Journal for the Integrated Study of Dietary Habits
Online ISSN : 1881-2368
Print ISSN : 1346-9770
ISSN-L : 1346-9770
Volume 12 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 86-89
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 90-94
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 95-99
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Hisae OGAWA, Sachiko OKUSHIMA, Hiromi KODAMA
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 100-108
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The cooking characteristics of the diacylglycerol-rich oil (DAG-O) and triacylglycerol-rich oil (TAG-O) prepared from the same raw materials were examined by the comparison of oil-rich dishes cooked with either oil. The dishes prepared were deep-fried foods (fried without flour, or with flour, bread crumbs or batter (Tempura)), fried dishes, and salad dressings. The characteristics of the dish items were examined and summarized as follows:
    1) According to the sensory test conducted immediately after cooking, DAG-O was evaluated as being equal to TAG-O for deep-fried foods, fried-foods and salads, and was highly evaluated in Tempura because of its texture.
    2) When the sensory test was conducted 30 minutes after cooking, evaluations on deep-fried potatoes cooked with DAG-O were significantly lower than those cooked with TAG-0. This was because those potatoes easily absorbed moisture in general, and DAG-O was more hydrophilic than TAG-O. The evaluation to DAG-O inevitably decreased during this period. No significant differences were exhibited in other items.
    3) In the separation speed of the oil and water phases in salad dressings, DAG-O required a longer period than TAG-O. About 1/2 at the amount of DAG-O to TAG-O separated within 50 minutes, e. g., 55.5% of DAG-O: 89% of TAG-O.
    4) The amount of dressing adhered to the salad materials, which was determined by adhered crude fat measurements, was not different between DAG-O and TAG-O.
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  • Yoshimi Minari, Noritaka Tokui, Gen Sheng Zhu, Xin Guo
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 109-114
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Health policy, such as kenkounihon 21, has been implemented to enrich Japanese life in an aging and a birth dearth society. This policy includes many desired goals of nutritional program. Dietary habits have brought renewed interst in the important factor to promote health condition, because the intake of food is largely associated with the risk of life style related diseases.
    In the People's Republic of China, “Yakushokudougen”, which is the idea that diet has also an essential role in maintaining good health status like Chinese medicine, has been passed down from generation to generation. This idea has developed into Chinese medicated diet in traditional Chinese medicine. In other words, Chinese medicated diet is based on the theory of Chinese medicine. Chinese medicated diet is distinguished for an adaptation of practice to individual's constitution. Only very recently has Western medicine developed the treatment according to gene.
    Dietary habits have deteriorated greatly in terms of health promotion. Therefore Chinese medicated diet has great scientific significance in the prevention of life style related disease. We introduce the definition, history and theory of Chinese medicated diet to be able to make the most of this dietary therapy.
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  • Saishi Hirota, Yu-lin Cui, Saeko Kaburagi, Tetsuya Arinobu, Hiroaki In ...
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 115-126
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Conversion of carotenoids to retinol is due fundamentally to the presence of β-retinylidene residues (β-ionone ring) as end-groups in the carotenoids. It is well known that in some fish xanthophylls such as canthaxanthin, astaxanthin and zeaxanthin, those that generally are not termed as Provitamin A, are converted to retinol by reductive metabolism. However, in mammals, it has not been made clear whether these xanthophylls are converted to retinol or not. This study, based on clinical experiments on rats, was carried out in order to clarify this particular issue.
    60 male rats (Sprague Dawly, 3 weeks old) were grown for 21 days on a Vitamin A (V. A) deficient diet prior to the experiment. They were then divided into 10 groups, 2 of which were used as control groups. Each of the remaining 8 groups was fed on a diet containing β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, lycopene, or retinyl acetate for 8 day. After the experimental period, the weight ofthe bodies and internal organs were measured for all rats. At the same time, the concentration of carotenoids, retinoids, and retinol binding protein (RBP) in the blood and internal organs was determined. Since retinol binds to RBP in blood with a 1: 1 molar ratio, the concentration of retinol corresponds to that of RBP. Therefore, the concentration of RBP can be a good measure to determine the conversion efficiency of carotenoids to retinol.
