The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in brain regions associated with processing variety of different emotions (joy, humor, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Forty-two healthy right-handed volunteers pariticipated in the study. Six clips were excerpted from movies through our previous experiments of which purpose was to evoke different emotional responses. Subjects were scanned under six emotion-producing conditions. There found significant differences while participants were experiencing emotions. Sadness was associated with significant loci of activation in the superior frontal gyrus and putamen. In the joy condition, significant loci of activation were noted in the superior and middle temporal gyrus. Disugst was accompanied by specific activations of the superior temporal gyrus and hippocampus. Fear was correlated with significant loci of activation in the superior temporal gyrus and putamen. Humor was associated with significant loci of activation in the middle temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus. In anger condition, significant loci of activation were noted in the superior temporal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. These findings suggest that different brain regions are involved in processing different emotions.
Memory and emotional responses were collected from Korean young and old people one week, three months, and six months after Korean president Roh's sudden death and North Korea's nuclear crisis occurred around the same time. President Roh's death had more emotional impact than North Korea's nuclear crisis on young and old people. Old people experienced more intense emotions in both events and they had still lingering emotion on Roh's death over six months. However, both groups revealed no difference in recalling their episodic details when they heard about the two events, while recalling more about Roh's death than nuclear crisis. In the case of nuclear crisis memory performance decreased as time passed. On the contrary, in the case of Roh's death memory performance decreased at first but did not decrease after 3 months. This study showed some conflicting results with previous studies on flashbulb memory, which was discussed later.
Intention is known to crucially influence perceptual reversal. How does it work in daily life? To tap this question, a pair of real eyeglasses, ambiguous in their perspective, were presented, and observers were either informed of the reversibility or not, for 60 s monocularly. The results showed that, when in the direction that the lenses were further away than the legs, more observers with intention achieved the reversal. However, when viewed in the opposite direction, most observers failed regardless of intention. Interestingly, across both viewing conditions, most observers? initial organization was the direction that the lenses were nearer, which was suspected more familiar. That is, only when the initial organization was conflict with the veridical organization, observers intention was effective for the reversal, suggesting that the role of intention might be minimal in a real world, rather the relationship between the initial and veridical organizations is more important.
Considerable evidence has been accumulating that the human visual system has special sensitivity for the radial frequency (RF) patterns, which are deformations of circles defined by sinusoidal modulation of the radius in polar coordinates. RF information plays a critical role in combining retinal images analyzed by the early local linear filters into complex patterns such as faces. Faces are special for the human visual system and they have been in the forefront of art as well. We have archived artworks of representative Korean modern painters and extracted their distinctive styles with respect to RF information of faces in paintings. We then applied these quantitatively defined artists? signatures to authentication of questionable artworks. The results of a scientific approach based on the characteristic of human visual information processing to connoisseurship will be presented. In addition, cognitive evaluation of Korean modern paintings will be discussed with a visual aesthetic viewpoint.
We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) on unexpected events during simulated driving. The subjects were instructed to respond to a verbal turning-command and to change the driving route immediately (Route-change condition). Compared with the baseline condition (Route-fixed condition), subjects showed greater oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in their left prefrontal cortex. And the first experimental trial under Route-change condition showed greater oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in the left and right hemispheres. The results imply that PFC is involved in unexpected events and the first time of salience stimulus has the most significant effect on PFC.
It has been debated whether the effect of age of acquisition (AoA) can be explained by word frequency. Zevin and Seidenberg (2002) reported that the AoA effects observed in previous studies would be confounded with the cumulative frequency. On the other hand, some studies reported the effects of AoA using naming, lexical decision, and eyetracking (Juhaz & Rayner, 2006) and have discussed its locus. This study examined whether there would be independent AoA effects and also explored its locus using equi-biased homophones in Korean. In Experiment 1, after collecting the data of age of acquisition and subjective frequency of 1105 noun words with the assumption that subjective frequency would reflect the cumulative frequency well, we constructed the sentences with early and late acquired target words closely matched in subjective frequency. We found that the durations for first fixation, single fixation and gaze were shorter in early acquired words than in late acquired words. In Experiment 2, participants read sentences with high and low frequency words closely matched in AoA. We found that there was no difference between high-frequency and low-frequency words. In Experiment 3, we explored the semantic locus of AoA effect with equi-biased homophones, assuming that the early acquired meaning of a homophone would be more accessible than the late acquired meaning even if the two meanings are equally frequently used. We manipulated the meaning ambiguity (ambiguous vs. unambiguous) of a word and followed it with a word that disambiguated toward (the early acquired meaning vs. the late acquired meaning). The disambiguating word (eopche-ga) related to the early acquired meaning followed the homophone in (1a), and the unambiguous control word in (1b). The disambiguation word related to the late acquired meaning followed the homophone in (1c), and the unambiguous control word in (1d). We found that the go-past times of the disambiguating word in (1a) and (1b) were not different but the go-past times of the disambiguating word in (1c) were longer than in (1d).
These results suggest that AoA would be an independent factor and its effect seems to occur at the semantic level.
違反の生起要因の一つに，違反への潜在的態度があると考えられる。その測定手法として潜在的連合テスト(Implicit Association Test：IAT)に着目し，看護業務における違反への潜在的態度を測定するIATの作成を試みた。IATは，プライミングと反応速度の測定を利用した手法である。本研究では，「点滴の作り置き」等の違反と「わるい」や「不快」等の単語とに同じ反応を求めるブロックと，違反と「よい」や「快」等の単語とに同じ反応を求めるブロックを実施し，相対的に前者の反応が速いほど違反への潜在的態度が強いと判断した。このIATと医療従事者の安全に対する態度尺度(神薗, 2000)を看護学科の大学生71名に実施し，作成したIATの妥当性と信頼性を検討した。その結果，IATのブロック間の反応時間の差からツールとしての構成概念妥当性が示された。また，試行間のばらつきから信頼性(内的一貫性)が示された。IATを得点化したIAT得点と神薗(2000)の因子との前に有意な相関が見られたことから，基準関連妥当性も示された。
In this study, we developed stimuli and questionnaires to create a protocol designed to evoke a variety of emotion. Seven audio-visual film clips (joy, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise, stress) were selected and surveys were taken for the verification of the suitability and effectiveness of the selected stimulation set. Using this protocol, we conducted experiments over total of 5 times. During this process, we measured the following bio signals; GSR, ECG, PPG, SKT. To extract meaningful bio signal parameter, we analyzed them in each emotion between the baseline and emotional state for 30 seconds. Through this analysis, 26 meaningful parameters were extracted. For the pattern recognition against the above mentioned emotions with these parameters, we operated the neural network, a decision tree and the discriminant analysis. In conclusion, we have found the differences of the degree of accuracy among 3 kinds of emotion classifiers.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between facial EMG responses induced by humor and depression. Before the experiment, 43 children (age: 12-13, male: 22) rated on depression scale in PIC of Korean version to measure depression. During the experiment, bilateral corrugator and orbicularis were measured before the presentation of the stimulus (60 sec) and during emotional state (120 sec). After the presentation of stimulus, participants rated emotions they had experienced on an emotion assessment scale. The 95.3% of the participants reported they had experienced humor and the reported intensity of experienced emotion was 3.81(5 points scale). Facial EMG showed a significant increase during the humor induction when compared to the baseline. And the result showed a negative correlation between right corrugator and the level of depression. This means that as the score goes higher in the depression scores during the humor state, the facial EMG activity becomes less.