Nobody doubts the importance of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1 and 1B3 in the clinical pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs. Based on the theory of pharmacokinetics, even if a drug is eliminated from the body by extensive metabolism, the rate-determining process of the hepatic intrinsic clearance of OATP substrates is often hepatic uptake. Because of their broad substrate specificities, once the functions of OATP1B1 or OATP1B3 are altered by several kinds of special occasions such as drug–drug interactions (DDI) and genetic polymorphisms of transporter genes, the hepatic clearance of many kinds of structurally-unrelated drugs is expected to be changed. In some cases, these alterations of pharmacokinetics lead to modified pharmacological effects and adverse reactions such as statin-induced myotoxicity and the glucose-lowering effect of anti-diabetes drugs. Thus, appropriate methods with which to quantitatively predict the changes in plasma and tissue concentrations of drugs are needed in the process of drug development. As for DDI, a static model that takes into consideration of the theoretically-maximum unbound inhibitor concentration is often used for the sensitive detection of possible DDI risks and this method has been adopted in several regulatory guidance/guidelines on DDI. Regarding genetic polymorphisms, the effects of SLCO1B1 c.388A>G and c.521T>C on the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs have been extensively investigated. Even though there are some discrepancies, c.521T>C generally decreased hepatic uptake activity, while c.388A>G tended to slightly increase it. This article briefly summarizes the current status of research on hepatic OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and the clinical significance of their functions.
In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effect of DA-9801 on neurite outgrowth. We found that DA-9801 elicits its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. DA-9801, an extract from a mixture of Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea nipponica, was reported to promote neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on cell viability and expression of neuronal markers were evaluated in PC12 cells. To investigate DA-9801 action, specific inhibitors targeting the ERK signaling cascade were used. No cytotoxicity was observed in PC12 cells at DA-9801 concentrations of less than 30 µg/mL. In the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF, 2 ng/mL), DA-9801 promoted neurite outgrowth and increased the relative mRNA levels of neurofilament-L (NF-L), a marker of neuronal differentiation. The Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 and MEK inhibitor PD98059 significantly attenuated DA-9801-induced neurite outgrowth. Additionally, the MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor SL327 significantly attenuated the increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells induced by DA-9801 treatment. Conversely, the selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor SB203580 did not attenuate the DA-9801 treatment-induced increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells. DA-9801 enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB in PC12 cells incubated with and without NGF. Pretreatment with PD98059 blocked the DA-9801-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB. In conclusion, DA-9801 induces neurite outgrowth by affecting the ERK1/2-CREB signaling pathway. Insights into the mechanism underlying this effect of DA-9801 may suggest novel potential strategies for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy.
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis is one of the most common morbidities in chemotherapy and involves the reactive oxygen species (ROS) system, apoptosis, and inflammatory cytokines. Rebamipide exerts a mucosal-protective effect, mediated through several mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rebamipide in 5-FU-induced mouse small-intestinal mucositis. BALB/c mice were assigned randomly to four groups; (1) control group (n=10; receiving saline orally for 6 d), (2) rebamipide group (n=10; 150 mg/kg rebamipide for 6 d orally), (3) 5-FU group (n=10; 30 mg/kg 5-FU for 5 d, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), and (4) rebamipide +5-FU group (n=10; 150 mg/kg rebamipide for 6 d orally and 30 mg/kg 5-FU for 5 d, i.p.). Body weights and diarrhea scales were assessed. At day 5, the mice were sacrificed. Small intestinal tissue was used for: (1) hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining for determination of small intestinal villi height, (2) terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, (3) immunohistochemistry for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), F4/80, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, (4) measurement of serum and tissue GSH levels, and (5) measurement of serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. Rebamipide attenuated the severity of mucosal injury reflected by body weight changes, degrees of diarrhea, and heights of villi. Rebamipide reduced the expression of iNOS and TGF-β1, apoptosis, macrophage accumulation, serum TNF-α levels, and prevented reductions in serum and tissue glutathione (GSH) levels by 5-FU administration. These results suggest that rebamipide promotes several mechanisms of mucosal protection and attenuated the 5-FU-induced mucosal injury. In conclusion, administration of rebamipide may have significant protective effects against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis.