    The reduced body weight of rats fed on the V.A deficient diet significantly increased for the diet containing β-carotene or β-cryptoxanthin. However, a remarkable increase was not detected for the other carotenoids. The content of carotenoids in the liver was remarkably high for the diet containing lycopene, and was high for the diet containing β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, or canthaxanthin. For the astaxanthin-, lutein-or zeaxanthin-group, the carotenoid content in the liver was negligible. The content of retinol in the blood was 4.3 times that of the control group in the β-carotene group, 3.2 times in the β-cryptoxanthin group, 1.1 times in the canthaxanthin group, and 0.8 times in the lycopene group.Remarkable changes were not observed in the other groups. The RBP content in the blood was 4.5 times that of the control group in the β-carotene group, 2.8 times in the β-cryptoxanthin group, 1.2 times in the canthaxanthin group, and 0.8 times in the lycopene group. Marked changes were not observed in the other groups.
    Based on all the findings conclusions were made as follows.(1)β-arotene and β-cryptoxanthin are quite easily converted to retinol by oxidative metabolism due to the presence of β-ionone end-groups.(2) Conversion from lycopene to retinol is difficult because of the presence of the ψ-ionone end-group.(3) Conversion from canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, or zeaxanthin to retinol via β-carotene and that from astaxanthin or lutein to 3, 4 d-ehydroretinol via anhydro 3, 4-dehydroretinol are difficult in mammals unless some reductive reagents are included in the diet. In order to confirm the final conclusion, further investigation is necessary, for example, by elongating the period during which the rats are fed the diet containing the xanthophylls.
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  • Fumiko Tonozuka, Keiko Miyoshi, Takeko Tani
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 127-133
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We studied the changes in the quality (sensory tests) of 22kinds of stewed dishes and their re-heating Conditions using the Cook-Chill System.
    The results are as follows.
    (1) The reheating times by a convection oven at 120°C and 140°C were shorter than those by an ordinary oven at 100°C and 120°C. A steamed oven at 100°C showed a similar tendency to a convection oven at 120°C and 140°C.
    (2) The changes in weight were significantly different according to the conditions of the reheating. When heated by an ordinary oven and an infrared oven, the weight of the dish decreased, while the weight of the dish increased when heated by a convection oven and a steamed oven. Concerning the main material category, the weight loss ratio of vegetables and the weight gain ratio of potatoes were high.
    (3) With regard to the relationship between the reheating time and the score of the sensory test evaluation, we observed the tendency that the longer the reheating time, the lower the scores for appearance, taste and texture, and also the taste became thicker and stronger.
    (4) With regard to the relationship between the reheating time and the score of the sensory test evaluation, we observed the tendency that the heavier the weight, the higher the evaluation for appearance, taste and texture, and also the food became tender and the taste thinner and weaker.
    (5) While differences of the reheating conditions affected the evaluation scores of the sensory test of the stewed dishes, all the stewed dishes which were used for the present experiments were evaluated as suitable for the cook-chill system.
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  • Fumiko Tonozuka, Takeko Tani, Chinatsu Watanabe, Yasuo Aoyagi
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 134-140
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We experimented on the changes of round beef and plate of beef of cook-chill system.
    The samples were prepared for five conditions, i. e.(1) Craw meat, (2) heated meat (steamed), (3) chilled storage for three days after heating, (4) chilled storage for fivedays after heating, and (5) reheated after chilled storage for five days.
    After we differentiated the neutral lipid and the phospholipid from extracted lipid of the each samples, we measured the composition of fatty acid and peroxide value (POV) in each lipid. We also conducted each sensory tests of heated meat and re-heated meat after chilled storage for five days.
    We obtained the following results:
    1. The ratio of phospholipid in the total lipid was 8.29 (±0.53)% for round of beef, and 2.84 (±0.71)% for the plate of beef.
    2. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid of round beef was greater than that of the plate of beef. The total lipid and the neutral lipid had the same lipid composition. But the amount of phospholipid in C14:0, C16:0, C16: 1, and C18: 1 was less than that in C18: 2, C20: 4.
    3. The chilled storage or re-heated changed the lipid composition of phospholipid.
    The content of polyunsaturated fatty acid decreased, while those of saturated fatty acid and monovalent unsaturated fatty acid increased.
    4. The values of POV was increased by chilled storage, but this was decreased by reheated. The change of phospholipid was significant comparing to that of neutral lipid.
    5. The result of sensory tests showed that the sample which was reheated after the chilled storage for five days had a lower evaluation score than that of immediately after heated. It also showed that the sample of vacuum packed did not have a lower evaluation score during the chilled storage.
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  • Chie Iihara, Kazuko Okuda, Atsuko Kitao, Taeko Kuragano
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 141-147
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aims to find out how college women students'health is affected by their night-centered lifestyles and diet behavior.564 of them were randomly selected and asked questions about their eating habits, diet behavior, general malaises, and evacuative conditions.The findings are as follows:
    1.Ninety percent of them said they were in good health conditions.However, this is not necessarily the case, judging from their general malaises and evacuative behavior.Over forty percent of the respondents checked more than five items on the malaise questions. While a little less than a half of the students finish evacuating just before or after breakfast, about a half of them evacuate irregularly or do so at night.
