Traditional Japanese cuisine (WASHOKU) was added to the UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage list in 2013, resulting in more attention to WASHOKU in all over the world. In Japan, however, the WASHOKU culture seems to gradually disappear in our daily life. To maintain and heritage the WASHOKU culture, home dining and regional cuisine are important targets to be considered. Seasoning appears to be a key factor in establishing characteristics of each regional cuisine. Soy sauce, one of traditional seasonings, is especially important because soy sauce is frequently utilized throughout Japan to cook regional cuisine. Therefore, we first investigated its regional characteristics by using sensory analysis. As a result, we showed that as the region is far from the Tokyo metropolitan area, saltiness intensity of soy sauce tends to be low. We also examined the compatibility between soy sauce and local dishes. Furthermore, we found that using soy sauce in western dishes, the amount of salt could be reduced and the dish became more palatable. We hope that the registration of WASHOKU to UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage list become a good occasion to increase the opportunity to consider and talk more about soy sauce as an important WASHOKU constituent, to facilitate communication among people, and to strengthen the value of WASHOKU.
A glycation reaction was induced by adding malt eluate to cooked glutinous rice and non-glutinous rice. In both types of rice, starch breakdown began early in the reaction and a large volume of maltose accumulated. However, the volume of the final glycation end-product was larger for glutinous rice than for non-glutinous rice. The likely reason for the smaller volume of glycation end-product from cooked non-glutinous rice compared to cooked glutinous rice is that the cooked (pregelatinized) rice starch ages more readily in glutinous rice starch composed of only amylopectin, compared to non-glutinous rice starch, which contains amylose and which makes glycation more difficult. The capacity of cooked glutinous rice for efficient glycation may be why it has traditionally been selected over non-glutinous rice for the glycation of malt syrup.
This internet-based attitude survey was conducted to describe the current status and challenging issues facing at visiting home nutritional guidance (VHNG) by 228 dieticians (D) and 222 managerial dieticians (MD) .
(1) There are differences in the age and career history in the female Ds and the MDs, but there was no great difference as to their residential distribution, gender, number of objects, the addresses and work environment.
(2) Ds worked mainly at meal centers, kindergartens/day-care centers, as school nutritional teachers and staff members. MDs worked mainly in hospital/nursing welfare facilities as nutritionists and catering managers. They worked in the area where their professional characteristics were best utilized.
(3) 80% of both Ds and MDs were inexperienced as VHNG counselor for home-bound patients. Many organizations have not implemented VHNG system due to lack of policies and adequate environment.
(4) Of experienced VHNG counselors for home-bound patients, 70% worked with total number of 1-10 patients as a group, about twice a month for maximum of 8-9 months/patient. The guidance contents provided groups were mainly "dietary intake and patient's health check", contents of guidance offered by Ds included "cooking instruction and shopping guidance" and "guidance of helper while those offered by MDs included" guidance on dietary content and form in various situations, "preparation of meal plans". Qualitative differences in instruction content were observed between Ds and MDs. Both groups reported that >50% of their patients responded with "the great interest to cooking" and "the nutritional position improved" after dietic guidance was given.
(5) Approximately 50% of Ds/MDs reported as reasons for low rate of implementation of VHNG; "low awareness of patients, doctors and health care workers", "cost performance" and "environmental improvement".,
Results suggested that the need for establishing specific roles of Ds/MDs as human resources for nutrition care and development for their such as referral route based on mutual understanding among users and the medical multi-disciplinary collaborators on VHNG.
Mass transfer in food substrates is important for understanding the cooking processes. In classical studies for the diffusion processes of seasoning materials in the substrates, it has been typical to assume a single Fick's diffusion coefficient (D) for the interpretation. In the present study, the concentration profiles of NaCl in konjac, sweet potato and apple, whether they were preheated or raw, were measured by soaking the materials in a solution for several periods (30-180 min) at 85℃. As the results of konjac (180 min) and sweet potato (raw and preheated, 30 min) , the profiles were found to be successfully reproduced by assuming two D's under their changing contributions with the NaCl concentration. The diffusion behaviors of glucose in konjac and sweet potato were also studied. The concentration profile for konjac was well reproduced with a single D, but the profile for sweet potato (preheated, 60 min) needed to use the two coefficients for the reproduction. The use of two D's also reasonably approximated the predictions by the dual mode diffusion theory. It is expected that the present interpretation will provide a useful method leading to understanding the molecular processes involving the diffusion of small molecules in food substrates.
We cooked pumpkin (raw, frozen) in two ways: vacuum and conventional and conducted a comparative review of quality and taste after the pumpkin was cooked.
