Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Online ISSN : 1347-5215
Print ISSN : 0918-6158
ISSN-L : 0918-6158
37 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の24件中1~24を表示しています
Review
  • Yuichi Sekine
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 185-194
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 (STAP-2) is a recently identified adaptor protein that contains a pleckstrin homology (PH), Src homology 2 (SH2)-like domains, and proline-rich regions in its C-terminal. STAP-2 belongs to a family of STAP adaptor proteins and plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways by interacting with signaling or transcriptional molecules. STAP-2, in particular, regulates both the innate and adaptive immune systems. STAP-2 functionally interacts with signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and STAT5 in cytokine signaling pathways. In addition, STAP-2 also binds to myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and inhibitor (I)κB kinase α/β (IKK-α/β) in Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) signaling, and enhances the production of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. More importantly, experiments using STAP-2 deficient mice show that STAP-2 modulates several T-cell functions such as cell motility, survival and death. It is also reported that STAP-2 controls the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy response. This accumulated evidence indicates that adaptor protein STAP-2 is an important modulator of both the innate and adaptive immune systems.
Cureent Topics
  • Kentaro Kogure
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 195
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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  • Susumu Hama, Kentaro Kogure
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 196-200
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Tumor heterogeneity hampers the clinical efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a multifaceted, rational treatment strategy with the potential to modulate overall tumor heterogeneity. Since combination therapy using several drugs has been shown to have enhanced therapeutic effects compared with monotherapy, combining agents with different antitumor effects would be a multifaceted form of therapy to overcome tumor heterogeneity. Therefore, the development of effective drug-delivery system (DDS) carriers for combination therapy is required. The ideal DDS carrier for combination therapy should itself have antitumor activity in addition to the ability to deliver drugs to tumors. α-Tocopheryl succinate (TS), a succinic acid ester of α-tocopherol, has attracted attention as a unique antitumor agent, and TS itself can form nanoparticles. In this review, we introduce nanoparticles consisting of TS as a novel DDS carrier with multifaceted antitumor effects for combination therapy.
  • Tomohiro Asai, Naoto Oku
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 201-205
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Gene silencing mediated by RNA interference (RNAi) is expected to have a beneficial impact on the treatment of many diseases because of its potency, selectivity and versatility. To maximize the potential of RNAi effectors such as small interfering RNA and microRNA in clinical therapy, the development of a practical delivery system is required, especially for systemic administration. Recent studies demonstrated that chemical modification of these small RNAs and/or encapsulation of them into lipid nanoparticles is a promising strategy to achieve targeted delivery via systemic administration. In this review article, we introduce recent progress of the research on systemic delivery systems for RNAi therapeutics and consider crucial elements for the design of lipid nanoparticles as a small RNA vector.
  • Amr Selim Abu Lila, Hiroshi Kiwada, Tatsuhiro Ishida
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 206-211
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Oxaliplatin (trans-l-diaminocyclohexane oxalatoplatinum; l-OHP), a third-generation platinum antitumor drug, is currently approved in combination with 5-flurouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin (FOLFOX) for standard first- and second-line treatment of metastatic or advanced-stage colorectal cancer. Despite l-OHP’s better tolerability in comparison with other platinum compounds such as cisplatin and carboplatin, its clinical efficiency is limited by the dose-limiting side effects including cumulative neurotoxicity and acute dysesthesias. In addition, like other platinum chemotherapeutic agents, l-OHP therapy is limited by reduced accumulation levels in tumor tissues, nonselective accumulation in healthy organs and/or tissues, inactivation by conjugation with glutathione, and the development of drug resistance. Accordingly, successful outcome of cancer treatment using l-OHP requires selective delivery of a relatively high concentration of the drug to tumor tissues. In this review we focus on utilization of different drug-delivery vehicles such as liposomes, polymeric nanocarriers, and carbon nanotubes in enhancing selective delivery of l-OHP to tumor tissues and consequently improving overall efficacy of l-OHP-containing drug-delivery systems.
