exhibits cardioprotective effects in heart failure patients. However, it remains unclear whether and by which mechanism QLQX attenuates oxidative stress-induced mitochondria-dependent myocardial apoptosis. In vivo, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats received left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 4 weeks to establish a model of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction, and then were treated with QLQX for another 4 weeks. We evaluated cardiac function, oxidative stress injury, as well as the expressions of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and its signaling factors. The results indicated that QLQX protected cardiac function and attenuated oxidative stress-induced myocardial apoptosis. Meanwhile, QLQX elevated the Bcl-2 expression, declined the expressions of Bax, cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), cleaved-caspase 9 and cleaved-caspase 3, and up-regulated the ratios of phospho-AKT/AKT and phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β)/GSK3β. In vitro, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were pretreated with QLQX, then exposed to H2O2 for 24 h. QLQX promoted the proliferation of H9c2 cardiomyocytes induced by H2O2 and reversed oxidative stress damage. Moreover, QLQX inhibited the apoptosis rate and the pro-apoptosis protein expressions, but improved the Bcl-2 expression as well as the ratios of phospho-AKT/AKT and phospho-GSK3β/GSK3β. Meanwhile, it further ameliorated mitochondrion-related apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decline in H9c2 cardiomyocytes induced by H2O2. In addition, all the effects of QLQX on H2O2-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis could be blocked by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002. We conclude that QLQX may ameliorate oxidative stress-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway.

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  • Hee-Ra Lee, Min Cheol Pyo, Seung A Chae, Chung-Oui Hong, Kwang-Won Lee
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1322-1331
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    Urban particulate matter (UPM) is atmospheric particulate samples obtained from industrialized urban areas. It is known that pulmonary fibrosis can result directly or indirectly from particulate matter. In this study, the protective effect of chebulic acid (CA) against UPM-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the pulmonary alveolar epithelial (PAE) cells were investigated. Our findings revealed that PAE cells were changed from the epithelial phenotype to mesenchymal one after exposure to UPM. Furthermore, co-treatment and post-treatment of CA inhibited EMT progression. Especially the key epithelial marker, E-cadherin, was down-regulated by UPM and recovered by CA. Also, gelatin zymogram showed that the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was decreased by co-treatment and post-treatment of CA. Further investigation revealed that CA attenuated UPM-stimulated PAE cells invasion ability. These data showed that UPM promoted PAE cells invasion, reactive oxygen species-mediated extracellular matrix degradation and CA reduced the potential health risks associated with UPM.

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  • Yoshihiko Shibayama, Yoshitada Kubo, Tsutomu Nakagawa, Ken Iseki
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1332-1336
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. The stem-loop sequence miR-101-1 generates mature miR-101-5p and miR-101-3p. The function and target mRNA of miR-101-5p have not yet been elucidated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that miR-101-5p inhibits the expression of RAP1A, a member of the RAS gene family. Transfection of a miR-101-5p mimic significantly inhibited the expression of RAP1A mRNA in HeLa, HEK293, A549, and COLO201 cells. The same treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation. The cytostatic effect with transfection of miR-101-5p was antagonized by treatment with the RAP inhibitor salirasib. These results suggested that miR-101-5p inhibits RAP1A, and thus, the expression levels of miR-101-5p regulate cell proliferation.

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  • Hui Yuan, Jiyu Xu, Xiaoyi Xu, Tielei Gao, Yuehong Wang, Yuqi Fan, Jing ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1337-1344
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/06/04
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    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major complication of diabetes, and features myocardial fibrosis as its main pathological feature. Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which involves in myocardial fibrosis by regulation of calcium homeostasis. Calhex231, the CaSR inhibitor, is not clear whether it regulates myocardial fibrosis in DCM. In the present study, type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats and primary neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts were used to observe the role of Calhex231. In vivo experiments showed that in the T1D group, contractile dysfunction and the deposition of collagen I and III were obvious after 12 weeks. In vitro experiments, we found that high glucose (HG) could increase the expression of CaSR, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) collagen I/III, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP9, along with cardiac fibroblast migration and proliferation. We further demonstrated that CaSR activation increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration and upregulated the expression of Itch (atrophin-1 interacting protein 4), which resulted in increasing the ubiquitination levels of Smad7 and upregulating the expression of p-Smad2, p-Smad3. However, treatment with Calhex231 clearly inhibited the above-mentioned changes. Collectively these results suggest that Calhex231 could inhibit Itch-ubiquitin proteasome and TGF-β1/Smads pathways, and then depress the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts, along with the reduction deposition of collagen, alleviate glucose-induced myocardial fibrosis. Our findings indicate an important new mechanism for myocardial fibrosis, and suggest Calhex231 would be a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of DCM.

