We examined whether study practice can cause forgetting. Participants first studied a list of items and then, during study practice, were asked to restudy some of the previously studied pairs along with some new pairs. Participants were then given a category-plus-stem cued-recall test for all originally studied category–exemplar pairs. Although study practice strengthened the subset of items being restudied and facilitated their subsequent recall, it did not cause related unstudied items to be forgotten. We suggest that inhibition may have played a similar role in causing the recognition-based retrieval-induced forgetting. These findings have important implications for understanding recognition processes.
To examine the neural bases of co-speech gesture production and perception, using the animation narration task in a face-to-face condition, we examined the brain activity changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The prefrontal activity was measured in 34 participant pairs of speaker and listener using NIRS. The speaker’s task was to watch an animation and to narrate the story to the listener. Based on the number of gestures produced by each speaker, 34 participant pairs were divided into two groups (high vs. low gesture groups). The results showed that the left prefrontal activity of speakers in the high-gesture group was significantly lower than that of speakers in the low-gesture group, while the bilateral prefrontal activity of listeners did not show any significant differences between the two groups. These findings suggest that production of gestures functions to reduce the cognitive load of memory retrieval and narrative framing in the left PFC.
This study tested the hypothesis that while language comprehension processes such as structural analysis and initial semantic analysis are highly learned and automatic in first language (L1) while those processes are more controlled and therefore consume more cognitive resource in second language (L2). The reading time data showed that both L1 and L2 speakers took longer to read a more complex text than a simpler text. However, self-evaluation data suggest that the native speakers were not aware of the difference in text difficulty while the L2 learners clearly indicated that the more complex texts were harder to read. These results seem to suggest that whereas cognitive demand due to text difficulty leads to more controlled processing in L2 whereas in L1 the change of reading process due to text difficulty is subconscious rather than consciously controlled.
Magliano, Miller & Zwaan (2001)は状況的次元のうち時間次元と空間次元が映像視聴理解に影響を及ぼすことを示した。本研究では大学生を対象に，５つの状況的次元が映像視聴理解に及ぼす影響についてアニメ映像を用い検討した。アニメ映像はカットごとに区切った。参加者には１つのカットの映像刺激の再生が止まった時，キーを押して続きを見るように教示した。カットごとに再生が止まってからキーを押すまでの時間を反応時間とし，それについて重回帰分析を行い，状況的次元の連続性破綻がアニメ視聴理解に及ぼす影響を検討した。その結果，文章を読む時と同様に時間次元の連続性破綻が反応時間に一番影響を与えた。一方，アニメ視聴理解のみにBGMの終了も有意な影響を与えた。すなわち，文章から形成される状況モデルと映像からのそれに影響を与える次元には共通する次元と異なる次元が存在する可能性が示唆された。