Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Online ISSN : 1347-5215
Print ISSN : 0918-6158
ISSN-L : 0918-6158
40 巻 , 11 号
選択された号の論文の28件中1~28を表示しています
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Regular Articles
  • Zhen Wang, Chao Yu, Li-na Zhou, Xin Chen
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1833-1838
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/09/01
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    Although some new drugs have been developed, Tripterygium wilfordii HOOK F. (TWHF) has the merits of relatively lower price and fewer side effects. Unfortunately, the efficacy and safety of the TWHF (especially dosage 120 mg/d) in the immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) are still lacking. A cohort study including 49 IgAN patients with heavy proteinuria who received induction therapy was undertaken. Patients were divided into three groups: Prednisone (PRE), conventional-dose TWHF (CTW) and double-dose TWHF (DTW). The clinical features, laboratory data, histological manifestations and outcomes of the groups were compared. We found that urinary protein excretion and rates of elevated n-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and retinol binding protein (RBP) were prominent in all groups. Neither histopathological changes nor the rates of renal insufficiency were significantly different among groups. Patients in the PRE (69.2%) and DTW groups (87.5%) achieved complete remission; none of the CTW group did. Furthermore, the total remission rate of the DTW group was substantially higher than that of the CTW group. The degree of hypoproteinemia, improved considerably in the PRE and DTW groups. Treatment was well tolerated in all patients, and no serious adverse events were observed. Our findings suggested that induction therapy with double dose TWHF significantly improved response rates in IgAN patients with heavy proteinuria, and did not considerably increase side effects.

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  • Zhong Xian, Yan Liu, Wenjuan Xu, Feipeng Duan, Zhonghui Guo, Hongbin X ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1839-1845
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Polygonum multiflorum is widely used in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia in traditional Chinese Medicine. In this study, the effects and relevant mechanisms of lipid-regulation by raw Polygonum multiflorum (RPM) were investigated. The results indicated that the basal plasma lipids, such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG), were significantly decreased in RPM treatment groups compared with the model group, especially in the RPM high dose group. The key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in plasma were generally reduced after oral administration, which was consistent with the transcription levels of their target genes. In addition, the hepatotoxicity of RPM was investigated, and RPM showed slightly less liver injury than that induced by simvastatin. Histological analysis indicated that the fat vacuoles and steatosis in hepatocytes were relieved after oral administration of RPM extract at a high dose of 16.2 g/kg, which was more obvious than that induced by simvastatin. These results revealed that RPM exerted its lipid-lowering effect by regulating the expression of related genes, and performed better than simvastatin in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

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  • Hye Won Kang, Won-Chul Lim, Jin-Kyu Lee, Jin-Nyoung Ho, Eun-Jeong Lim, ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1846-1855
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    This study aimed to examine the anti-diabetic effect of germinated waxy black rice (GWBR) using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, GWBR supplementation for 8 weeks reduced plasma blood glucose concentrations, improved glucose clearance and prevented diabetes-induced weight loss. Rats with STZ-induced diabetes who received GWBR supplementation exhibited decreased expression of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 genes and proteins in the small intestine via decreases in hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1α, HNF-1β, and HNF-4α, transcriptional factors that are involved in the regulation of SGLT1 and GLUT2, compared with the rats with STZ-induced diabetes that did not receive GWBR supplements. GWBR supplementation also enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and the genes and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation, such as insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), and increased the phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB, Akt) proteins in skeletal muscle. GWBR further increased glycogen synthase (GS) 1 by decreasing glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, GWBR recovered STZ-impaired pancreatic β-cells, resulting in increased insulin synthesis and secretion. In addition, GWBR reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate transferase and alanine transferase concentrations and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Taken together, these findings suggest that GWBR could be a candidate for improving the diabetic condition by regulating glucose uptake in the intestine and muscle and regulating the secretion of insulin from the pancreas.