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  • Madoka Kisoi, Miwako Moritsugu, Miho Imai, Kae Fukumoto, Yui Sakaguchi ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1345-1349
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    DNA extraction and purification have been generally considered to be required for PCR assay. We demonstrated a new protocol using biological specimens directly as templates for real-time PCR with melting curve analysis. We confirmed the melting curve analysis was particularly suitable for the identification of the insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene. The new protocol we developed can be set up using simple and complete PCR analysis including data interpretation in under four hours with additional advantages of application for large-scale clinical research, diagnostics, and epidemiological studies at low cost.

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  • Sakura Nakatani, Keisuke Maeda, Junji Akagi, Misato Ichigi, Marina Mur ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1350-1357
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/06/04
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    Creatinine (Cr) levels are strongly affected by muscle mass, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure based on serum creatinine (SCr), is often overestimated in patients with sarcopenia. To evaluate the coefficient of determination (R2) between eGFR and the actual measured value, we performed a linear regression analysis of a modified GFR (mGFR: measured Cr clearance × 0.715) and various renal function estimates adjusted for muscle mass in 19 patients with sarcopenia. The eGFR values based on SCr (eGFRcr) were higher than those based on mGFR, although a high R2 (0.704; p < 0.001) was found between these values. There was no deviation between eGFR based on serum cystatin C (eGFRcys) and mGFR, although the R2 value 0.691 was equivalent to that of eGFRcr. In the equation used to calculate eGFRcr not adjusted for body surface area (mL/min), muscle mass parameters obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis were used instead of actual body weight to recalculate the eGFRcr. The R2 between this eGFRcr and mGFR did not improve, although there was less deviation. However, assuming that all patients were female by using female coefficients for all patients, the R2 between eGFRcr-fcc (eGFRcr with female coefficient correction) and mGFR improved and was the highest (0.808) on substitution of appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The correlation between eGFRcr-fcc and mGFR improved over eGFRcys when muscle mass was substituted for body weight in the equation used to estimate eGFR in patients with sarcopenia and sex differences were removed.

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  • Wanida Sukketsiri, Supita Tanasawet, Furoida Moolsap, Mayuree H. Tanti ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1358-1365
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    A current anti-inflammatory agent often targets the prevention of inflammatory disorder development. The standardized Centella asiatica ECa 233 extract has been previously reported for anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to investigate its anti-inflammatory effect and mechanisms of ECa 233 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, nitric oxide (NO) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. Our results found that ECa 233 significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediators production including ROS, NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β without cytotoxicity. In addition, ECa 233 downregulated not only the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), but also the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), activated protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) induced by LPS. The inhibition of LPS-induced inflammation due to ECa 233 offered an opportunity as a tentatively potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.

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  • Seigo Sanoh, Yuka Tamura, Chieri Fujino, Go Sugahara, Yasumi Yoshizane ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1366-1375
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a common side effect of several medications and is considered a major factor responsible for the discontinuation of drugs during their development. Cholestasis is a DILI that results from impairment of bile acid transporters, such as the bile salt export pump (BSEP), leading to accumulation of bile acids. Both in vitro and in vivo studies are required to predict the risk of drug-induced cholestasis. In the present study, we used chimeric mice with humanized liver as a model to study drug-induced cholestasis. Administration of a single dose of ketoconazole or rifampicin, known to potentially cause cholestasis by inhibiting BSEP, did not result in elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which are known hepatic biomarkers. The concentration of taurodeoxycholic acid increased in the liver after ketoconazole administration, whereas rifampicin resulted in increased tauromuricholic acid and taurocholic acid (TCA) levels in the liver and plasma. Furthermore, rifampicin resulted in an increase in the uniform distribution of a compound with m/z 514.3, presumed as TCA through imaging mass spectrometry. The mRNA levels of bile acid-related genes were also altered after treatment with ketoconazole or rifampicin. We believe these observations to be a part of a feedback mechanism to decrease bile acid concentrations. The changes in bile acid concentrations results may reflect the initial responses of the human body to cholestasis. Furthermore, these findings may contribute to the screening of drug candidates, thereby avoiding drug-induced cholestasis during clinical trials and drug development.