  • Shintaro Fumoto, Shigeru Kawakami
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 212-216
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Drug delivery systems represent an important strategy for cancer treatment. The targeted delivery of drugs is required for effective and safe cancer therapy. In cancer therapy, the target cells include cancer cells and immunocompetent cells such as antigen presenting cells. Anticancer drugs utilized include small molecular drugs, proteins and nucleic acid medicines. In order to deliver these drugs into the target cells, various nanoparticles have been developed. However, the efficacy of the nanoparticulate system itself is generally insufficient for the safe and effective treatment of cancer. For example, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified (PEGylated) nanoparticles accumulate in cancerous tissues; however, the PEG moiety on the surface of the nanoparticles disturbs cellular uptake, which is known as the ‘PEG dilemma.’ Thus, additional strategies such as receptor-mediated targeting are necessary to improve the delivery and cellular uptake of nanoparticles. Among additional strategies, in this review we have focused on the combination of nanoparticles with various physical stimuli, such as electric pulse and ultrasound, to improve the targeted delivery of the nanoparticles.
Regular Articles
  • Shuwei Ma, Xingyan Liu, Qingrui Xun, Xiantao Zhang
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 217-225
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2013/11/12
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    Mitochondria and oxidative stress play important roles in neuronal cell death associated with cerebral ischemia. Elevated level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to be responsible for cerebral ischemia injury along with neural cells death through several apoptotic mechanisms. In this study, exposure of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at the concentration of 0.3 mM for 24 h caused significant loss of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from cells, ascent of ROS level and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decrease. Moreover, the activities of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 all were increased in H2O2-induced PC12 cells. However, pretreatment with ginkgolide K (GK) solutions of different concentrations (10, 50, 100 µM) for 24 h prior to exposuring to H2O2 significantly increased cells viability, suppressed LDH release, attenuated ROS level, prevented cytochrome c release from mitochondria and boosted MMP expression. In addition, ginkgolide K notably inhibited the caspase-3 and caspase-9 but not caspase-8 activities in exogenous H2O2-treated PC12 cells. These results demonstrated that ginkgolide K protected PC12 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis by restoring MMP expression, ameliorating oxidative stress and subsequently leading to inhibit the activity of caspase-3 protein. Therefore, the present study supported that ginkgolide K may be a promising neuroprotective compound for cerebral ischemia treatment.
  • Eiji Kose, Taesong An, Akihiko Kikkawa, Yoshiaki Matsumoto, Hiroyuki H ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 226-231
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Hyperuricemia and hyperlipidemia have attracted attention as progression factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the drug treatment of hyperuricemia and hyperlipidemia complications, Atorvastatin (ATV), which inhibits urinary protein, increases glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and has renal protective effects, and Rosuvastatin (ROS) were found be suitable because they promote serum uric acid (SUA) excretion. However, these drugs were administered at very high doses in previous studies. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ATV or ROS on renal protective effects and their SUA levels before and three months after each drug administration in CKD patients. We retrospectively investigated outpatients presenting with CKD (stages 3) on the basis of their electronic medical records as subjects. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was significantly increased after ATV administration, whereas no change in eGFR was observed following ROS administration. Furthermore, SUA levels significantly decreased after ATV administration, whereas no changes were observed following ROS administration. Therefore, it may be not necessary to administer drugs that lower the SUA levels to patients presenting with hyperuricemia and hyperlipidemia complications associated with moderate renal failure, such as patients with at least stage 3 CKD. We consider that, by selecting ATV, the renal protective effects and SUA-lowering effect would be sufficient.
  • Takako Yoshino Furukawa, Hiroe Nakayama, Katsunori Imazumi, Hisashi Ya ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 232-238
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    The antiemetic effect of a potent and selective neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, FK886 ([3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl][(2R)-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzyl)-4-{2-[(2S)-2-(methoxymethyl)morpholin-4-yl]ethyl}piperazin-1-yl]methanone dihydrochloride), on cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis in ferrets was studied. Intravenous administration of FK886 dose-dependently inhibited cisplatin (10 mg/kg)-induced acute emesis with a minimum effective dose (MED) of 0.32 mg/kg. In the same study, oral FK886 administered 8 h prior to cisplatin also dose-dependently inhibited the acute emesis during the 4-h observation period with an MED of 3.2 mg/kg. Further, when given by repeated oral administration of ≥1.6 mg/kg at 12-h intervals, the first dose being administered 1 min before cisplatin, FK886 significantly decreased the number of emetic responses in cisplatin (5 mg/kg)-induced delayed emesis. In the same study, oral FK886 (3.2 mg/kg) repeatedly administrated at 12-h intervals, the first dose being administered 36 h post cisplatin, also significantly attenuated the delayed emesis. Pharmacokinetic data in ferrets showed that plasma FK886 reached a maximum concentration within 0.5 h of administration, suggesting rapid oral absorption. In addition, rapid brain penetration of FK886 was suggested by complete and near complete inhibition of GR73632- and copper sulfate-induced emesis, respectively, by low-dose intravenous FK886 administered shortly before the emetogens. These results suggest that FK886 is an orally available NK1 receptor antagonist which is effective against both the acute and delayed emesis induced by cisplatin. Because of its therapeutic efficacy on the delayed emesis and rapid brain distribution after oral administration, FK886 may have potential as an antiemetic agent that can be used for interventional treatment of chemotherapy-induced delayed emesis.