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  • Na-Hyun Kim, Jeong-Doo Heo, Jung-Rae Rho, Min Hye Yang, Eun Ju Jeong
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1856-1865
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Halophyte Limonium tetragonum has recently been of interest in Korea for its nutritional value and salty taste which made it an ideal vegetable. In this study, the potential of L. tetragonum preventing excess weight gain, obesity and the related health problem has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The treatment with 100 mg/kg of L. tetragonum EtOAc soluble fraction (EALT) apparently prevented the body weight gain, adipose tissue weight gain, and the increase of triglyceride and total cholesterol level in mice fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. In addition, both glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in dietary obese mice were improved by EALT administration. A marked decrease in adipocyte differentiation was observed in the EALT (50 µg/mL)-treated 3T3-L1 cells, which was mediated by the suppression of adipogenesis-related transcription factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α, and Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and adipocyte-specific proteins such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2). The major components contained in EALT were identified as (−)-epigallocatechin-3-(3″-O-methyl) gallate, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and myricetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside based on its phytochemical analysis. Results suggested that EALT might be available as functional crop and bioactive diet supplement for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity.

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  • Licht Miyamoto, Megumi Yamane, Yosuke Tomida, Mai Kono, Tomomi Yamaoka ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1866-1872
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Recent studies have shown that orally supplied nitrates, which substantially exist in our daily diets, are reduced into nitrites and become significant sources of nitric oxide (NO) especially in hypoxic tissues. However, physiological significance of nitrites in normal tissues has not been elucidated though our serum concentrations of nitrites reach as high as micromolar levels. We investigated effects of nitrite on endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) using human glomerular endothelial cells to reveal potential glomerular-protective actions of nitrites with its underlying molecular mechanism. Here we demonstrate that nitrite stimulation evokes eNOS activation which is dependent on 5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in accordance with ATP reduction. Thus, nitrites should facilitate AMPK–eNOS pathway in an energy level-dependent manner in endothelial cells. The activation of AMPK–eNOS signals is suggested to be involved in vascular and renal protective effects of nitrites and nitrates. Nitrites may harbor beneficial effects on metabolic regulations as AMPK activators.

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  • Hyung Joo Suh, Byungsoo Shin, Sung-Hee Han, Moon Jea Woo, Ki-Bae Hong
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1873-1882
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    In this study, we used Drosophila as a model species to examine the effects of vitamin or energy-drink and theses ingredients on behavioral activity, life-span, and survivorship. Behavioral assays were performed to analyze total activity during the subjective daytime and nighttime and the lifespan assay was performed to investigate the influence of the drink ingredients. Quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme activity analyses were applied to analyze the mutual relationship of neural pathways and anti-oxidant activities. Caffeine and taurine treatments resulted in significant differences between the control and ascorbic acid groups with respect to subjective daytime and nighttime activity (p<0.05). Additionally, the lifespan and survival on individual flies significantly decreased with 1.6% taurine, and 0.025 and 0.05% caffeine treatment compared to the normal group (p<0.05). These results are related to the transcript levels of neuromodulator (p<0.05). In addition, ascorbic acid treatments significantly increased the activity of antioxidant-related enzymes (p<0.05). We successfully demonstrated that 0.5 and 1.0% ascorbic acid increases the lifespan of fruit flies to a greater extent than 1.6% taurine, and 0.025 and 0.05% caffeine, and that this effect is driven by changes in gene expression and the activity of oxidative stress-related enzyme. In summary, these findings support the use of ascorbic acid as a drink ingredient to enhance body function. Use of the fruit fly in combination with behavior activities and biological processes is recommended for validating the effects of functional substances used by the drink and food industry.

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  • Dalia Hussein Soliman, Wagdy Mohamed Eldehna, Hazem Ahmed Ghabbour, Ma ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1883-1893
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    In our ongoing efforts to develop potent antitubercular agents based on the 6-phenylnicotinohydrazide, herein we report the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of three sets of 6-phenylnicotinohydrazide derivatives 8ag, 12 and 16a, b. The designed compounds were synthesized and in vitro evaluated for their antitubercular activity. In addition, their antifungal and antibacterial activities were evaluated as well. The nicotinohydrazide class displayed different levels of antimicrobial activity and possessed a distinctive pattern of selectivity against the tested microorganisms. However, the 2,6-dichlorobenzylidene counterpart 8b emerged as the most active one in this study, with superior antimycobacterial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=3.90 µg/mL) and potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities with MIC range of 0.24–1.95 µg/mL. The structure–activity relationship for such nicotinohydrazides has been established. Further, the cytotoxicity of the most active antitubercular compounds 8b, d and g were tested against the normal breast cells WI-38; none of them displayed significant cytotoxic effect, thereby providing a good therapeutic index.