Although the cholinesterase inhibitor tacrine has been successfully used for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, it is known to have hepatotoxic effects. Liquiritigenin (LQ), an active flavonoid in Glycyrrhizae radix, exerts protective effects against liver damage. This study investigated the toxic effect of tacrine on hepatocytes and the beneficial effect of LQ on tacrine intoxication in vivo and in vitro, and the underlying mechanism involved. In hepatocyte cell lines, tacrine induced cell death and oxidative stress, as indicated by decreases in cell viability and glutathione (GSH) contents, which were blocked by pretreatment with LQ. Fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis revealed that LQ inhibited cellular H2O2 production and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by tacrine in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, LQ promoted inhibitory phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) and prevented decreases in GSK3β phosphorylation induced by tacrine. In rats treatment with tacrine at 30 mg/kg increased hepatic damage as assessed by blood biochemistry and histopathology. Administration of LQ (10 or 30 mg/kg/d, per os (p.o.)) or the hepatoprotective drug sylimarin (100 mg/kg/d) for 3 d inhibited elevations in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and histological changes induced by tacrine. These results show that LQ efficaciously protects the rat liver against tacrine-induced liver damage, and suggest that LQ is a therapeutic candidate for ameliorating the hepatotoxic effects of tacrine.
Long-term peritoneal dialysis therapy causes inflammation and histological changes in the peritoneal membrane. Inflammation generally activates fibroblasts and results in fibroblast–myofibroblast differentiation. Heat-shock protein 47 (HSP 47), a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is localized in myofibroblasts and is involved in the progression of peritoneal fibrosis. Daikenchuto (DKT), a Kampo medicine, is used to prevent postoperative colon adhesion. It inhibits inflammation and HSP 47 expression in the gastrointestinal tract. We examined the effect of DKT on chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)-induced peritoneal fibrosis in mice injected with 0.1% CG dissolved in 15% ethanol. DKT was dissolved in the drinking water. Histological changes were assessed using Masson trichrome staining. Cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), HSP 47, phospho-Smad 2/3, F4/80, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 were examined immunohistochemically. Compared with the control group, the peritoneal tissues of the CG group were markedly thickened, and the number of cells expressing α-SMA, HSP 47, phospho-Smad 2/3, F4/80, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was significantly increased. However, these changes were inhibited in the DKT-treated group. These results indicate that DKT can prevent peritoneal fibrosis by inhibiting inflammation and HSP 47 expression.
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is formed as a by-product of the Maillard reaction during cooking and frying of protein-rich foods at high temperatures. PhIP is metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 1A1/2 to carcinogenic metabolite N-hydroxy PhIP, which can form DNA adduct. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are capable of transporting the food-borne procarcinogen PhIP back to the intestinal lumen. In the present study, the uptake and efflux of PhIP were assessed by determining apparent bidirectional permeability coefficients and efflux ratio. The efflux ratio of PhIP with 10 µM caffeic acid was significantly increased compared with control. The mRNA levels of efflux transporters were measured to evaluate the effect of caffeic acid in the presence of PhIP on efflux-mediated transport of PhIP. Caco-2 cells exposed to 10 µM caffeic acid for 3 and 6 h also exhibited higher mRNA levels of P-gp and BCRP than those of control. In contrast, the mRNA level of MRP2 was only slightly induced after 3 h and 6 h. Therefore, caffeic acid at low concentration is expected to be used not only as an antioxidant, but also as an inhibitor of the absorption of food borne carcinogen heterocyclic amines. However, further studies, especially in vivo studies, are required to confirm these results.
