Ultratrace elements are usually defined as essential minerals of which requirementsare less than lmg/day for humans or less than lmg/kg diet for animals.The essentialityfor humans of manganese, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, iodine and cobalt (as acomponent of vitamin B12) is established.Noncorrin function of cobalt is recently reported.Possibly essential elements with circumstantial evidence may include lithium, boron, fluorine, aluminum, silicone, vanadium, nickel, arsenic, bromine, rubidium, cadmium, tinand lead.Further investigation may add new members to the lists of established or possiblyessential elements.In the 6th edition Japanese Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), RDA was decided for iodine, selenium, manganese, chromium and molybdenum.In addition to these 5 elements found in the Japanese RDA, the adequate intake offluorine as fluoride was determined based on its cariostatic action;arsenic, boron, nickel, silicone, and vanadium were considered possibly essential or beneficial for humans in theUS Dietary Reference Intakes.The physiological function of ultratrace elements isdiverse. The current studies on nickel nutrition are summarized as a topic in ultratrace elementnutrition.Nickel deficiency evokes retarded growth and diminished reproduction rates inrats and goats;male reproductive function abnormalities, hypertension, kidney damageand abnormal iron metabolism in rats;structural abnormalities in mitochondria of chickhepatocytes;and hyperhomocy steinemia in vitamin B12-deficient pigs.The physiologicalconcentration of nickel is known to stabilize cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (CNG) that regulate signal transduction or native function in vision, olfaction, natriuresis, blood pressure control and sperm motility.Thus, these signs of nickel deficiency may be related to the CNG function.
Dried foods have been developed over the years by our society for diets in the world.Especially, during war or shortage period, the improvised rice is the food most needed bypeople.In the Edo era, common people carried some umeboshi and a cup of salt as a foodhabit when they traveled.This was the poorer portable foods in that era. In this paper, we will try to discuss the transition of the characteristics of dried foods based on utilization and culture.
In July and November in 2000 and 2001, situation of taking soft drinks by female studentsliving in Shiga prefecture, Hanshin area, Kagoshima prefecture and Shizuokaprefecture was investigated depending on drinking opportunities, areas and seasons. Also, preferred soft drinks and situation and consciousness of taking soft drinks in relaxationtime and treatment for visitors were investigated.Then differences in the obtaineddata among areas and seasons were discussed.As a result, the following facts are clarified. 1. The situation of taking soft drinks largely differed between early summer and earlywinter.This is because, in early winter, a larger number of subjects had no drink betweenmeals and green tea was taken more frequently in meals while the frequencies oftaking water, oolong tea and barley tea were lowered, compared in early summer. 2. Differences in the situation of taking soft drinks among areas were observed bothin early summer and early winter. This is because the subjects in Shiga prefecture andHanshin area took barley tea more frequently but green tea less frequently than the subjectsin Kagoshima prefecture and Shizuoka prefecture. In Shizuoka prefecture, green tea was taken most frequently among the four areas investigated. 3. No difference was observed in preferred soft drinks between early summer andearly winter.In Shiga prefecture, preference for green tea was comparable to preferencefor black tea.In Hanshin area, many subjects preferred black tea, while many subjectspreferred green tea in Kagoshima prefecture and Shizuoka prefecture. 4. Since the images of the subjects concerning soft drinks taken at relaxation timechanged depending on seasons in Shiga prefecture and Hanshin area, a seasonal differencewas observed in the images of soft drinks taken in relaxation time. In Kagoshimaprefecture and Shizuoka prefecture, in contrast, many subjects imagined green tea bothin early summer and early winter and thus no seasonal difference was observed. 5. Since the images of the subjects concerning green tea and black tea served fortreating visitors changed depending on seasons in Shiga prefecture and Hanshin area, aseasonal difference was observed in the images of soft drinks at the treatment for visitors. In Kagoshima prefecture and Shizuoka prefecture, in contrast, many subjects imaginedgreen tea as the soft drink served for treating visitors both in early summer and early winter and thus no seasonal difference was observed.