    2.Approximately eighty percent of the respondents have ever been on diets.Those who are on diets now tend to skip breakfast and/or lunch and eat meals at night.It can be said therefore that a diet is one of the causes of the students'breakfast skipping behavior and night-centered lifestyles.
    3.Those who circled more items on the general malaises tend to go to bed late and sleep short.This suggests that a night-centered lifestyle has a negative effect on one's health and hence it is necessary to change it into a day-centered one to reduce general malaises. Moreover, those who are on diets now tend to check more items on the general malaises, and this implies that a diet may do harm to one's health.
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  • Genji Ishibashi, Sangae Kim, Shigeshi Kikunaga
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 148-153
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The nutrients contained in the raw egg, liver and outer skin of silky and white leghorn were analzyed.
    The amount of proteins, phosholipids, α-tocopherol and retinol in the raw egg of silky were high compared to white leghorn.
    However, the concentration of cholesterol was lower in silky than white leghorn.
    Adult male rats were fed a cholesterol diet with 1% egg oil and 5% dried outer skin. After 4 weeks of feeding, serum total cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in rats fed silky egg oil than in those fed white leghorn egg oil.It seems that the ingredient which affects lipid metabolism does not exist in the outer skin of the silky.
    There was a higher amount of IgG in serum of the outer skin of silky group compared to outer skin of white leghon group.
    The amount of total proteins and RAN in liver were higher in ratsfed with dried outer skin of the silky. Moreover, the GOT and GPT activity in the liver were found to be higher in the case of outer skin of silky group than the outer skin of white leghon group.
    We suggest the possible presence of a component in the outer skin of silky which promotes the activation of the liver function.
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  • Treatment of Kenaf Leaves
    Kazuko Hosomi, Yuki Okada, Tosiko Morishita, Hiroshi Inagaki
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 154-159
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Kenat leaves contain a large amount of calcium and dietary fibers.In powder form, the dried leaves can be stored and used all year round as a supplementary additive for their rich calcium and dietary fibers.However, probably due to the existence of Catechin in the leaves, they have a bitter taste, and cannot be used in foods without special treatment.
    We previously reported that we could decrease the bitterness of the leaves by natural drying and used them in powder form in different foods including Japanese noodle (udon), steamed cake, bread, dumpling, and sponge cake, and found out that the most acceptable amount of dried Kenaf powder was 1-2%.
    In the present study, we examined the possibility of increasing the amount of Kenaf powder added to “Udon” as a sample food, by improving the treatment method of the leaves.Similar to the steam treatment used for Japanese green tea, in our experimentsthe leaves were steamed for 10 min. and then heated for different periods of time.For heating, an incubator and a microwave were used.The Catechin value, surface-color, and textural profiles of the samples were measured and evaluated.
    The results indicated that the Catechin was reduced by 60% by steam treatment. The best taste was obtained when the leaves were dried in a microwave heated at 60° for 150 sec.When this dried powder was added by 3 % of weight to “Udon”, the taste, color, flavor, and hardness of the noodle were well accepted.
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  • Tomoko KIMURA, Hiroko SASAKI, Kiyoshi KAMEDA, Tatsuyuki SUGAHARA
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 160-166
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    With regard to the Tobiko of Konnyaku from the 1997-1999 year crops and the Tobiko refined by ultrasonication, their respective tissue structures, odorous substances, color tone, proximate components and dietary fiber were compared and discussed.
    (1) Scanning electron microscopic observations of Tobiko refined by ultrasonication showed dispersed particles, while those of unrefined Tobiko were partially gathered particles.It was inferred that ultrasonication gave rise to such differences and refinement.
    (2) Material A refined by ultrasonication had a remarkably lower TMA and DMA than Material B without ultrasonication and the former was apparently decolored to a pale brown in comparison with the dark brown of the latter.Protein, lipid and ash of the Tobiko refined by ultrasonication had slightly decreased but the carbohydrate and total dietary fiber was relatively increased.There was no significant difference among the 9 kinds of minerals.It has proved to be an improved and promising food material.
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  • Fumiko Iida, Tomoko Takahashi, Aki Kawano, Atsuko Watanabe, Hiro Ogosh ...
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 167-175
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A fact-finding survey was followed by an awareness survey, with the same individuals serving as the survey subjects, for determining their food preference, analyzing the various factors that comprised their eating habits, and shedding light on their general attitude toward eating.