To overcome the low oral bioavailability of morin, a mixed micelle formulation with pharmaceutical excipients that facilitate solubilization and modulate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was developed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo rats. Morin-loaded mixed micelle formulation with a morin–PluronicF127–Tween80 ratio of 1 : 10 : 0.02 (w/w/w) was prepared by a thin-film hydration method. The solubility, size distribution, drug encapsulation efficiency, and percent drug loading of the formulation were characterized. Subsequently, in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of morin loaded in a PluronicF127 and Tween80 mixed-micelle formulation were investigated in rats. Absolute bioavailability of morin was dramatically increased by the oral administration of morin-loaded PluronicF127 and Tween80 mixed micelle from 0.4% to 11.2% without changing the systemic clearance and half-life. In Caco-2 cells, absorption permeability of morin from the novel formulation was increased 3.6-fold compared with that of morin alone. P-gp inhibition by cyclosporine A (CsA) increased absorptive permeability of morin 2.4-fold but decreased the efflux of morin by 52%, which was consistent with increased plasma concentration of morin in the pretreatment of CsA in rats. The morin formulation inhibited P-gp transport activity by 83.1% at 100 µM as morin concentration. Moreover, morin formulation increased paracellular permeability of Lucifer yellow by 1.6–1.8 fold. In conclusion, enhanced oral bioavailability of morin from morin-loaded PluronicF127 and Tween80 mixed micelle formulation can be attributed to increased intestinal permeation of morin, which was mediated at least by P-gp inhibition and enhanced paracellular route.
Sauchinone, a biologically active lignan found in Saururus chinensis (Saururaceae), exerts various biological activities against jaundice, inflammatory disease, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative injury. Despite its diverse applications, there exists some information about sauchinone’s pharmacokinetics but its tissue distribution, metabolism, and tentative metabolites have not been reported yet. Thus we investigated the pharmacokinetics of sauchinone in mice using microsampling and HPLC-MS/MS methods. Sauchinone presented linear pharmacokinetics at intravenous doses 7.5–20 mg/kg and oral doses 20–500 mg/kg. However, the metabolism of sauchinone was saturated and this agent presented nonlinear pharmacokinetics at 50 mg/kg in the intravenous study. At sauchinone 20 mg/kg the F of sauchinone was 7.76% of the oral dose despite that 77.9% of sauchinone was absorbed. This might be due to extensive metabolism of sauchinone in S9 fractions of liver and small intestine. Tentative metabolites of sauchinone by oxidation, dioxidation, methylation, demethylation, dehydrogenation, or bis-glucuronide conjugation were detected in plasma and S9 fractions of liver, intestine, and kidney. The distribution of sauchinone was considerably high (tissue-to-plasma (T/P) ratios, >1) in liver, small intestine, kidney, lung, muscle, fat, or mesentery after intravenous and oral administration and in stomach and large intestine only after oral administration. The protein binding value of sauchinone was 53.0%. These pharmacokinetic data of sauchinone provide an important basis for preclinical applications and experimental methods can be adjusted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of natural products in mice.
The inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation has been considered as an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. The methanolic extract of Liriodendron tulipifera showed significant inhibitory activity against the proliferation of HSCs. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded twelve compounds including (−)-sesamin (1), (−)-syringaresinol (2), (+)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (3), salvinal (4), (+)-guaiacylglycerol-8-O-4′-dihydroconiferyl ether (5), (±)-guaiacylglycerol-8-O-4′-sinapyl alcohol ether (6), tanegool (7), (+)-5,5′-dimethoxy-7-oxolariciresinol (8), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (9), 4-acetoxymethylphenol (10), (−)-paramicholide (11), and blumenol A (12). Among the compounds isolated, 2, 3 and 4 significantly attenuated the proliferation of the activated HSC-T6 cells. The maximal dose of these compounds, however, showed no cytotoxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Collagen deposition in the activated HSC-T6 cells was reduced by 2, 3 and 4. Also, the increased production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced by lipopolysaccharide was decreased by 3 and 4 in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Collectively, (−)-syringaresinol (2), (+)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (3), and salvinal (4) isolated from L. tulipifera leaves and twigs exhibited selective antifibrotic activities toward the activated HSCs and suppressed TNF-α production in RAW264.7 macrophages. These compounds may be useful candidates for developing therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis.
