We conducted an 8-year longitudinal study to investigate aging-related changes in food and nutrient intake in a cohort of elderly subjects living in an urban community, and attempted to relate food intake with vital prognosis. The first (baseline) nutrition survey was conducted in 1991 on 161 subjects (72 males and 89 females; aged 65 to 79) living in Koganei City. The second nutrition survey was conducted 8 years later in 1999. Excluding death or illness, 98 subjects (86%) were available for follow-up. Nutrition survey was conducted by a three-day dietary record method with daily home visits by dieticians. Aging-related changes in physical attributes, food intake, nutrient intake, and intake adequacy were analyzed. The relationship between nutritional intake and mortality was analyzed by Cox proportional hazard model. In the present cohort, although nutrient and food intake changes with aging, nutrient intake was higher than the recommended dietary allowances. These results show that a “diet for healthy longevity” is achieved by continuing to maintain the recommended dietary allowances despite age advancement.
We examined the skin condition effect of pre-germinated brown rice on healthy female university students. They ingested 320g of cooked pre-germinated brown rice as the staple food daily for 8 weeks. Consequently, in spite of being examined in the autumn to winter period, a significant change was not seen in the moisture content of the horny layer, the “rough skin” condition has been improved. It was proved that the tendency on the skin color showed a rise of brightness and decrease of redness by apparatus tools of analysis and the questionnaire. The moisture content of the horny layer, improvement in softness, and the rise in the amount of collagen in the skin was noted on the arm and cheek. Therefore 70% persons with the condition, “the inelastic skin”, before the examination have shown improvement by questionnaire. Moreover, as for the constipation condition, 95% have been improved by the increase in the amount of dietary fiber intake of the pre-germinated brown rice origin, along with improvement in the environment of the intestines. As a result of this study, the validity of the benefits of pre-germinated brown rice was demonstrated with the improvement of skin condition, such as the moisture content of horny layer, skin color and softness was accomplished by ingestion.
The circumstances of the home meal were investigated regarding fifth grade of the elementary school children based on their home meal photographs and drawings of the scene during supper at home. In addition to taking photographs of all meals which they ate at home for one week, they recorded what, with whom, when and where they ate, and answered some questions. Their home meal circumstances were not very good not only in nutritional balance but also in menu balance, table setting, dishing up and appearance. Their meals were poor in vegetables and fruits. The circumstances of their home meal were reflected in their drawings, which were poor in color. The body measurements, height, weight, fat % and bone mineral density, also showed that many pupils did not ingest enough nutrient from their daily meals to properly grow.
The preheating effect of dry okara on the specific loaf volume of bread containing okara was investigated. The water absorbance of okara was decreased by heat treatment. A higher heat treatment extracted a lower amount of protein from the okara. The protein with a larger molecular weight decreased at the higher temperatures. This might be caused by the denaturation/coagulation of the protein and by the decrease in solubility of the protein due to an amino-carbonyl reaction. The specific loaf volume of the okara bread increased by increasing the temperature of the okara. However, the specific loaf volumes of bread containing okara heated at 100°C and that of unheated okara were very similar. On the other hand, the hardness decreased and the cohesiveness increased by increasing the heating temperature of the okara. It was suggested that the preheating of dry okara produced a higher specific volume of the okara bread.
Using Cacao husk, a by-product of chocolate production, as a substitute for sawdust in Hericium erinaceum cultivation was investigated. 1 By replacing sawdust with Cacao husks, a substitution ratio of 25% or less is useful as a substrate. 2 It was analyzed, the proximate composition ; total dietary fiber, minerals, free monosaccharide, free disaccharide and free sugar alcohol in fruit body cultivated in the substrate substituted at 0, 50 and to 100%. The proximate composition, total dietary fiber and mineral content showed the same readings regardless of all the substrates. The total monosaccharide and total disaccharide content became higher as the substitutive ratio of cacao husk increased. On the other hand, the total sugar alcohol content decreased.
Dietary service to aged people has started in Bcity, in 2001. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a service, the survey using questionnaire sheets was conducted among 80 male and female inhabitants aged from 33 to 95 what used a dietary service. We classified the recipients of the dietary service into two groups with respect to the answer to the question “Did the service change your life style?”. Recipients who answered “Yes” (59 recipients) and those who answered “No” (21 recipients) were compared based on the differences in the recipients dietary habits, health condition, degree of satisfaction with life, ties with the community, financial situation and any changes and no change in their life. These results are summarized below. (1) An analysis using the Hayashi's Quantification II method revealed that the factors yielding a positive score for the effectiveness of the dietary service included (i) family composition where living alone or with a spouse promoted the effectiveness, (ii) a higher degree of unrest for ties with the community promoted the effectiveness, and (iii) finding fulfillment in the dietary habits. (2) Not only dietary satisfaction but also their psychosomatic health has clearly improved for recipients using the dietary service who answered that the service had changed their life style. (3) Ninety-six percent of all the recipients answered that they wanted to continue receiving the service.