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  • Hwi-Ho Lee, Suel-Gie Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Ho-Young Lee, Kyungwon Yoon, Yo ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1894-1902
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Previously, we first reported the identification of four p-coumaroyl anthocyanins (petanin, peonanin, malvanin, and pelanin) from the tuber epidermis of colored potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv JAYOUNG). In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of a mixture of peonanin, malvanin, and pelanin (10 : 3 : 3; CAJY). CAJY displayed considerable radical scavenging capacity of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), increased mRNA levels of the catalytic and modulatory subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase, and subsequent cellular glutathione content. These increases preceded the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. CAJY inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a concentration-dependent manner at the protein, mRNA, and promoter activity levels. These inhibitions caused attendant decreases in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). CAJY suppressed the production and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. Molecular data revealed that CAJY inhibited the transcriptional activity and translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT3. Taken together, these results suggest that the anthocyanin mixture exerts anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages, at least in part by reducing ROS production and inactivating NF-κB and STAT 1/3.

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  • Eisei Hori, Chigusa Kikuchi, Chie Nagami, Junko Kajikuri, Takeo Itoh, ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1903-1908
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/08/22
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    A complication of diabetes mellitus is the over-production of vascular superoxides, which contribute to the development of arteriosclerosis and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Hyperglycemia induces the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which in turn stimulate vascular superoxide production. The mechanism underlying AGE-mediated vascular superoxide production remains to be clarified in lower limb complications associated with diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the role of AGEs and the mitochondrial respiratory complex in superoxide production in femoral arteries using the type 2 diabetes model Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats [vs. non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats]. The effects of in vivo administration of pravastatin on superoxide production in femoral arteries were also examined. Using chemiluminescent assays, luminescence microscopy, and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we determined that vascular superoxide production and serum glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGEs) increased in OLETF rats. Pravastatin inhibited these responses without changing serum total cholesterol concentrations. The mitochondrial complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) also inhibited vascular superoxide production. Application of Glycer-AGEs in situ increased superoxide production in the vascular wall of femoral arteries from pravastatin-treated OLETF rats, which was then inhibited by TTFA. These results suggest that hyperglycemia increases serum Glycer-AGEs, which subsequently induce superoxide production in the femoral artery of OLETF rats in a mitochondrial complex II-dependent manner. Collectively, our results have partially elucidated the pathological mechanisms leading to diabetes-related PAD, and indicate dual beneficial actions of pravastatin for the prevention of oxidative damage to the vascular wall.

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  • Hiroyuki Okazaki, Shuso Takeda, Kazuhiro Kakizoe, Aya Taniguchi, Miki ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1909-1916
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Bisphenols are endocrine disruptors that are widely found in the environment. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests an adverse interaction between bisphenols and estrogen signaling. Most studies have performed experiments that focused on estrogen receptor (ER) engagement by bisphenols. Therefore, the effects of bisphenols on the expression of ERα (ESR1) and ERβ (ESR2) remain largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of four bisphenols: bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol AF (BPAF), on estrogen signaling in two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and SK-BR-3). Among these bisphenols, BPAF up-regulated the expression of ERβ, and this was coupled with the abrogation of estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated transcriptional activities as well as the down-regulation of Cdc2 expression in MCF-7 cells, without influencing the expression of ERα. BPAF functioned as an agonist of ERα at lower concentrations (nanomolar order), but did not exhibit any modulatory action on ERα transiently expressed in SK-BR-3 cells in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol (E2) at higher concentrations (micromolar order). The introduction of ERβ cDNA resulted in greater reductions in MCF-7 cell viability than with BPAF alone. Since ERβ is a suppressive molecule of ERα function, these results provide rational evidence for BPAF functioning as an anti-estrogenic compound via the induction of ERβ at higher concentrations.