The vacuum-cooked stewed pumpkin was very yellow and had a bright colour. This method also made it possible to prepare stewed pumpkin with uniform physical properties (hardness) and salinity concentration. Furthermore, the vacuum-cooked stewed pumpkin was preferred over conventional cooking in flavour assessment sensory evaluation.
From the above, it can be considered that it is possible to provide high-quality stewed pumpkin in catering facilities with the effective use of the advantages of vacuum cooking.
Creating a taste within the mouth is known as "kouchuu choumi" in Japanese. Previously, the basic arrangement of a Japanese meal consisted of cooked rice （the staple food） and several side dishes. They were served separately, and a portion of rice and a portion of the side dish would be put in the mouth separately to be mixed and tasted. Kouchuu choumi is one feature of the traditional Japanese meals. This study observed eleven three-year-old children, seven five-year-old children, and fourteen adults at mealtimes, and examined the development of kouchuu choumi. It was shown that kouchuu choumi was seldom observed among young children. Both three- and five-year-old children tended to eat the same foods repeatedly. In contrast, adults frequently changed foods while eating, and kouchuu choumi was also often seen. Adults' kouchuu choumi tended to be observed when they picked up the bowl of cooked rice with their hands, and when they put a portion of rice in their mouth after eating a portion of side dishes such as fried chicken. The obtained results suggest that to attain kouchuu choumi, we should acquire various eating skills, such as the coordination of the movements of the left and right hands and proper manipulation of the utensils.
For the purpose of expanding consumption of deer meat, we conducted questionnaire survey and sensory evaluation of deer meat on college students. As a result of the questionnaire survey on 120 college students (male: 36, female: 84), students ever had eaten deer meat were less than 30%. Students have an image that the deer meat is hard and it smells bad. Also, the preference of meat varied between male and female, and male answered who wants to eat deer meat more than female, significantly. At a sensory evaluation of deer meat on 12 college students (male: 7, female: 5), it added salt koji, tea (green tea / oolong tea / black tea) and ginger for improving preference and cooked at low temperature (80℃) was evaluated. As a results, male prefers meat with higher elasticity, while female doesn't favor those with strong flavor of meat. This tendency was not recognized in in opposite sex. Both of the questionnaire survey and the sensory evaluation showed a differences between male and female, and it's suggested that male prefer deer meat more than female.
Aim: We investigated the relation of the physical conditions at birth and in infancy to the present status in the female university students, and examined the influence of feeding methods in infancy on current health condition.
Methods: We conducted anthropometric measurements for 52 female university students in the course for registered dietitian, and examined the relation of the physique at birth and during infancy to the current status. The conditions around birth and infancy were investigated using a "boshi-kenko-techo" (maternity health record book) .
Results: Birth weight was found to have no effect on the current physical condition. Although birth weight was significantly lower in the group with less maternal gestational weight gain, but did not have a significant effect on the current physical condition. Visceral fat area and skinfold thickness were significantly lower in the absolute breast milk feeding group compared to the groups with other feeding methods such as bottle feeding and mixed feeding, suggesting that breast milk feeding up to age 3 months may be important. With respect to birth order, skinfold thickness was significantly lower in the second-born students than in the first-born.
Conclusions: Physical condition at birth did not affect the current physical condition; however, the difference of nutritional methods in infancy may have influenced on it, particularly visceral and subcutaneous fat volume. Although longitudinal studies are ,necessary to elucidate the effect of nutrition during infancy on subsequent physique, it may be important to provide correct information on pregnancy, delivery, and child rearing.
The current study measured the available chlorine concentration in commercial and household chlorine bleaches (referred to here as "disinfectants") in the liquid and spray forms. The available chlorine concentration in commercial liquid disinfectants is regarded as 5%. However, the results indicated that the available chlorine concentration in commercial liquid disinfectants was 4.39-6.53%, thus the available chlorine concentration was lower than 5%. Household liquid disinfectants were purchased at different times. Liquid bleach that was purchased 1 month prior had an available chlorine concentration of 5% or higher, while liquid bleach that was purchased 6 months prior had an available chlorine concentration of less than 5%. Liquid bleach that was purchased more than 6 months prior had an available chlorine concentration of less than 5%. As time passed after the liquid bleach was purchased, the lower its available chlorine concentration. Commercial spray bleach had an available chlorine concentration of 2.02-3.08%.
Based on these findings, liquid disinfectant for norovirus disinfection must be used within 1 month of purchase, and it must be kept in a cool place. The results also suggested that a spray disinfectant diluted to the same concentration as a liquid disinfectant is not appropriate for norovirus disinfection.