Aim: We aimed to clarify the process that how mothers thought and acted about their children’s obesity in people with severe intellectual disabilities and autism, from their birth to the present. Nursing support for body weight management was also reviewed. Method: We conducted semi-structured interviews of 10 mothers and analyzed the results using the modified grounded theory approach; M-GTA. Result: The findings of this study indicated that mothers had to do “patterning support of the meal for the peace” which led to obesity, intensified by “the attachment to their children who had difficult independence”, because mothers coped desperately with issues of diet and hyperkinesia caused by autism and severe intellectual disabilities during their child era. In addition, though mothers tried to “breaking patterns meal support to lose weight”, they tend to do “patterning support of the meal for the peace”. Conclusion: These results suggest that nurses should help mothers to reinforce “breaking patterns meal support to lose weight” and to weaken “patterning support of the meal for the peace”.
We sought to explore the anxiety felt by pediatric ward nurses during sudden changes in young patients’ condition. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 pediatric ward nurses and used phenomenological analysis to analyze their responses. We extracted three categories of anxiety felt by pediatric ward nurses: 1) worries and upsets associated with a sense that their skills were inadequate to deal with sudden changes; 2) concerns and upsets over the progress of patients and their families’ reaction; and 3) worries associated with disadvantageous environmental conditions and difficulties corresponding to these environments. These findings indicate that patient conditions and families’ reactions progress from when they are anticipating the sudden change, at the time the sudden changes occur, during the sudden changes, and after the sudden changes. Responding to sudden changes in patient condition requires not only adequate knowledge and skills, but also clinical judgment based on experience. However, nurses worried about their nursing competence in responding to changes in patient conditions. Their concerns and upsets over patient progress and family reactions were influenced by feelings of inadequate competence and worries regarding disadvantageous environmental conditions.
Purpose: We examined the correlations of the sense of authenticity and emotional labor with the professional identity of nurses. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey of nurses with more than 2 years of experience in special functioning or regional medical-care support hospitals. Results: Emotional labor by surface acting exerted a negative impact on the professional identity of nurses, whereas that by deep acting had a positive effect. Furthermore, the sense of authenticity positively influenced deep acting and the professional identity of nurses. Conclusions: Emotional labor has ambiguous effects on the professional identity of nurses, whereas the sense of authenticity indirectly influences the professional identity of nurses and emotional labor associated with deep acting.
Objectives: This study examined the influence of certain parenting participation factors (i.e., family attributes, motivations, and environment) on paternal involvement in childcare, as well how social support influenced those parenting participation factors. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 750 fathers of children attending kindergarten and nursery school. The survey covered the period from January to February 2017 and analyzed (1) family attributes, such as father’s age, family structure, etc.; (2) childcare motivations such as perceptions of gender roles, acceptance of the father’s role, etc.; (3) childcare environment; (4) social support; and (5) weekday housekeeping and childcare hours. Results: Multiple regression analysis revealed that such factors as “initiative consciousness” and the father’s annual net income had an influence on weekday housekeeping and childcare hours. Spousal social support also had an influence on initiative consciousness, and supervisors’ social support had an influence on the father’s annual net income. Conclusion: The results suggested that a conventional role-sharing consciousness, where work plays a primary role, is related to the father’s involvement in childcare. It is possible that spouses and work supervisors alike may play a key role in paternal involvement in childcare.
Purpose: To investigate the effects of Ashiyu intervention on lactation by continuously administering the intervention in early-stage postpartum women who are breastfeeding directly. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with postpartum women who hoped to breastfeed their child, after vaginal delivery. Blood pressure, pulse rate, breast skin temperature, direct breastfeeding volume, expressed breast milk volume, lactation intensity, breast induration, warmth and tightness in the breasts were evaluated. Results: In the Ashiyu group, breast skin temperature gradually increased from the second postpartum day, whereas in the control group, it increased from the fourth postpartum day. The expressed breast milk volumes were significantly higher in the Ashiyu group on the second and fifth postpartum days. Lactation intensity was also higher in the Ashiyu group on all five postpartum days. Moreover, breast induration disappeared earlier, and warmth and tightness in the breasts appeared earlier in the Ashiyu group. Conclusions: Our results suggest that by promoting blood circulation, increasing skin temperature, and hence, enhancing metabolism, Ashiyu intervention effectively increases breast skin temperature and breast milk production, reduces build-up of breast milk, and induces the start of lactation.
Purpose: This study aimed to create a decision-making model of job change based on the framework of the theory of planned behavior, by extracting the variables that regulate its process: cognitive attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Method: The study participants were 1,783 nurses, and a self-administered questionnaire was used. The survey items consisted of 4 factors and 28 items for cognitive attitudes, 4 items for subjective norms, and 11 items for perceived behavioral control. Result: The findings of the analysis verified the validity of this model (GFI = .96, AGFI = .93, CFI = .92, RMSEA = .06). The variables that regulated the decision-making process for job change in nurses were as follows. For cognitive attitudes: “my nursing competence will improve,” “I will feel more fulfillment from my work than I currently do”, “I will acquire the means for self-realization”, and “the goal(s) I should achieve as a nurse will become clearer than they are now”; for subjective norms: “family”; and for perceived behavioral control: “age”, “to change jobs as soon as the idea occurs to my mind”, and “connections”. Conclusion: The above indicated that the decision-making model was created based on the framework of the theory of planned behavior, by extracting the variables that regulate its process: cognitive attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control.
A literature review was conducted to elucidate the status of research on stroke patient self-management and trends in this research. Seven articles from Japan and 98 from other countries were extracted from the Igaku Chuo Zasshi, PubMed, and CINAHL databases. The reports, which had been published since 2000, indicated that intervention studies had increased in other countries in the previous 5 years. Only fact-finding surveys and literature reviews were reported in Japan, while research on the development of scales and support tools, intervention protocols, intervention studies, and the evaluation of intervention programs had also been conducted abroad. Overall, there were too few fact-finding surveys that evaluated the process of self-management, and intervention programs were at the development stage. Nevertheless, the studies showed that while appropriate self-management behavior is likely to improve physical and mental function and quality of life, a certain percentage of patients do not engage in such behavior, due in part to an inadequate recovery support environment after discharge. A need was identified for criteria and scales that can be used to evaluate the process as a whole and intervention programs based on actual circumstances.
Background and purpose: The present study aimed to elucidate visiting nurses’ perceived difficulties and corresponding measures in providing practical guidance during home-based nursing care practical training. Method: Participants were 10 visiting nurses. Data were collected through group interviews, and a qualitative descriptive analysis was performed. Results: The following four categories were extracted pertaining to the difficulties perceived by visiting nurses in providing practical guidance during home-based nursing care practical training: the [generation gap] perceived due to the manners of the students, [a sense of burden in accompanying visits], [difficulty in providing practical guidance], and the [anxiety about providing practical guidance on one’s own]. The visiting nurses implemented measures such as [understanding the student], [providing guidance according to the student’s abilities], [developing new ways to provide guidance], [providing guidance according to the home-based treatment environment], and [connecting the care recipient with the student] to address these difficulties. However, they were unable to resolve the problem of [anxiety about providing practical guidance on one’s own]. Conclusion: It was suggest that visiting nurse could recognize the role of the training leader during home-based nursing care practice, and the need of the education support to practice of the training instruction competency as well as role accomplishment.