Ganciclovir is a nucleoside guanosine analogue that exhibits therapeutic activity against human cytomegalovirus infection, and is primarily excreted via glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. The adverse effects induced by ganciclovir therapy are generally of a hematological nature and include thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Low marrow cellularity and elevated serum creatinine have been identified as risk factors for ganciclovir-induced neutropenia. However, the risk factors for thrombocytopenia have yet to be determined. Therefore, this study investigated patients administered ganciclovir to determine the risk factors for thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Thrombocytopenia occurred in 41 of these patients (30.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified three independent risk factors for thrombocytopenia: cancer chemotherapy (odds ratio (OR)=3.1), creatinine clearance (<20 mL/min) (OR=12.8), and the ganciclovir dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) (OR=15.1). Leukopenia occurred in 36 patients (28.6%), and white blood cell count (<6000 cells/mm3) (OR=3.7) and the ganciclovir dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) (OR=7.8) were identified as risk factors. These results demonstrated that several factors influenced the occurrence of ganciclovir-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, and suggest that special attention should be paid to patients receiving cancer chemotherapy with a low creatinine clearance (<20 mL/min) and high dose (≥12 mg/kg/d) in order to avoid ganciclovir-induced thrombocytopenia.
Postoperative fatigue syndrome (POFS) is a common complication which decelerates recovery after surgery. The present study investigated the anti-fatigue effect of ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) through the inflammatory cytokine-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor pathway. A POFS rat model was created by major small intestinal resection and assessed with an open field test. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, high performance liquid chromatography and a transmission electron microscopic analysis were used to determine typical biochemical parameters in the hippocampus. Our results showed that POFS rats exhibited fatigue associated with an increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and NMDA receptor 1, higher (kynurenine)/(tryptophan) and (kynurenine)/(kynurenic acid) on postoperative days 1 and 3, and an increased expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) on postoperative day 1. Degenerated neurons were found in the hippocampus of POFS rats. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 had a significant effect on central fatigue on postoperative day 1. GRb1 had no effect on IDO or tryptophan metabolism, but exhibited a significant effect on POFS by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines and NMDA receptor 1. These data suggested that inflammatory cytokines could activate tryptophan metabolism to cause POFS through the NMDA receptor pathway. GRb1 had an anti-fatigue effect on POFS by reducing inflammatory cytokines and NMDA receptors.
TAL2 is a transcription factor required in the normal development of mouse brain. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the expression of Tal2 gene is induced by the complex of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) and retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) in mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells. atRA is also known to be important in inducing P19 cells to differentiate into the neural lineage. Therefore, we believe that the function of TAL2 in neural differentiation may be clarified by utilizing P19 cells. As the atRA-RARα complex induced the expression of Tal2, we focused on the regulatory region that is involved in its transcription. The atRA-RARα complex occupies a characteristic retinoic acid response element (RARE) located in the promoter of target genes. Therefore, we searched for RARE on the mouse Tal2 and found that a RARE-like element was located in the intron. We also found that a TATA-box-like element was located in the 5′-region of Tal2. Involvement between transcriptional activity and the TATA-box-like element was confirmed in the luciferase assay, and TATA-box binding protein was bound to this element upstream of Tal2 in P19 cells. atRA signaling activated the transcription through the RARE-like element, and RARα was bound to this element on Tal2 in P19 cells. In addition, the interaction between these elements on Tal2 was shown in the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. These results suggest that the transcription of Tal2 is coordinately mediated by two distal regulatory elements.