  • Sureewan Duangjit, Yasuko Obata, Hiromu Sano, Yoshinori Onuki, Praneet ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 239-247
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2013/11/12
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    In the present study, novel ultradeformable liposomes (menthosomes; MTS), deformable liposomes (transfersomes; TFS) and conventional liposomes (CLP) were compared in their potential for transdermal delivery of meloxicam (MX). MTS, TFS and CLP were investigated for size, size distribution, zeta potential, elasticity, entrapment efficiency and stability. In vitro skin permeation using hairless mice skin was evaluated. Vesicular morphology was observed under freeze-fractured transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM). Intrinsic thermal properties were performed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction. The skin permeation mechanism was characterized using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicated that the difference in physicochemical characteristics of MTS, TFS and CLP affected the skin permeability. MTS and TFS showed higher flux of MX than CLP. CLSM image showed deformable vesicles mechanism for delivery of MX across the hairless mice skin. Our study suggested that ultradeformable and deformable liposomes (MTS and TFS) had a potential to use as transdermal drug delivery carriers for MX.
  • Ting Xia, Jian-Cheng Wang, Wei Xu, Lu-Hong Xu, Chong-Hui Lao, Qi-Xiang ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 248-254
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) and ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3) are members of the protopanaxadiol family and have been investigated for possible chemopreventive activity. This study explored the biological and apoptotic mechanisms induced by 20(S)-GRh2 in human acute leukaemia line-Reh cells. Reh cells were treated with different concentration of 20(S)-GRh2 in vitro. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 and Annexin V/7-AAD assays. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was examined through JC-1 staining. Activation of caspases associated with the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway was determined by Western blot. We observed that survival of Reh cells decreased after exposure to 20(S)-GRh2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, 20(S)-GRh2 can induce mitochondria depolarization of Reh cells as evident in the shift in JC-1 fluorescence from red to green. In addition, 20(S)-GRh2 induced the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in Reh cells. These results indicate that 20(S)-GRh2 could induce apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, demonstrating its potential as a chemotherapeutic agent for leukaemia therapy.
  • Ju-Young Kim, Jung Young Kim, Jeong Joong Kim, Jaemin Oh, Youn-Chul Ki ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 255-261
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    (2S)-2′-Methoxykurarinone (MK), a compound isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens, has various physiological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antidiabetic, and antineoplastic effects. However, the effect of S. flavescens-derived MK on osteoclastogenesis remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the effect and mechanism of action of MK on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. MK inhibited osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow cell–osteoblast cocultures but did not affect the RANKL-to-osteoprotegerin ratio induced by osteoclastogenic factors in osteoblasts. MK also inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow macrophages in a dose-dependent manner, without cytotoxicity. Pretreatment with MK significantly suppressed the Akt, p38, c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK), c-Fos, and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) pathways and inhibited the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. These results collectively suggest that MK inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption through RANKL-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling pathways.
  • Haruna Hirata, Hirotaka Miyamoto, Kenta Shimokawa, Mikiro Nakashima, M ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 262-267
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently produces morphological and functional changes of the peritoneum, which makes continuation of PD difficult. Moreover, the progression of peritoneal injury causes complications and poor prognosis. Since therapeutic treatments for peritoneal injury during PD have yet to be established, it is important to diagnose peritoneal injury as early as possible. The aim of this study was to develop a method of monitoring peritoneal function to diagnose peritoneal injury. Model rats of peritoneal injury were prepared by intraperitoneal injection of methylglyoxal (MGO) for five consecutive days. Then, marker substances of various molecular weights (phenolsulfonphthalein, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD)-10, FD-40, FD-70, FD-2000 or tetramethylrhodamine-dextran (RD)-10) were injected into the peritoneal cavity. At 120 min after injection, the remaining amounts of all marker substances were significantly decreased in the MGO-treated rats compared with those in the vehicle-treated rats. Molecular weight dependence of the peritoneal permeability was observed. A substance with a molecular weight of approximately 10000 was found to be suitable to diagnose peritoneal injury. Moreover, coadministration of RD-10 with FD-2000 enabled us to monitor enhanced peritoneal permeability and the transfer of water simultaneously, without the recovery of whole PD fluid, even in the case of different ultrafiltration volumes. We demonstrated the usefulness of administering substances to evaluate peritoneal permeability and the transfer of water simultaneously to diagnose peritoneal injury. This study should be valuable for safe and effective PD.