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  • Yuichi Tsuda, Kaori Iwasawa, Minehiko Yokoyama, Makoto Yamaguchi
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1917-1922
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    It was reported that trypsin-treated β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) had a glucose-lowering effect in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in mice and a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition activity in vitro. However, whether trypsin-treated β-LG improves glucose tolerance by inhibiting DPP-4 in vivo has not yet been examined, and the mechanism of the glucose-lowering effect of trypsin-treated β-LG is thus unclear. Here we investigated the detailed mechanism underlying the glucose tolerance effect of trypsin-treated β-LG. The oral administration of trypsin-treated β-LG significantly decreased the blood glucose concentrations in both the OGTT and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). However, trypsin-treated β-LG did not increase the insulin secretion after glucose loading. Trypsin-treated β-LG potently increased the level of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and in mice hepatocytes. Moreover, trypsin-treated β-LG significantly enhanced glucose uptake into the HepG2 cells. These results indicate that trypsin-treated β-LG decreases blood glucose levels after glucose loading by upregulating AMPK activation and glucose uptake in the liver, which could contribute to the reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia.

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  • Valeria Cavallaro, Eva Řezníčková, Radek Jorda, Natalia Paola Alza, An ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1923-1928
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    A collection of sixteen semisynthetic 17-hydroxycativic acid esters with alcohols containing a tertiary amine group was evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and for their effects on the cell cycle and cell death. While 17-hydroxycativic acid itself is not cytotoxic, all the esters displayed cytotoxic activity, with 50% growth inhibition (GI50) values ranging between 3.2 and 23.1 µM. In general, the most potent compounds in both cell lines were esters with four carbon long alcohol residues. There was no clear relationship between the identity of the terminal secondary amine and the activity of the compound. Experiments using the 6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentyl ester, 2c, revealed that this compound activates caspases-3/7 and causes poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1) fragmentation in THP-1 and U937 cells, indicating the induction of apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that further investigation into the anticancer activity of diterpene derivatives and other labdane diterpenes may be fruitful.

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  • Takanori Kanazawa, Kuniko Tamano, Kana Sogabe, Takahiro Endo, Hisako I ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1929-1933
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are expected to offer a means of treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because they allow the specific silencing of genes related to RA pathogenesis. In our previous study, we reported that the siRNA targeted against RelA (anti-RelA siRNA), an important nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) subdomain, was an effective therapeutic in atopic dermatitis and RA model animals. In this study, to develop an intra-articular injectable gel formulation against RA, we prepared a hydrogel that contains anti-RelA siRNA, and determined the in vitro release profile (%) and in vivo intra-articular retention of fluorescence-labeled model siRNA, and the anti-arthritic effects of the anti-RelA siRelA containing hydrogel in RA model mice. We selected the silk protein, sericin (SC), as an aqueous gel base, as it is a biocompatible and useful for forming hydrogels without a cross-linker. We showed that fluorescence-labeled model siRNA was continuously released from SC hydrogel in vitro, and retained in the knee joint of rats after injection of siRNA hydrogel. In addition, the knee joint thickness, clinical severity and incidence (%) in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice as RA model treated with anti-RelA siRNA containing hydrogel were more improved than untreated, anti-RelA siRNA solution and negative control siRNA containing hydrogel group. Therefore, the intra-articular injectable sericin hydrogel formulation containing of anti-RelA siRNA could be a great potential therapeutic in rheumatoid arthritis.