Nitric oxide (NO), a known relaxant, is produced in cells from L-arginine (L-Arg). Because the relaxation of retinal pericytes alters the microcirculatory hemodynamics, it is important to understand the manner of NO production in retinal pericytes. The purpose of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanism(s) of uptake of L-Arg in retinal pericytes using a conditionally immortalized rat retinal pericyte cell line (TR-rPCT1 cells) which expresses the mRNAs of endothelial NO synthase and inducible NO synthase. L-Arg uptake by TR-rPCT1 cells exhibited Na+-independence and concentration-dependence with a Km of 28.9 µM. This process was strongly inhibited by substrates of cationic amino acid transporters (CAT), such as L-ornithine and L-lysine. In contrast, L-valine, L-leucine, and L-glutamine, which are substrates of cation/neutral amino acid transport systems, such as system y+L, system B0,+, and system b0,+, did not strongly inhibit L-Arg uptake by TR-rPCT1 cells. In addition, the expression of mRNA and protein of CAT1 in TR-rPCT1 cells was observed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. Taking these results into consideration, it appears that CAT1 is involved in L-Arg uptake by retinal pericytes and this is expected to play an important role in the relaxation of retinal pericytes, thereby modulating the microcirculatory hemodynamics in the retina.
Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in triglyceride (TG) synthesis. This enzyme is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes. Here, results of an investigation of the pharmacological effects of JTT-553 [trans-5′-(4-amino-7,7-dimethyl-2-trifluoromethyl-7H-pyrimido[4,5-b][1,4]oxazin-6-yl)-2′,3′-dihydrospiro(cyclohexane-1,1′-inden)-4-yl]acetic acid monobenzenesulfonate, a novel DGAT1 inhibitor, are reported. To measure the inhibitory activity of JTT-553 against DGAT1, TG synthesis using [14C]-labeled oleoyl-CoA was evaluated. Similarly, the inhibitory activity of JTT-553 against DGAT2, an isozyme of DGAT1, and acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) 1, which is highly homologous to DGAT1, were evaluated. JTT-553 selectively inhibited human DGAT1 and showed comparable inhibitory effects on the activity of human, rat, and mouse DGAT. In vivo, JTT-553 suppressed plasma TG and chylomicron TG levels after olive oil loading in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. JTT-553 also inhibited TG synthesis in epididymal fat after [14C] oleic acid injection in C57BL/6J mice. Food intake was evaluated in SD rats fed 3.1%, 13%, or 35% (w/w) fat diets. In rats fed the 35% fat diet, JTT-553 reduced food intake. This reduction of food intake was observed 2 h after feeding, lasted for 24 h, and correlated with dietary fat content. Furthermore, JTT-553 reduced daily food intake and body weight gain in diet-induced obese rats after 4-week repeated administration. JTT-553 exerted multiple effects on intestinal fat absorption, adipose fat synthesis, and food intake, and consequently induced body weight reduction. Therefore, JTT-553 is expected to be an effective novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of obesity.