  • Shao-long Zhu, Lan Yan, Yan-xia Zhang, Zhi-hui Jiang, Ping-hui Gao, Yu ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 268-273
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Over-expression of the Candida drug resistance gene CDR1 is a common mechanism generating azole-resistant Candida albicans in clinical isolates. CDR1 is transcriptionally activated through the binding of the transcription factor Tac1p to the cis-acting drug-responsive element (DRE) in its promoter. We previously demonstrated that the combination of fluconazole (FLC) and berberine (BBR) produced significant synergy when used against FLC-resistant C. albicans in vitro. In this study, we found that BBR inhibited both the up-regulation of CDR1 mRNA and the transport function of Cdr1p induced by fluphenazine (FNZ). Further, electrophoretic mobility shift assays suggested that the transcription activation complex of protein-DRE was disrupted by BBR, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis showed that BBR bound to the DRE of CDR1. Thus we propose that BBR inhibits the FNZ-induced transcriptional activation of CDR1 in C. albicans by blocking transcription factor binding to the DRE of CDR1. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of synergistic effect of BBR and FLC.
  • Baojian Guo, Daping Xu, Hongwei Duan, Jing Du, Zaijun Zhang, Simon Min ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 274-285
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2013/12/03
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    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Although the etiology of PD is not completely understood, it is well-documented that oxidative stress and Ca2+-mediated cellular damage play important roles in the progression of PD. 2-[[(1,1-Dimethylethyl)oxidoimino]-methyl]-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (TBN), a novel nitrone derivative of tetramethylpyrazine, has shown significant therapeutic effects in stroke models due to its multiple functions, including calcium overload blockade and free radical-scavenging. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective and neurorescue effects of TBN on various in vitro and in vivo models of PD and explored its possible mechanisms of action. The results show that TBN exerted significant neuroprotection on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced damage in SH-SY5Y cells and primary dopaminergic neurons, as well as on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neuron loss in zebrafish (TBN and MPTP were added simultaneously into the fish embryo medium and the treatment period was 48 h). In the MPTP-induced mouse and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat PD models, TBN administrated orally twice daily for 14 d (3 d post-MPTP lesion in mice and 7 d post-6-OHDA lesion in rats) exhibited remarkable neurorescue effects to increase the number of dopaminergic neurons. In addition, TBN improved apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in the 6-OHDA-lesioned PD rats. TBN suppressed the MPP+-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SH-SY5Y cells, increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration in the substantial nigra of MPTP-treated mice. These data indicate that TBN protects and rescues dopaminergic neurons from MPP+ and MPTP/6-OHDA-induced damage by reducing ROS and increasing cellular antioxidative defense capability.
  • Takashi Okura, Kei Higuchi, Atsushi Kitamura, Yoshiharu Deguchi
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 286-291
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2013/11/20
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    R(−)-Apomorphine is a dopamine agonist used for rescue management of motor function impairment associated with levodopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease patients. The aim of this study was to examine the role of proton-coupled organic cation antiporter in uptake of R(−)-apomorphine and its S-enantiomer in human brain, using human endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 as a model. Uptake of R(−)- or S(+)-apomorphine into hCMEC/D3 cells was measured under various conditions to evaluate its time-, concentration-, energy- and ion-dependency. Inhibition by selected organic cations was also examined. Uptakes of both R(−)- and S(+)-apomorphine increased with time. The initial uptake velocities of R(−)- and S(+)-apomorphine were concentration-dependent, with similar Km and Vmax values. The cell-to-medium (C/M) ratio of R(−)-apomorphine was significantly reduced by pretreatment with sodium azide, but was not affected by replacement of extracellular sodium ion with N-methylglucamine or potassium. Intracellular alkalization markedly reduced the uptake, while intracellular acidification increased it, suggesting that the uptake is driven by an oppositely directed proton gradient. The C/M ratio was significantly decreased by amantadine, verapamil, pyrilamine and diphenhydramine (substrates or inhibitors of proton-coupled organic cation antiporter), while tetraethylammonium (substrate of organic cation transporters (OCTs)) and carnitine (substrate of carnitine/organic cation transporter 2; (OCTN2)) had no effect. R(−)-Apomorphine uptake was competitively inhibited by diphenhydramine. Our results indicate that R(−)-apomorphine transport in human blood–brain barrier (BBB) model cells is similar to S(+)-apomorphine uptake. The transport was dependent on an oppositely directed proton gradient, but was sodium- or membrane potential-independent. The transport characteristics were consistent with involvement of the previously reported proton-coupled organic cation antiporter.