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  • Junkichi Kanda, Nobuo Izumo, Yoshiko Kobayashi, Kenji Onodera, Taketos ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1934-1940
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is accompanied by reduced bone mass that is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. Although phenytoin has been reported to adversely influence bone metabolism, little is known pertaining to more recent AEDs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gabapentin or levetiracetam on bone strength, bone mass, and bone turnover in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered phenytoin (20 mg/kg), gabapentin (30 or 150 mg/kg), or levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) daily for 12 weeks. Bone histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was performed and femoral bone strength was evaluated using a three-point bending method. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur and tibia was measured using quantitative computed tomography. Administration of phenytoin significantly decreased bone strength and BMD, which was associated with enhanced bone resorption. In contrast, treatment with gabapentin (150 mg/kg) significantly decreased bone volume and increased trabecular separation, as shown by bone histomorphometric analysis. Moreover, the bone formation parameters, osteoid volume and mineralizing surface, decreased after gabapentin treatment, whereas the bone resorption parameters, osteoclast surface and number, increased. Levetiracetam treatment did not affect bone strength, bone mass, and bone turnover. Our data suggested that gabapentin induced the rarefaction of cancellous bone, which was associated with decreased bone formation and enhanced bone resorption, and may affect bone strength and BMD after chronic exposure. To prevent the risk of bone fractures, patients prescribed a long-term administration of gabapentin should be regularly monitored for changes in bone mass.

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  • Katsunori Takahashi, Haruhisa Kikuchi, Van Hai Nguyen, Yoshiteru Oshim ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1941-1947
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Differentiation-inducing factor-3 (DIF-3; 1-(3-chloro-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)hexan-1-one), which is found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, is a potential candidate compound for the development of new medicines; DIF-3 and its derivatives possess several beneficial biological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, and immunoregulatory effects. To assess the relationship between the biological activities of DIF-3 and its chemical structure, particularly in regard to its alkoxy group and the length of the alkyl chains at the acyl group, we synthesized two derivatives of DIF-3, 1-(3-chloro-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)octan-1-one (DIF-3(+3)) and 1-(3-chloro-2,6-dihydroxy-4-butoxyphenyl)-hexan-1-one (Hex-DIF-3), and investigated their biological activities in vitro. At micro-molar levels, DIF-3(+3) and Hex-DIF-3 exhibited strong anti-proliferative effects in tumor cell cultures, but their anti-T. cruzi activities at 1 µM in vitro were not as strong as those of other known DIF derivatives. In addition, Hex-DIF-3 at 5 µM significantly suppressed mitogen-induced interleukin-2 production in vitro in Jurkat T cells. These results suggest that DIF-3(+3) and Hex-DIF-3 are promising leads for the development of anti-cancer and immunosuppressive agents.

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  • Akira Okada, Keizo Fukushima, Mai Fujita, Mana Nakanishi, Mami Hamori, ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1948-1955
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Cisplatin (CDDP)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major clinical concern. CDDP treatment is generally conducted with multiple cycles; the magnitude of the CDDP-induced AKI may be altered by these cycles. Moreover, sub-chronic kidney injury (sCKI) induced by repeated CDDP treatment is often associated with renal interstitial fibrosis, potentially leading to chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is suggested that the management of not only AKI but also sCKI induced by CDDP in multiple cycles plays an important role in the outcome of CDDP-based chemotherapy. This study investigated the alteration in pharmacokinetics and toxicodynamics of CDDP that was repeatedly administered for three cycles in rats; a cycle consisted of CDDP (5.0 mg/kg, bolus injection) followed by a 21-d washout period. AKI and sCKI were evaluated by plasma creatinine concentration. In repeated multiple administration of CDDP, renal clearance was decreased and the amounts of accumulated Pt in kidneys increased by the cycle. AKI and sCKI were similarly exacerbated by the cycle, whereas the degree of AKI showed a large inter- and intra-individual variation in each cycle. However, the degree of sCKI constantly increased (creatinine increasing ratio in any cycle is about 150%), suggesting that the degree of sCKI in any given cycle was predictable by monitoring the initial creatinine baseline. In this study, therefore, it is suggested that the evaluation of sCKI by monitoring creatinine concentration at base is important for the estimation of CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity. These results may provide useful information for more effective and safe CDDP-based chemotherapy with evidence-based dose adjustment.