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  • Masafumi Tanaka, Mariko Hasegawa, Natsumi Yoshimoto, Kozue Hoshikawa, ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1376-1383
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles that are formed in vivo adopt a disk-shaped structure, in which the periphery of the discoidal phospholipid bilayer is surrounded by apolipoprotein. Such discoidal nanoparticles can be reconstituted with certain apolipoproteins and phospholipids and are commonly called lipid nanodisks. Apolipoprotein E (apoE), one of the HDL constituent proteins, serves as a ligand for the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. Thus, it is considered that biocompatible delivery vehicles targeting LDL receptors could be prepared by incorporating apoE as the protein component of lipid nanodisks. To enhance targeting efficiency, we designed lipid nanodisks with a large number of ligands using a peptide with the LDL receptor-binding region of apoE combined with a high lipid affinity sequence (LpA peptide). In our study, the LpA peptide spontaneously formed discoidal complexes (LpA nanodisks) of approximately 10 nm in size, equivalent to native HDL. LpA peptides on nanodisks adopted highly α-helical structures, a competent conformation capable of interacting with LDL receptors. As anticipated, the uptake of LpA nanodisks into LDL receptor-expressing cells (HepG2) was higher than that of apoE nanodisks, suggesting an enhanced targeting efficiency via the enrichment of LDL receptor-binding regions on the particle. Biodistribution studies using 111In-labeled LpA nanodisks showed little splenic accumulation and prolonged retention in blood circulation, reflecting the biocompatibility of LpA nanodisks. High accumulation of 111In-labeled LpA nanodisks was observed in the liver as well as in implanted tumors, which abundantly express LDL receptors. Thus, LpA nanodisks are potential biocompatible delivery vehicles targeting LDL receptors.

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    Editor’s picks

    Reconstituted discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles are called lipid nanodisks, which can be developed for biocompatible delivery vehicles. The article by Tanaka et al. designed lipid nanodisks using a peptide (LpA peptide) with the LDL receptor-binding region of apolipoprotein E (apoE). Discoidal LpA nanodisks of approximately 10 nm in size were successfully prepared. In addition, the uptake of LpA nanodisks was higher than that of apoE nanodisks especially under the condition where the expression of LDL receptor was increased (LPDS) compared with the normal condition (FBS). Thus, LpA nanodisks are potential biocompatible delivery vehicles targeting LDL receptors.




  • Hang Thi Nguyet Pham, Sinh Viet Phan, Hong Nguyen Tran, Xuyen Thi Phi, ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1384-1393
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    We previously demonstrated that Bacopa monnier (L.) WETTST. extract (BME) ameliorated cognitive dysfunction in animal models of dementia by enhancing synaptic plasticity-related signaling in the hippocampus and protecting cholinergic neurons in the medial septum. To further clarify the pharmacological features and availability of BME as a novel anti-dementia agent, we investigated whether BME affects neuronal repair using a mouse model of trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neuronal loss/self-repair in the hippocampus. Mice pretreated with TMT (2.8 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) on day 0 were given BME (50 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) once daily for 15–30 d. Cognitive performance of the animals was elucidated twice by the object location test and modified Y maze test on days 17–20 (Phase I) and days 32–35 (Phase II) or by the passive avoidance test on Phase II. TMT impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial working memory and amygdala-dependent fear-motivated memory. The administration of BME significantly prevented TMT-induced cognitive deficits. The protective effects of BME on the spatial memory deficits were confirmed by Nissl staining of hippocampal tissues and propidium iodide staining of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Immunohistochemical studies conducted on days 17 and 32 revealed that thirty days of treatment with BME increased the number of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-immunopositive cells in the dentate gyrus region of TMT-treated mice, whereas fifteen days of treatment with BME had no effect. These results suggest that BME ameliorates TMT-induced cognition dysfunction mainly via protecting the hippocampal neurons from TMT-induced hippocampal lesions and partly via promoting neuroregeneration in the dentate gyrus regions.