  • Tatsuya Kawasaki, Hideyuki Ito, Hiroshi Omote
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 292-297
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Human multidrug and toxic compounds extrusion transporter 1 (hMATE1/SLC47A1) is a H+-coupled organic cation exporter responsible for the final step of excretion of various xenobiotics at the kidney and liver. In this study, effects of dietary constituents on hMATE1 mediated drug transport were examined to evaluate possible food–drug interactions. Bergamottin inhibited hMATE1 mediated tetraethyl ammonium transport activity, with a Ki of 98.7 µM. Coumarins, flavonols, and catechin inhibited hMATE1 activity. Among 23 compounds tested, isorhamnetin was the strongest inhibitor of hMATE1 with the Ki of 0.32 µM in a competitive manner. Since isorhamnetin is abundant in Ginkgo biloba that is widely used for herbal supplements, the findings suggest the potential hMATE1 related food–drug interactions.
  • Makoto Ishii, Takahiro Toda, Nobutomo Ikarashi, Yoshiki Kusunoki, Risa ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 298-305
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2013/11/23
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    We had previously revealed that drug metabolism, as well as the expression level of hepatic CYP3A, a drug-metabolizing enzyme, increase 12 weeks after gastrectomy in mice. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism of the increased CYP3A expression. The levels of lithocholic acid (LCA)-producing bacteria (Bacteroides fragilis) and LCA in the colon did not show a significant increase up to 4 weeks after gastrectomy compared to the sham operation group. In contrast, at 12 and 24 weeks post-gastrectomy, the levels of Bacteroides fragilis and LCA were significantly higher in the gastrectomy group than in the sham operation group. At 12 and 24 weeks after gastrectomy, the hepatic nuclear translocation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) had also increased. The hepatic CYP3A11 mRNA expression and nuclear translocation of PXR after intraperitoneal administration of LCA to normal mice was significantly higher than those of the control group. The intraperitoneal administration of taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), a taurine conjugate of LCA, caused no change in the expression level of CYP3A11. We suggest that the increase in the expression level of CYP3A after gastrectomy is caused by an increase in the nuclear translocation of PXR, which is triggered by an increase in LCA-producing bacteria.
Notes
  • Taiyo Kuroki, Asami Mori, Tsutomu Nakahara, Kenji Sakamoto, Kunio Ishi ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 306-310
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    In the present study, we histologically examined the effects of nilvadipine on neuronal injury induced by intravitreal (i.v.) N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) (200 nmol/eye) and intravitreal NOC12 (400 nmol/eye), a nitric oxide donor, in the rat retina. Morphometric evaluation at 7 d after injection of NMDA or NOC12 showed that treatment with nilvadipine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) 15 min prior to injection of NMDA or NOC12 dramatically reduced the retinal damage. These results suggest that nilvadipine protects neurons against excitotoxic injury in the rat retina in vivo at least in part via an antioxidative effect.
  • Futoshi Matsubara, Yasuko Sagara, Yoshihisa Kato, Kouji Harada, Akio K ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 311-314
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    We investigated the incidence of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) infection in a total of 17 regions in four countries, including 13 regions in Japan, as well as Korea (Seoul and Busan), China, and Vietnam, by testing breast milk using a particle agglutination assay (PA) and line immunoassay (LIA). Among 266 samples from Japan, 24 (9.0%) were positive on PA and 3 (1.1%) were positive on LIA. Among 50 samples from Seoul, 2 were positive on PA and 1 was positive on LIA. In contrast, all 50 samples from Busan were negative on both tests, suggesting the maldistribution of HTLV-1 infectants in South Korea. The numbers of positive samples were 2/91 on PA and 1/91 on LIA for China and 1/88 on both PA and LIA for Vietnam. In China, one sample with a high probability of HTLV-2 infection was identified by LIA and synthetic peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We examined HTLV-1 antibody in breast milk samples using commercially available test kits, suggesting the existence of HTLV-1 carriers in endemic areas in Southeast Asia and an HTLV-2 infectant in China. As a part of human ethno-epidemiological research, these results constitute valuable epidemiological data. Further studies on the sensitivity, specificity, and reliability of assays using antibodies to HTLV-1 and 2 in breast milk will be necessary for large-scale epidemiological surveys of HTLV infection.