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  • Makio Imamura, Daisuke Ogawa, Toshikazu Takatori, Maiko Yamaguchi, Tom ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1956-1962
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Specialist oncology pharmacists are being trained in Japan to assist cancer treatment teams. These specialized pharmacists address patients’ physical and mental problems in pharmacist-managed cancer care clinics, actively participate in formulating treatment policies, and are beneficial in offering qualitative improvements to patient services and team medical care. However, the effect of outpatient treatment by oncology pharmacists on therapeutic outcomes and medical costs is still unknown. A retroactive comparative analysis of the treatment details and clinical course was conducted among three groups of patients: patients who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy managed by a gynecologic oncologist only (S arm), patients managed by a non-oncologist (general practice gynecologist) only (NS arm), and patients managed by both a non-oncologist and a specialist oncology pharmacist (NS+Ph arm). The medical cost per course was significantly lower for patients in the NS+Ph arm than for those in the other two arms. Surprisingly, the outpatient treatment rate in the NS+Ph arm was overwhelmingly high. The involvement of an oncology pharmacist did not make a significant difference in therapeutic outcomes such as recurrence rate and survival. The participation of oncology pharmacists in the management of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy enables safe outpatient treatment and also reduces medical costs.

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  • Yoshihito Nakatani, Yuki Miyazaki, Shuntaro Hara
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1963-1967
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Cytosolic prostaglandin (PG) E synthase (cPGES/p23) plays a role in the biosynthesis of PGE2 and in the molecular chaperone machinery. Studies of knockout mice lacking cPGES/p23 have demonstrated that cPGES/p23 is essential in fetal mouse development. A cDNA microarray analysis revealed that a lack of cPGES/p23 decreases the expression of some immediate early genes, such as c-fos and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). Here we report the involvement of cPGES/p23 in c-Fos expression. A stable knockdown of cPGES/p23 in cultured fibroblasts not only reduced serum-induced c-Fos expression, but also decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). These results suggest that cPGES/p23 is involved in the activation of ERK to promote c-Fos expression.

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  • Yuki Takakura, Noritaka Yamaguchi, Takuya Honda, Mariko Morii, Ryuzabu ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1968-1975
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor-type tyrosine kinase that promotes cell growth upon stimulation with ligands such as midkine and pleiotrophin. Recently, a truncated isoform of ALK was identified in a variety of tumors. This isoform is expressed from a novel ALK transcript initiated from a de novo alternative transcription initiation (ATI) site in ALK intron 19 (referred to as ALKATI). ALKATI, which consists of only the intracellular kinase domain, localizes to the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm. However, its nuclear role is unknown. In this study, we determined that ALKATI promoted chromatin structural changes in the nucleus in a kinase activity-dependent manner. We found that expression of ALKATI increased the level of the heterochromatin marker Lys9 tri-methylated histone H3. In addition, we demonstrated that ALKATI phosphorylated the nuclear protein A-kinase anchoring protein 8 (AKAP8) and altered its subcellular localization from the insoluble fraction to the soluble fraction. These results suggest that ALKATI induces chromatin structural changes and heterochromatinization through phosphorylation of AKAP8 in the nucleus.

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    Editor’s picks

    Because tyrosine kinases mainly localize to the cytoplasm or the plasma membrane, most studies have focused on their roles in the cytoplasm. However, emerging evidence has revealed that tyrosine kinases also localize to the nucleus and regulate nuclear events, such as DNA damage responses, gene expression, and chromatin structural changes. In this paper, Takakura et al. showed that the truncated isoform of the receptor tyrosine kinase ALK (ALK ATI), which only has the intracellular kinase domain, regulates chromatin structural changes, heterochromatinization, and gene expression in the nucleus. This paper is the first report shedding light on the nuclear roles of ALK.