This research examined the contents and compositions of chlorophylls, carotenoidsvitamin E, vitamin C and metals in 12 species of vegetables that included six species ofdeep-colored vegetables and six species of light-colored vegetables. Concerning the chlorophyll contents, perilla and spinach belonging to the deep-coloredvegetables contained a large amount of chlorophyll (115-175mg/100g).On the otherhand, only a small amount of chlorophylls were found in cucumber, cabbage, snap beanetc.belonging to the light-colored vegetables.Moreover, pheophytin was detected in allthe examined vegetables except for carrot. Concerning the carotenoids, perilla and spinach, belonging to the deep-colored vegetables, also contained a large amount of β-carotene (1, 550-795IU/100g). On the otherhand, small amount of β-carotene were found in cucumber, cabbage, snap bean, tomatoand sweet pepper. Furthermore, lycopene, β-carotene, and phytofuluene were detectedin tomato and carrot. Moreover, in addition to ζ-carotene, α-carotene was detected inperilla, snap bean and carrot.About xanthophylls;capsanthin, capsorubin and luteinepoxidewere identified in sweet pepper, while violaxanthin, lutein, lutein epoxide andneoxanthin were detected in the other investigated vegetables.Furthermore, the α-and β-cryptoxanthins were detected in tomato and sweet pepper. The retinol potency calculated from the β-carotene content was found to be greater than 1, 000IU/100g inperilla, garland chrysanthemum, Chinese chive, carrot and parsley belonging to the deep-colored vegetables. On the other hand, the retinol potency in cabbage, cucumber andcelery was very low (80-5IU/100g). Concerning the vitamin E contents, it was found that perilla, garland chrysanthemum, leek, parsley and spinach, belonging to the deep-colored leaf vegetables contained largeamounts (4.6-2.2mg) of vitamin E, while tomato and sweet pepper, belonging to thefruit vegetables contained relatively small amounts (0.9-0.7mg) of vitamin E.Thedeep-colored vegetables such as garland chrysanthemum, leek, parsley and spinach contained82-36mg of vitamin C.The red fruit vegetables, tomato and sweet pepper alsocontained vitamin C which seemed to accumulate during the green color stage. Concerning metals, potassium and calcium were found to be the major component followedby magnesium in all the investigated vegetables.The deep-colored vegetablescontained relatively large amounts of the metals described above.Sodium was detectedas a relatively major component in garland chrysanthemum, spinach, celery and cabbage. Iron (Fe) was detected as a small component and copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were detected as very small components in all the investigated vegetables.
To steam bun dough prepared by adding 0, 20 and 30% tartary-buckwheat flour tothe wheat flour, 20, 30 and 40% corn oil was added.The effects on the properties andtastes of the steamed buns were then examined. The following results were obtained. (1) The specific volume increased with an increase in the tartary-buckwheat flour content, but decreased with an increase in the corn oil content. (2) The water content did not show any significant difference with the added quantity ofthe added tartary-buckwheat flour, but it decreased with an increase in the corn oilcontent. (3) Hardness did not show any significant difference depending on the tartary-buckwheatflour content, but decreased with an increase in the corn oil content. (4) The cohesive force decreased with an increase in the tartary-buckwheat flour content.The tartary-buckwheat samples showed the highest value and strongest recovery. (5) As for color, by adding the tartary-buckwheat flour, the L*value decreased and thea*and b*values increased.As for chroma, this value increased as the addition increased. (6) The rutin content showed an increase as the amount of tartary-buckwheat flour increased. (7) As a result of a sensory test, no significant difference was observed depending on thetartary-buckwheat flour content when maintaining the corn oil content at a constantlevel of 20, 30 and 40%. When adding 20% tartary-buckwheat flour, the sample containing 40% corn oil acquiredthe best score in the total evaluation while the sample containing 20% corn oil had the worst score.
Survey on rice ball in the market by students of Gifu university was carried out.Analysis of free amino acid in relationship to the taste of rice ball was carried out. 1.Intake frequency of rice ball by female students was higher than for male students. 2.Over 80% of male and female students purchased rice balls at convenience stores.The proportion of rice ball containing mayonnaise accounted for a greater proportionof those purchased. 3.A high proportion of female students eat rice ball for lunch.Most students lunch off-campus. 4.Add rives to rice balls on the market include various ingredients such as acids, sweeteners, food preservatives and modifiers.Additives without standardized usage were also included. 5.Although there was a great difference in the amount of free amino acid content in therice, there was no difference between the home-made and store-bought rice ball. 6.From the results of thin layer chromatogram of the rice balls and the amount of freeamino acid used, the addition of the amino acid as a seasoned exerted an influence.Possible addition to the rice balls was also considered.
There was a variety of soybean curd and fermented foods from soybeans and river fish, and these were routinely eaten in Guizhou Province. We investigated traditionalprocessed and fermented foods with regard to the raw materials, preparation methods, how they were eaten or cooked, and distribution. The following results were obtaind. For extraction of soybean milk during the preparation of soybean curd, raw squeezingwas commonly used by soybean curd makers in Guizhou Province. Plaster was the primarycoagulating agent.Sansho, so-called sour soup, was used as the coagulating agent inthe homes of the Dong Tribe in Baojing. Minority tribes kept a stock of it prepared by fermenting water in which glutinous ricehad been polished and used it to season soup and pickles.Natto comprised two kinds ofun-salted and salted fermented soybeans in Guizhou Province. Un-salted fermented soybeanswere distributed in Guiyang Capital City, and Southeast Guizhou Province theMiao and Dong Tribes Autonomous Prefecture. In preparing fermented fish, the Miao and Dong Tribes dehydrated fish by salting orbroiling over a low flame, and the fermentation medium was either glutinous rice, whichcontained koji or shitogi, which was fermented raw glutinous rice powder. In homes ofthe Dong Tribe in Baojing, this shitogi was stored in jars.In Guizhou Province, shitogiwas routinely cooked and eaten.