  • Nguyen Phuong Thao, Bui Thi Thuy Luyen, Eun-Ji Kim, Hee-Kyoung Kang, S ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 315-321
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Using various chromatographic experiments, six asterosaponins (16) were isolated from the MeOH extract of the Vietnamese starfish Astropecten monacanthus. The cytotoxic activities of the MeOH extract and six asterosaponins were evaluated on three human cancer cell lines, HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), PC-3 (prostate cancer), and SNU-C5 (colorectal cancer). Relative to the effects of the postitive control mitoxantrone, the MeOH extract (with IC50 values ranging from 0.84±0.03 to 3.96±0.14 µg/mL) and astrosterioside D (5) (with IC50 values ranging from 4.31±0.07 to 5.21±0.15 µM) exhibited potent cytotoxic effects against all three tested human cancer cell lines. In addition, the MeOH extract and astrosterioside D (5) have an effect on leading to apoptosis. Interestingly, the apoptosis of induction was accompanied by down-regulation of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, and decrease of c-myc expression. Further studies are required to establish use of the asterosaponins from A. monacanthus as remedial and/or nutraceutical purposes.
  • Manahito Aoki, Yuki Kurauchi, Asami Mori, Tsutomu Nakahara, Kenji Saka ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 322-326
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Oxaliplatin frequently causes peripheral neuropathy. Clinical studies have indicated that pregabalin ameliorates oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. However, pregabalin frequently causes dizziness and somnolence. We previously reported that elcatonin, a synthetic analog of eel calcitonin, attenuated oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical allodynia in rats. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-allodynic effects of elcatonin and pregabalin in the rats developing the oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a single dose of oxaliplatin (6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) to induce cold and mechanical allodynia. We assessed the effects of subcutaneous elcatonin (20 U/kg) and oral pregabalin (30 mg/kg) on cold and mechanical allodynia by cold stimulation (8°C) to the hind paw of the rats and the von Frey test, respectively. Elcatonin reversed the effects of oxaliplatin-induced cold and mechanical allodynia in rats for a longer time period than pregabalin does. These results suggested that elcatonin might be useful for the clinical treatment of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy.
  • Yuka Onoue, Keiko Kuwatsuka, Ikuko Miyazaki, Masato Asanuma, Yoshihisa ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 327-330
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    The dopamine reuptake inhibitor bupropion and dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist pramipexole have been clinically proven to improve both depression and treatment-resistant depression. We examined its influence on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats and further analyzed the possible role of the dopamine nerve system in this effect. Bupropion and pramipexole significantly decreased the duration of immobility in normal and ACTH-treated rats. We previously demonstrated that the chronic administration of ACTH caused a significant decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In this study, we used the mitotic marker 5-bromo-2′-deoxyridine to investigate the effects of bupropion and pramipexole on cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus following chronic treatment with ACTH. The ACTH treatment for 14 d decreased adult hippocampal cell proliferation. The chronic administration of bupropion for 14 d blocked the loss of cell proliferation resulting from the chronic treatment with ACTH, whereas pramipexole did not. The administration of bupropion may have treatment-resistant antidepressive properties, which may be partly attributed to the normalization of hippocampal cell proliferation.
  • Shuso Takeda, Kentaro Yaji, Kenji Matsumoto, Toshiaki Amamoto, Mitsuru ...
    2014 年 37 巻 2 号 p. 331-334
    発行日: 2014/02/01
    公開日: 2014/02/01
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    Few studies have examined xanthocidin, a biotic isolated from Streptomyces xanthocidicus in 1966, because its supply is limited. Based on its chemical structure, xanthocidin has the potential to become a lead compound in the production of agrochemicals and anti-cancer drugs; however, it is unstable under both basic and acidic conditions. We recently established the total synthesis of xanthocidin using the FeCl3-mediated Nazarov reaction, and obtained two stable derivatives (#1 and #2). The results of the present study demonstrated that these derivatives exhibited the inhibitory activity of topoisomerase IIα, known as a molecular target for cancer chemotherapy, and this was attributed to the respective exo-methylene ketone group without DNA intercalation. The results obtained also suggest that these derivatives may have value as lead compounds in the synthesis of topoisomerase IIα inhibitors.
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