    1.A difference between genders was revealed in food preference.Male students favored Western and Chinese foods with a focus on meat, whereas female students preferred snack-type Western foods.
    2. The factors which scored the highest points (specifically, those that earned 1.0 or more on the eigenvalue) indicated that both the male and female students perceived their own eating habits as “eating irregularly and choosing foods according to personal preference.”
    3. Male students ate out for socializing and for spiritual contentment although they were not satisfied with the contents of such meals.Female students, in contrast, were discontent with the taste of the food when eating out, but did so because it was convenient and saved time.
    4. The study on college students'awareness of meals disclosed that they gained little satisfaction from their meals, tended to eat at different hours compared with other familymembers, and had no negative feelings about eating alone.
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  • Fumiko Hayakawa, Akiko Maeda, Kiyoko Mizuno, Miyuki Minami, Satomi Shi ...
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 176-182
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    There are reports about the custom of eating rice gruel made with tea in mainly western Japan.But details are not clear.In order to clarify the reason and origin of it, the range and distribution of this custom in Saga prefecture in2000is investigated by a questionnaire distributed to dietitians (age20-70) living in the area.
    1) The custom of eating rice gruel made with tea is more practiced especially the regions under the rule of Nabeshima and Hasuike clans for economic and scarcity reasons.
    2) 41%of people in Saga prefecture have this custom, however it is on the decrease.
    3) Rice gruel made with tea is called Tyagayu or Tyagai rather than Okaisan.
    4) The common ingredients added to rice gruel made with tea in Saga are sweet potato and rice cake.
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  • Miwako Narusaka, Yoshie Suga
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 183-190
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The dietary life character at Okayama Prefecture was investigated with regard to food and nutrient intake by the National Nutrition Survey Japan from1946 to1994, a period of 49years.
    Comparison of each year was done as follows:{(Okayama Prefecture data/1000kcal)-(Japan data/1000kcal)}/(Japan data/1000kcal)×100 (%). The results for Okayama Prefecture were as follows:
    1.During the entire period, the fat rates were less in Okayama Prefecture than in the whole of Japan.Until mind1960s, the animal protein rates were more than in the whole of Japan, but after that period they decreased.
    2.During the entire period, the rice rates were more in Okayama Prefecture than in the whole of Japan, but from mind1960s to mind1970s, the wheat and barley rates were less. After mind 1960s, the oil and fat rates were less and the fish rates were more than in the whole of Japan expect the period from mid 1980s to mid 1990s.
    3.Changes in the fat rates (r=0.85) and calcium rates r=0.89) were significantly correlated to females' age-adjusted death rates in Okayama Prefecture compated to the ones in the whole of Japan from1960to1990 (p<0.05). And similarlyoil and fat rates r=0.88) were significantly correlated to males'ones (p<0.05).
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  • Chemical composition-II
    Tatsuyuki SUGAHARA, Yukiko NEGISHI, Hiroko SASAKI, Masami OKUZAKI
    2001 Volume 12 Issue 2 Pages 191-195
    Published: September 30, 2001
    Released: January 31, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Six types of commercially grown mushrooms consisting of Pleurotus eringii, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Pholiota adiposa, Coporinus comatus and Agrocybe cylin dracea were analyzed for general ingredients, dietary fiber, minerals, sugars/sugar-alcohols, organic acids and free amino acids.In addition, Pleurotus salmoneostramineus was analyzed for sugars/sugar-alcohols and organic acids.As a result, Pleurotus eringii was found to have low levels of proteins, potassium and free amino acids, but high levels of sugars/ sugar-alcohols (and particularly trehalose).
    Pleurotus pulmonarius was found to have high levels of proteins, zinc, organic acids and free amino acids, but low levels of sodium and sugars/sugar-alcohols.Pleurotus cystidiosus was found to have relatively low levels of proteins and free amino acids among the mushrooms analyzed in this study, while having a relatively high level of potassium, calcium, zinc and dietary fiber.Coporimus comatus demonstrated relatively high levels of proteins, sodium sugars/sugar-alcohols (and particularly trehalose), organic acids and free amino acids, but a low level of dietary fiber.Although Agrocybe cylindracea and Pholiota adiposa exhibited values that were intermediate to the other mushrooms analyzed in this study with respect to general ingredients, sugars/ sugar-alcohols, organic acids and free amino acids, they exhibited somewhat high levels of potasium and dietary fiber.Although Pleurotus salmoneostramineus was found to have high levels of proteins, phosphoras, zinc and free amino acids, it exhibited low levels of sugars/sugar-alcohols and organic acids.
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