In the present in vitro study, we assessed the delivery of pirfenidone incorporated into liposomes modified with truncated basic fibroblast growth factor (tbFGF) to lung fibroblasts and investigated the anti-fibrotic effect of the drug. The tbFGF peptide, KRTGQYKLC, was used to modify the surface of liposomes (tbFGF-liposomes). We used the thin-layer evaporation method, followed by sonication, to prepare tbFGF-liposomes containing pirfenidone. The cellular accumulation of tbFGF-liposomes was 1.7-fold greater than that of non-modified liposomes in WI-38 cells used as a model of lung fibroblasts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that tbFGF-liposomes were widely localized in WI-38 cells. The inhibitory effects of pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced collagen synthesis in WI-38 cells were evaluated by measuring the level of intracellular hydroxyproline, a major component of the protein collagen. Pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes at concentrations of 10, 30, and 100 µM significantly decreased the TGF-β1-induced hydroxyproline content in WI-38 cells. The anti-fibrotic effect of pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes was enhanced compared with that of pirfenidone solution. These results indicate that tbFGF-liposomes are a useful drug delivery system of anti-fibrotic drugs to lung fibroblasts for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Multidrug resistance is one of the major causes limiting the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents used to control osteosarcoma. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1 or ABCB1) was considered to play a critical role in multidrug resistance. Agents from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have great potential to prevent the onset or delay the progression of the carcinogenic process, and also to enhance the efficacy of mainstream antitumor agents. Herein, we investigated the effect and mechanism of icariin in the human osteosarcoma doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant cell line MG-63/DOX. In this study, icariin exhibited significant effects in sensitization of the resistant cancer cells at a concentration non-toxic to doxorubicin. It also increased the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation and retention in MG-63/DOX cells. In addition, an increase in Rh123 accumulation and a decrease in Rh123 efflux were observed in MG-63/DOX cells treated with icariin, indicating a blockage of the activity of MDR1. Furthermore, icariin enhanced the apoptosis induced by doxorubicin and down-regulated the expression of MDR1. The mechanism involves the inhibition of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. In conclusion, icariin possesses a reversal effect on multidrug resistance in MG-63/DOX cells through down-regulation of the MDR1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway, and has the potential to be an adjunct to chemotherapy for osteosarcoma.
DA-9701, a new botanical gastroprokinetic agent, has potential for the management of delayed gastric emptying in Parkinson’s disease if it has no central anti-dopaminergic activity. Therefore, we examined the pharmacokinetics of DA-9701 components having dopamine D2 receptor antagonizing activity, tetrahydropalmatine (THP) and tetrahydroberberine (THB), following various oral doses (80–328 mg/kg) of DA-9701. The distribution of THP and THB to the brain and/or other tissues was also evaluated after single or multiple oral administrations of DA-9701. Oral administration of DA-9701 yielded dose-proportional area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–8 h) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values for THP and THB, indicating linear pharmacokinetics (except for THB at the lowest dose). THP and THB’s large tissue-to-plasma concentration ratios indicated considerable tissue distribution. High concentrations of THP and THB in the stomach and small intestine suggest an explanation for DA-9701’s potent gastroprokinetic activity. The maximum concentrations of THP and THB in brain following multiple oral DA-9701 for 7 d (150 mg/kg/d) was observed at 30 min after the last oral DA-9701 treatment: 131±67.7 ng/g for THP and 6.97±4.03 ng/g for THB. Although both THP and THB pass through the blood–brain barrier, as indicated by brain-to-plasma concentration ratios greater than unity (approximately 2–4), oral administration of DA-9701 at the effective dose in humans is not expected to lead to sufficient brain concentrations to exert central dopamine D2 receptor antagonism.
Patients with coronary artery disease often receive concurrent treatment with clopidogrel and a hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor medication. Accordingly, potential drug–drug interactions associated with the concomitant use of these agents present an area of concern. Both CYP enzymes and carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) are involved in the metabolism of clopidogrel, while CES1 is believed to be the enzyme responsible for the activation of simvastatin. Some in vitro studies have suggested that simvastatin could attenuate clopidogrel activation via inhibiting CYP3A activity. However, these findings have not found support in several recently published clinical investigations. The present study addresses these inconsistencies by exploring the potential role of CES1 in the metabolism of clopidogrel and simvastatin. Our in vitro human liver s9 fraction incubation study demonstrated that simvastatin significantly enhanced the formation of the intermediate metabolite 2-oxo-clopidogrel, and inhibited the CES1-mediated hydrolysis of clopidogrel, 2-oxo-clopidogrel, and the active metabolite. However, the production of the active metabolite remained unchanged. Conversely, clopidogrel was not found to influence the CES1 mediated hydrolysis (activation) of simvastatin. Moreover, we provided evidence that CES1 is not an efficient enzyme for catalyzing simvastatin activation. In summary, the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on the hydrolysis of clopidogrel and its principal metabolites may have offset the influence of simvastatin-mediated inhibition of CYP3A, and permitted the unaltered formation of the clopidogrel active metabolite. These data help explain the conflicting accounts in previous reports regarding clopidogrel and simvastatin interactions by taking into consideration CES1; they suggest that the interactions are unlikely to significantly influence clinical outcomes.
