Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a communication skills scale for nursing faculties to engage during basic nursing education (Communication Skill Inventory for supporting learning of Nursing teachers Ability: CoSINA) and to examine its reliability and validity.
Method: The draft version of CoSINA was composed of 8 sub-concepts and 68 items. CoSINA was created by the review of previous related literature and discussions from nursing vocational school teachers. The questionnaire was posted nationwide to 1,544 nursing teachers who had three years or more experience as nursing teachers in a basic nursing education program. The questionnaire was an anonymous self-administered type.
Results: Answers were received from 639 respondents (42.1%), of which valid responses were 582 (91%). Eight factors comprising 48 items were identified as an optimal solution model in the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach'alpha coefficient for the reliability of the scale was .954, each factor was also .7 or more. We examined the relationship between KiSS-18 (scale for social skills) and CoSINA to confirm a criterion-related validity. The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was .30 to .50. The in-class correlation number between the total points by the retest method was r = .82 for the entire scale.
Conclusion: The results suggested that CoSINA was valid and reliable to measure nursing communication skills.
Aim: This study aimed to clarify workplace experiences that are related to the self-direction of novice nurses.
Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted for 16 nurses in their third year of working. The participants were employed in the hospital directly after graduating from the basic nursing education program. The data were analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach.
Results: Workplace experiences relating the self-direction of novice nurses began with cultivating clinical thinking, which led to accumulating confidence in the self based on "increasing self-esteem". Furthermore, the experience of expanding the opportunity to demonstrate one's ability which was based on "increasing self-esteem", led to further "increasing self-esteem".
Conclusion: The transformation of the self-direction of novice nurses was an important experience key to "increasing self-esteem". The self-esteem increase was related to obtaining approval based on interactions with others, suggesting that approval support in line with the development of novice nurses is important.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the changes in olfactory sensitivity and odor preferences during the sexual cycle. The subjects were 36 mature females in their twenties with normal olfactory functions and a stable menstrual cycle. Olfactory tests were conducted at two points in the luteal and follicular phases in the mature women using the T&T olfactometer, the only standardized olfactory measurement device in Japan. As a result, only isovaleric acid (C5H10O2) showed a lower detection threshold (p<.05) because a higher olfactory sensitivity in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. Isovaleric acid has a putrid or human body odor. In the luteal phase, those who responded that they liked the standard odor A ( β-phenyl ethyl alcohol: C8H10O) tended to have a higher cognitive threshold than those stating that they disliked it (p<.05). There was no change in olfactory sensitivity and other odors during the sexual cycle.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Workplace Support Scale, which was designed to measure workplaces support sought by re-employed nurses in hospitals.
Methods: A self-bearer type questionnaire survey was conducted to 1,479 re-employed nurses in 141 hospitals. The original items of the scale were created from focus group and assessed by the Content Validity Index at the item level. Thereafter, factor analysis was performed. And the Cronbach's α coefficients were calculated.
Results: The following four factors comprising 20 items were identified from the factor analysis: work support, mental support, adaptation preparation support and educational support. The Cronbach's α coefficient for overall scale was .94.
Discussion: The result of analysis generally supported reliability and validity of the scale, as evidenced by its content and construct validity and Cronbach's α coefficient.
Purpose: This study aimed to clarify the developmental process of cooperation with other institutions through the provision of information on “parents and children of concern” by midwives working at maternity clinics.
Methods: Data obtained from interviews of eight midwives were analyzed using the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA).
Results: The process of developing cooperation between institutions following a report by midwifes in a maternity clinic with respect to “parents and children of concern” is as follows. The midwifes participated in “information provision involving interaction with other institutions”. Then, the midwives could gain an “understanding of the course of events with the parents and child” through this feedback of information from other institutions and “get the opportunity to start change” from other institutions. Through these two actions, the midwives “gained empirical knowledge that they could then apply for further” support and “recognized the other institutions as reliable partners” so “awareness for cooperation increased” and “cooperation was enhanced.” Ultimately, it was that a continuous “new stage of cooperation was born”.
Conclusion: Interactions with other institutions provide midwives with empirical knowledge, which further assists parents and children and promotes cooperation between the institutions.
Objectives: To examine research on sex education provided at home by Japanese parents, clarifying the annual changes, age of the target children, research objectives, and level of evidence of the published articles, in order to clarify the direction of future research.
Methods: We searched articles published in Japan Medical Abstract Society and other resources between 1986 and 2015, using the key words “home”, “parents”, and “sex education”. As a result, 62 articles were identified, among which 32 articles were selected for analysis. Tabulation was performed with respect to the annual changes and the age of the target children, while the research objectives were categorized and classified by the level of evidence.
Results: The number of articles increased after 2001 and the ages of the target children showed a wider range. However, comparative studies or case series (evidence level II) accounted for 90% of the published literature and there were no level I intervention studies. The chief research objectives were “the status of sex education provided by parents” and “the status of children's sexual behavior.” Field studies were mainly employed for research.
Conclusion: There was a lack of intervention studies that could promote behavioral change to allow parents to provide sex education with more confidence.
Purpose: To clarify the state of nursing research implementation and support at hospitals in Chiba Prefecture and to examine support system mechanisms.
Methods: We conducted a questionnaire (survey) of the head nurses from 184 hospitals with 100 or more beds in Chiba Prefecture in September 2016. The items included the current state of nursing research projects and issues in nursing research implementation.
Results: Responses were obtained from 92 hospitals (valid response rate of 100%). In 2015, 71.7% of hospitals performed nursing research. However, only half of the hospitals reportedly provided a supportive environment for nursing research. Hospitals that were more supportive conducted significantly more nursing research. We found an obvious relation between consideration for ensuring research time and research implementation. Many head nurses were aware of insufficiencies in nurses' knowledge, attitude, and research time, as well as shortages in staff capable of guidance and fur ther nore, requested staff training to be able to provide research guidance within the hospital.
Conclusion: While there was a basis for implementing nursing research, there is an urgent requirement for on-site staff to be trained to provide advice and guidance for nurses within the hospital.