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  • Mutsumi Oshima, Takahiro Seki, Yuki Kurauchi, Akinori Hisatsune, Hiros ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1394-1401
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    Autophagy-lysosome proteolysis is involved in protein quality control and classified into macroautophagy (MA), microautophagy (mA) and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), by the routes of substrate delivery to lysosomes. Both autophagy-lysosome proteolysis and exosome release are strongly associated with membrane trafficking. In the present study, we investigated how chemical and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated activation and inhibition of these autophagic pathways affect exosome release in AD293 cells. Activation of MA and mA by rapamycin and activation of CMA by mycophenolic acid significantly decreased exosome release. Although lysosomal inhibitors, NH4Cl and bafilomycin A1, significantly increased exosome release, a MA inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, did not affect. Exosome release was significantly increased by the siRNA-mediated knockdown of LAMP2A, which is crucial for CMA. Inversely, activity of CMA/mA was significantly increased by the prevention of exosome release, which was induced by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rab27a. These findings indicate that CMA/mA and exosome release are reciprocally regulated. This regulation would be the molecular basis of extracellular release and propagation of misfolded proteins in various neurodegenerative diseases.

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  • Keiko Unno, Shigenori Noda, Hirohiko Nii, Yohei Kawasaki, Kazuaki Iguc ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1402-1408
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    Beta-cryptoxanthin (β-CRX, (3R)-β, β-caroten-3-ol) is an oxygenated carotenoid and a potent antioxidant that is abundant in Satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu MARC.), which is the most popular fruit in Japan. Since our preliminary data suggested that the ingestion of β-CRX had an anti-stress effect in female participants, the effect was evaluated in another set of female participants. The study design was a double-blind group comparison and participants (n = 23) were randomly assigned to β-CRX-rich orange juice or placebo (β-CRX was removed from orange juice) groups. β-CRX or placebo juice (125 mL, after breakfast) were consumed from 1 week prior to pharmacy practice and continued for 5 d into the practice period. Salivary α-amylase activity (sAA), a marker of sympathetic nervous system activity, was significantly higher in the evening than in the morning in the placebo-group during pharmacy practice, but not in the β-CRX-group. This result supports the anti-stress effect of β-CRX. The dose-dependency of β-CRX was observed in male mice that were loaded with stress. These results indicate that the ingestion of β-CRX is helpful to reduce stress.

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Notes
  • Kaoru Hirose, Masanaho Sasatsu, Tatsunori Toraishi, Hiraku Onishi
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1409-1414
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    In the present study, a novel wound dressing made of xyloglucan (Xyl)–sucrose (Suc) hydrogel was developed for the treatment of deep wounds including pressure ulcers. The dressing was prepared by casing an aqueous solution of Xyl and sugar and then warming, and a hydrogel sheet was obtained. The in vitro characteristics of these sheets, such as their strength, extensibility, water content, adhesion potential, and water absorption, were examined. The strength, Young’s modulus, and adhesion strength of the sheets were greater when they had a lower water content. Furthermore, adhesion and gradual water absorbability were similar to those of commercial dressings. These in vitro features suggest that Xyl sheets possess the physicochemical properties required for wound dressings. In the in vivo experiment, a Xyl sheet made from a mixture of 3.0% (w/v) Xyl solution and 33.3% (w/w) Suc, which displayed moderate strength and water content, was selected and compared with gauze, commercial polyurethane film, and Xyl/Suc (1 : 2) hydrogel using a rat deep wound model caused by serious frostbite. Wound healing rates based on reductions in wound areas were the best in the order of the sheet > hydrogel > commercial film > gauze. The sheet resulted in better wound surface states than the other preparations by improving the conditions. Thus, the potential applicability of Xyl sheets to the treatment of deep wounds was demonstrated.

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  • Satoshi Muneoka, Megumi Goto, Tomonari Nishimura, Kei Enomoto, Kumiko ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1415-1418
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/06/04
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    The protective effects of G protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis in mice was examined. In a dose dependent manner and at 24 h after the elicitation by Con A, oral administration of TC-G 1008, a GPR39 agonist, reduced both, the glutamic-pyruvic transaminase levels (a marker for liver injury) and the necrosis area, as revealed by the histological analysis of tissues from mice with Con A-induced hepatitis. TC-G 1008 also suppressed serum interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α significantly at 6 h after the elicitation, suggesting that the cells producing IL-6 and/or TNF-α are the targets of TC-G 1008. One potential target cell appears to be a monocyte-derived macrophages because TC-G 1008 treatment suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6 production from U937 macrophages in vitro. Taken together, GPR39 agonist TC-G 1008 ameliorates liver injury in the Con A model by blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Use of GPR39 agonists for monotherapy or in combination with immunosuppressants might prove to be beneficial in the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis.