  • Ryo Iketani, Yohei Kawasaki, Hiroshi Yamada
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1976-1982
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    We performed a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis to determine atypical antipsychotics that are effective and safe for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (Ichu-shi Web). We used randomized controlled trials evaluating the utility of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of psychosis in PD using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Unified PD rating Scale parts III (UPDRS-III) as the endpoints. Posterior distributions of mean differences between each treatment and placebo were estimated using Bayesian network meta-analysis. The distributions describing each treatment effect were expressed as means (95% credible intervals). Ten trials involving any two treatment arms using clozapine (64 subjects in four trials), olanzapine (99 subjects in three trials), quetiapine (79 subjects in five trials), risperidone (five subjects in one trial), or placebo (156 subjects in seven trials) were finally included in the present study. Pooled estimates of each posterior distribution based on the BPRS were as follows: clozapine, −2.0 (−6.7 to 2.7); olanzapine, 0.5 (−2.3 to 3.4); quetiapine, 0.3 (−3.9 to 4.5); and risperidone, −4.7 (−57.4 to 53.3). Based on the UPDRS-III, the pooled estimates were clozapine, 0.7 (−3.8 to 4.3); olanzapine, 2.8 (0.8 to 5.1); quetiapine, 3.3 (−0.7 to 5.8); and risperidone, 4.5 (−57.7 to 63.4). Although clozapine had an effective and relatively safe profile, all atypical antipsychotics included in the present study may be unsafe, as they may worsen motor function when compared to placebo.

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  • Fumiya Shinohara, Hironori Kamii, Masabumi Minami, Katsuyuki Kaneda
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1983-1989
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    The expression phase of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) represents a cocaine-seeking behavior triggered by contextual cues associated with the rewarding effects of cocaine. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the cocaine CPP expression remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of dopaminergic (DAergic) transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for the expression of cocaine CPP. An intra-ventral tegmental area (VTA) injection of a cocktail of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B and GABAA receptor agonists (baclofen and muscimol, respectively) immediately before the posttest inhibited the expression of cocaine CPP. An intra-mPFC injection of a dopamine D1 but not D2 receptor antagonist before the posttest significantly attenuated CPP expression. Moreover, after the posttest, the number of cFos-positive mPFC neurons in rats that were conditioned with cocaine was significantly larger than that with saline. Additionally, photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2 expressing fibers derived from the VTA induced cFos expression in the mPFC, and this induction was reduced by a prior systemic injection of a D1 receptor antagonist. These findings indicate that during the expression of cocaine CPP, enhanced DAergic transmission from the VTA to the mPFC stimulates D1 receptors; this results in the activation of mPFC neurons, further leading to the expression of cocaine CPP.

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  • Congyun Jin, Yoshiaki Yao, Atsushi Yonezawa, Satoshi Imai, Hiroki Yosh ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1990-1995
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) plays a role in various biochemical oxidation-reduction reactions. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and FAD, the biologically active forms, are made from riboflavin. Riboflavin transporters (RFVTs), RFVT1-3/Slc52a1-3, have been identified. However, the roles of human (h)RFVTs in FMN and FAD homeostasis have not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we assessed the contribution of each hRFVT to riboflavin, FMN and FAD uptake and efflux using in vitro studies. The transfection of hRFVTs increased cellular riboflavin concentrations. The uptake of riboflavin by human embryonic kidney cells transfected with hRFVTs was significantly increased, and the efflux was accelerated in a time-dependent manner. However, the uptake and efflux of FMN and FAD hardly changed. These results strongly suggest that riboflavin, rather than FMN or FAD, passes through plasma membranes via hRFVTs. Our findings could suggest that hRFVTs are involved in riboflavin homeostasis in the cells, and that FMN and FAD concentrations are regulated by riboflavin kinase and FAD synthase.

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  • Hongyu Zhang, Kai Zhang, Zhe Li, Jihui Zhao, Yongtai Zhang, Nianping F ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 1996-2000
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    In this study, the skin permeation of liposomes containing psoralen was investigated by in vivo skin microdialysis. Psoralen-loaded nano-sized liposomes were prepared with a mean size of 117.5 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.21, indicating the uniform dispersion of phosphatidylcholine vesicles in the liposomal solution. Based on in vivo microdialysis experiments, the drug concentration in local deep skin of rat increased rapidly and reached a peak concentration (Cmax) of 319.35±23.72 µg/mL at 180 min, and decreased slowly thereafter. The local area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)0–t was 3.81-fold higher than the compared aqueous suspension. The in vivo systemic pharmacokinetics were in agreement with the microdialysis results, in view of the Cmax and AUC0–t from liposomal group were both significantly higher (p<0.05) than the compared group. Liposome-associated transdermal psoralen delivery was significantly more effective than delivery via an aqueous suspension. The enhanced skin permeability may be associated with improved skin hydration, lipid exchange and fusion with the stratum corneum (SC), and changes in SC structure, promoting drug permeation into deep skin. After 10 h of treatment with the perfusate, the microstructure of the microdialysis probe exhibited no obvious differences with control probes. The skin surface and the tissue around the probe showed no swelling or inflammation. These findings indicated that liposomes effectively enhanced the skin deposition of psoralen and showed good biocompatibility with skin tissues; additionally, ethanol at a low concentration in ringer’s solution is an alternative perfusate for in vivo skin microdialysis studies.