D-Aspartate (D-Asp), a free D-amino acid found in mammals, plays crucial roles in the neuroendocrine, endocrine, and central nervous systems. Recent studies have implicated D-Asp in the pathophysiology of infertility and N-methyl-D-Asp receptor-related diseases. D-Asp oxidase (DDO), a degradative enzyme that is stereospecific for acidic D-amino acids, is the sole catabolic enzyme acting on D-Asp in mammals. Human DDO is considered an attractive therapeutic target, and DDO inhibitors may be potential lead compounds for the development of new drugs against the aforementioned diseases. However, human DDO has not been characterized in detail and, although preclinical studies using experimental rodents are prerequisites for evaluating the in vivo effects of potential inhibitors, the existence of species-specific differences in the properties of human and rodent DDOs is still unclear. Here, the enzymatic activity and characteristics of purified recombinant human DDO were analyzed in detail. The kinetic and inhibitor-binding properties of this enzyme were also compared with those of purified recombinant rat and mouse DDOs. In addition, structural models of human, rat, and mouse DDOs were generated and compared. It was found that the differences among these DDO proteins occur in regions that appear involved in migration of the substrate/product in and out of the active site. In summary, detailed characterization of human DDO was performed and provides useful insights into the use of rats and mice as experimental models for evaluating the in vivo effects of DDO inhibitors.
Cell culture processes that produce therapeutic antibodies with high productivity (titer) and low aggregate content reduce the risk of adverse effects and expense to patients. To elucidate the mechanism of aggregate formation, we compared trastuzumab samples produced from two contrasting cell lines: cell line A, which exhibits high titer and low aggregate content, and cell line B, which exhibits low titer and high aggregate content. Cell line B produced significantly fewer (approximately 1/3) antibodies compared with cell line A and contained higher (approximately 3-fold) percentages of aggregates. The aggregates of antibodies found in the protein A-purified samples of cell line B were associated mostly with noncovalent interactions. Cell line B exhibited a low content of monomers/dimers of light chains in the medium and within cells. Because light chains are essential for the correct folding of heavy chains and secretion of mature antibodies, the characteristics of cell line B may be attributed to low levels of light chain production. In addition, protein A-purified antibodies from cell line B (but not those from cell line A) contained fragments that are expected to expose the hydrophobic CH3 domain, which may serve as nuclei for aggregation.
Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) show increased numbers of Th2 cells in their acute skin lesions and superficial skin colonization by Staphylococcus aureus. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of S. aureus cell wall components on Th2 chemokine production by murine Langerhans cells (LCs). Murine LCs were stimulated with peptidoglycan (PEG) and/or muramyldipeptide (MDP) for 24 or 48 h, and Th1 and Th2 chemokine production was investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PEG-stimulation of LCs induced production of the Th2 chemokine CCL17 and this was enhanced in the presence of interleukin (IL)-4. A low-molecular weight PEG fragment, MDP, did not induce CCL17 production by LCs. However, when LCs were stimulated with PEG in combination with MDP, PEG-induced CCL17 production was synergistically enhanced by MDP. Furthermore, PEG- and MDP-induced CCL17 production was enhanced to a greater extent in the presence of IL-4. These results suggest that S. aureus colonization in AD patients may enhance the Th2-prone immune response through upregulation of CCL17 production by LCs, which would occur as a result of simultaneous stimulation with PEG and MDP from S. aureus in a Th2 environment.
Inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have been shown to protect against neuronal injury, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully understood. The present study aimed to examine the effects of rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, on inflammation and capillary degeneration in a rat model of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced retinal neurotoxicity. Inflammation and capillary degeneration were evaluated by counting the numbers of CD45-positive leukocytes and Iba1-positive microglia, and by measuring the length of empty basement membrane sleeves, respectively. Marked increases in the numbers of leukocytes and microglia were observed 1 d after intravitreal injection of NMDA (200 nmol), and significant capillary degeneration was observed after 7 d. These NMDA-induced changes were significantly reduced by the simultaneous injection of rapamycin (20 nmol) with NMDA. These results suggest that rapamycin has preventive effects on inflammation and capillary degeneration during retinal injury.
Four isoflavone-metabolizing bacteria were tested for their abilities to degrade (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and its isomer (−)-gallocatechin (GC). Biotransformation of both EGC and GC was observed with Adlercreutzia equolifaciens JCM 14793, Asaccharobacter celatus JCM 14811, and Slackia equolifaciens JCM 16059, but not Slackia isoflavoniconvertens JCM 16137. With respect to the degradation of EGC, strain JCM 14793 only catalyzed 4′-dehydroxylation to produce 4′-dehydroxylated EGC (7). Strain JCM 14811 mainly produced 7, along with a slight formation of the C ring-cleaving product 1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol (1). Strain JCM 16059 catalyzed only C ring cleavage to form 1. Interestingly, the presence of hydrogen promoted the bioconversion of EGC by these bacteria. In addition, strain JCM 14811 revealed the ability to catalyze 4′-dehydroxylation of 1 to yield 1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol (2) in the presence of hydrogen. In the case of GC, strain JCM 14793 mainly produced C ring-cleaving product (1) with only a very small amount of 4′-dehydroxylated GC (8), while Strain JCM 14811 only catalyzed 4′-dehydroxylation to form 8. Strain JCM 16059 formed 1. The bioconversion of GC by the three strains was stimulated by hydrogen. Strain JCM 14793 showed the ability to convert 1 into 2 in the presence of hydrogen as did strain JCM 14811. Furthermore, strains JCM 14793 and JCM 14811 were found to have the ability to catalyze p-dehydroxylation of the pyrogallol moiety in the EGC metabolites 4-hydroxy-5-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)valeric acid (3) and 5-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone (4), and this ability was enhanced by the presence of hydrogen.
Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER (Araliaceae), which contains ginsenosides as its main components, has been shown to have various biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, anti-stress, and anti-tumor effects. Orally administered ginsenoside Rb1 and Re are metabolized to 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) and compound K via ginsenoside Rd and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT) and ginsenoside Rh1 via ginsenoside Rg1 by gut microbiota, respectively. Therefore, we investigated the anti-stress effects of these metabolites, PPD and PPT, by measuring their anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects in immobilized mice. Treatment with PPD and PPT prior to immobilization stress increased the time spent in open arms and open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. The anxiolytic effects of PPD (10 mg/kg) and PPT (10 mg/kg) were comparable to that of buspirone (1 mg/kg). This observed anxiolytic effect of PPD was significantly blocked by flumazenil or bicuculline, and the effect of PPT was blocked by WAY-100635. Treatment with PPD also potently suppressed immobilization stress-induced serum levels of corticosterone and interleukin (IL)-6 by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. However, PPT treatment did not suppress them. Based on these findings, PPD and PPT may exhibit the anxiolytic effect via γ-aminobutyrateA (GABAA) receptor(s) and serotonergic receptor(s), respectively, and PPD may have an anti-inflammatory effect that is more potent than that of PPT.
The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the production behavior of free adducts of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in Wistar rats under acute hyperglycemic conditions. Five AGE-free adducts as well as their precursors (i.e., highly reactive carbonyl intermediates of methylglyoxal and glyoxal) in rat plasma were quantitatively determined at greater than nanomolar levels using the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method coupled with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate and 2,3-diaminonaphthalene derivatization techniques. An oral glucose (2 g/kg dose) tolerance test to 10-week-old Wistar rats provided evidence that the plasma levels of diabetes-related metabolites did not change acutely within 120 min, irrespective of increasing blood glucose levels.