We carried out a questionnaire survey of the cooking systems and food services in nursing homes for the elderly in 210 institutions in the Chugoku region and 55 institutions in large urban areas (Osaka, Kyoto, and Kobe). The cook-chill system had been introduced in 8.3% of the institutions, the vacuum cooking system in 3.0%, and the steam convection oven in 58.5%. The cooking process was significantly more frequently standardized in the institutions with a cook-chill system than in those without this system. Since the cook-chill system is introduced for improvement in the efficiency of the food production system, there may be a relationship between improvement in the efficiency of the production system and the standardization of the cooking process. Preprocessed vegetables and precooked foods were more frequently used in institutions with a cook-chill system, which suggested improvement in efficiency in the production system in terms of both the introduction of new cooking systems and the purchase forms of food ingredients. In contrast, Japanese soup powder was less frequently used in institutions with a cook-chill system than in those without a cook-chill system. Refreshment service is offered every day in 32.8% of the institutions. As food-associated support for independence, residents themselves peeled vegetables, cooked rice, and set and cleared tables in 17.0% of the institutions. Both refreshment service and food-associates support for independence were significantly more frequently provided in institutions with a cook-chill system.
Recently, though seaweed is considered to be a health food, the food culture of the seaweed is unstable, and always changes. The background and the process of thoset changes were explained concerning the age against the development of the food processing of the seaweed, and the effect on the food culture was examined using the patent gazettes for this research. A food cultural change such as sea tangle, seaweed and purple laver and agar and the change in the method of manufacture are presented.
A survey was conducted targeted at the parents of kindergarten children attending three kindergartens in the city of Fukuoka serving meals prepared at the school consisting primarily of Japanese style meals (Group A) and the parents of kindergarten children attending kindergartens serving commercially prepared lunches (Group B). Both groups were assessed for differences in intake of nutrients and so forth contained in the meals as well as differences in diet, eating habits and so on, the results of which are summarized below. 1. With respect to differences observed in the lifestyles of the children, 51% of the children in Group A went to bed after 9:00 PM, while 66% of the children in Group B went to bed after 9:00 PM, and this accounted for the largest percentage of children in that group. Thus, a trend was observed in which children tended to go to bed somewhat later in Group B (p<0.01). 2. Those nutrients that did not satisfy daily nutritional target values consisted of energy (93%) lipids (69%), vitamin D (56%) in Group A, and calcium (76%), vitamin D (49%) in Group B. 3. Energy ratios were such that the percentage of energy from protein was 18.1% and that from lipids was 20% and that from carbohydrate was 61.9% in Group A, while that from proteins was 15.4% and that from lipids was 35.3% and that from carbohydrate was 49.3% in Group B. This demonstrated that the percentage of energy from lipids is extremely low in Group A, while the percentage of energy from lipids is extremely high in Group B. The percentage of energy from lipids is extremely high in Group B and the percentage of the energy from lipid has exceeded 30% of maximums of the proper ratio of the lipid of infancy. Prepared Lunches needs to be looked again in group B 4. In Group B in which meals were provided in the form of commercially prepared lunches, it is evident that considerations are being given to nutritional factors due to the use of 30% milled rice and 70% milled rice and the use of a larger amount of fish than Group A. Conversely, at the homes of the children of Group A in which meals were prepared at the school and consisted primarily of Japanese style meals, there were higher frequencies of use of oils, wheat products and eggs as compared with Group B. Consideration of making a meal at a home which the guardian of A and a B group compensates with each supply of food heard. 5. The overall image of the meals services was such that meals were provided in Group A that emphasized a Japanese-style diet consisting mainly of grains, beans, vegetables and kelp, meals were not served that used large amounts of oil such as in deep-fried foods and the like, and were evaluated highly. In addition, the use of frozen foods and processed foods was found to be more common in Group B. 6. Changes in diet that occurred after the children had entered kindergarten consisted of improved eating habits and eating behavior in Group A as compared with Group B, and changes with respect to food in Group A were found to be considerable from the standpoint of providing meals. The supply of food based on Japanese Style Meals Prepared at School is considered to have brought the education effect of a meal to the guardian who makes a meal at home.