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  • Kunihiro Yokoyama, Yasuaki Tatsumi, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Hidemi Goto, Tet ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 2001-2004
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
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    In obese and diabetic patients, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels are often elevated and may play a causal role in insulin resistance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We have previously shown that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has antioxidative activity through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling-mediated glutathione production. In this study, we investigated the effects of UDCA on insulin response by analyzing intracellular ROS and the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cells treated with palmitate. The level of ROS was quantified using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA), and the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was determined by Western blotting assay using appropriate antibodies. The intracellular ROS levels were increased by palmitate but were reduced by treatment with UDCA and insulin. Furthermore, insulin significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt. When the cells were pre-treated with palmitate, insulin-induced Akt-phosphorylation was markedly inhibited. However, when the cells were treated with palmitate and UDCA, the effects of insulin were partially restored. UDCA may have protective effects against palmitate-induced decreases in responsiveness to insulin.

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  • Yuichiro Oda, Muneaki Hidaka, Akito Suzuki
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 2005-2009
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/08/31
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    Cisplatin is an anticancer agent and induces DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). ICLs activate various signaling processes and induce DNA repair pathways, including the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway. FA complementation group D2 (FANCD2) is monoubiquitinated in response to DNA damage, leading to activation of the DNA double-strand-break repair protein, RAD51. Caffeine increases the anticancer activity of cisplatin by inhibiting DNA repair; however, details of the mechanism remain unclear. We investigated the mechanism responsible for the synergistic anticancer effect of cisplatin and caffeine in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, focusing on the FA pathway. Caffeine (≥100 µg/mL) significantly enhanced the antiproliferative activity induced by 3.8 µg/mL cisplatin. Caffeine (200 µg/mL) promoted apoptosis and inhibited the increase in the proportion of viable cells in S phase that occurred in the presence of 3.8 µg/mL cisplatin. Both FANCD2 monoubiquitination and RAD51 expression were significantly inhibited by co-treatment with 200 µg/mL caffeine and 3.8 µg/mL cisplatin compared with cisplatin alone. In conclusion, caffeine enhances the anticancer effect of cisplatin by inhibiting FANCD2 monoubiquitination. In HepG2 cells, caffeine might inhibit the FA pathway and thereby regulate DNA damage responses such as DNA repair and apoptosis.

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  • Kohta Kurohane, Kota Sekiguchi, Erina Ogawa, Masato Tsutsumi, Yasuyuki ...
    2017 年 40 巻 11 号 p. 2010-2013
    発行日: 2017/11/01
    公開日: 2017/11/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/08/26
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    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a plasticizer used for many consumer products including cosmetics. Potential health concerns regarding DBP include reproductive and developmental toxicity, endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity. DBP is a high priority chemical as to reduction of exposure of children to it. Through reproductive toxicity studies, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) has been proposed to be the active metabolite derived from DBP. We previously demonstrated that DBP activates transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels expressed on sensory neurons. We have also shown that DBP enhanced skin sensitization in a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) mouse model. Through MBP formation by esterase in the skin, it is possible that MBP exerts a major effect on the biological activity we observed. To test this possibility, we directly compared DBP and MBP. A more than 40-fold higher concentration of MBP as compared with DBP was required for activation of TRPA1 in vitro. Unlike DBP, MBP did not enhance skin sensitization to FITC. These results demonstrated that DBP directly, i.e., not through its metabolite MBP, activates TRPA1 and enhances FITC-CHS. It is noteworthy that butyl benzoate, a related compound, activated TRPA1 and enhanced FITC-CHS.

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