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  • Kenji Goto, Keiichi Hiramoto, Kazuya Ooi
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1419-1422
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    The pathogenic relationship of ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis is not known. Therefore, we examined dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis separately and in combination with a mouse arthritis model that mimics rheumatoid arthritis and evaluated the deterioration-related factors of each condition. Arthritis was induced in a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model using DBA/1JJmsSlc mice and ulcerative colitis was induced by the administration of drinking water containing 3.0% (w/v) DSS. The arthritis/DSS-treated mice developed worse colitis scores compared to that of the other groups of mice. The arthritis/DSS-treated mice did not demonstrate changes in hind foot volumes or in the concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in the plasma; however, plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were increased. Our results showed that IL-6 and TNF-α may influence the deterioration effect of colitis in arthritic mice.

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  • Yuko Kuroda, Kazuaki Taguchi, Yuki Enoki, Kazuaki Matsumoto, Seiji Hor ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1423-1427
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    Age is known as one of influencing factor for theophylline (TP)-metabolizing capacity. In a previous our study, the ratio of TP and its major metabolite 1,3-dimethyluric acid (DMU) in serum (DMU/TP) is a useful index to estimate TP-metabolizing capacity, and this value markedly increased by influencing factor, such as the history of smoking. However, it is unknown whether DMU/TP values in serum reflect age-associated changes of TP-metabolizing capacity. In this study, the effect of age on the DMU/TP values in serum were investigated using mice of different age due to the limited blood sampling in human. The concentrations of TP and its metabolites in mouse serum were simultaneously measured using HPLC. As observed in human serum, serum TP concentrations were closely correlated with DMU concentration in mice, which indicates that the DMU/TP ratio is a good indicator of TP metabolic ability in mice. When TP was administered subcutaneously in 2–28-week-old mice, age-associated changes in the DMU/TP ratio in mice were observed. In conclusion, age-associated changes in TP-metabolizing capacity can be estimated by the DMU/TP ratio in serum.

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  • Misato Moriguchi, Tadashi Watanabe, Masahiro Fujimuro
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1428-1432
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and aggressive B-lymphoma caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) infection that occurs in immunocompromised patients. PEL patients have a poor prognosis. KSHV modulates various cellular signaling pathways to maintain latent infection, and causes malignant conversion of host cells. We previously reported that capsaicin suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and induced apoptosis in PEL. Generally, cellular stress such as nutrient starvation, oxidation and virus infection induce CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) expression by activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), however endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces CHOP expression by both ATF4 and ATF6. CHOP is associated with apoptosis induction and upregulates growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34) and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) mRNA expression. In this study, we found a new mechanism in which capsaicin induces apoptosis via ATF4-CHOP-PUMA. Capsaicin promoted transcriptional activation of CHOP, which increased mRNA expression of GADD34 and PUMA, resulting in PEL apoptosis. Furthermore, capsaicin increased ATF4 protein levels by promoting ATF4 translation, not transcription, and had no effect on ATF6-dependent transcriptional activation. In sum, capsaicin promotes ATF4 translation and transcriptional induction of CHOP, which results in PUMA expression and apoptosis in PEL cells.

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  • Hitoki Sasase, Shoma Izumi, Satoshi Deyama, Eiichi Hinoi, Katsuyuki Ka ...
    2019 年 42 巻 8 号 p. 1433-1436
    発行日: 2019/08/01
    公開日: 2019/08/01
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    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays critical roles in the development of cocaine addiction. Numerous studies have reported about the effects of cocaine on neuronal and synaptic activities in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area, which are brain regions associated with cocaine addiction; however, a limited number of studies have reported the effect of cocaine on mPFC neuronal activity. In this study, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices, we present that under the condition where synaptic transmission is enhanced by increasing extracellular K+ concentration, cocaine significantly reduced the frequency but not amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. These findings suggest that cocaine exposure could be a trigger to induce hypofrontality, which is related to the compulsive craving for cocaine use.

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