Until now, Japan has been able to procure any amount of high quality food at low prices from overseas. However, as the international food market become more volatile in the 2000s, the three stability of "price”, "quality” and "supply” that Japan has enjoyed so fa can no longer be guaranteed. Consumers are increasingly looking to domestic agriculture. But can Japanese agriculture meet these consumer expectations? Should Japanese Agriculture Policy Should Support Small-Scale Farmers Compatible with Nature in intermediate Regions in the Future? In area where conditions are unfavorable, the scale of management is unnecessarily expanded, aiming to improve management productivity by combing management and livestock production centered on rice cultivation. In other words, promoting agricultural reform based on tradition.
During the period of Heisei, the habit of eating out increased to 45% of the total population. At present, nearly fifty percent of meal in the form of eating out exists in Japan. Specially, the dietary style of urban area has become easier and convenient in terms of supply of food. Simultaneously, natural disasters as earthquakes, volcanoes, typhoon etc. are in increasing trend due to the global warming effect. Once the disaster occurs, life line infrastructures are either interrupted or damaged and communication networks as well as food supply chains are interrupted. And, normal life styles as well as business activities are affected.
The presumption of the occurrences of the earthquake disaster in the metropolitan and the great cities of Kanto region, there exists anxiety on delay and prolonged delay on recovery of commodities supply in such cities. In such circumstances, resumption of the commodities is expected as per the execution of business continuity plan (BCP). There is a need of proper supply of food not only to the residents and the refugee in shelter, but also to the BCP personnel who works to revive interrupted or damaged infrastructures. This study emphasizes to make habitual to use disaster food as well as normal food and goods at the time of disaster period and to evaluate the hardship experienced by refugee about dietary habit.
Consumers are highly concerned about food safety and security. Above all, food poisoning has not slowed down despite the social environment as a developed country, and fatalities occur every year. In Japan, an emergency response has been established based on a prospect of damage spread. On the other hand, the number of complaints from consumers has increased as the number of foods that claim new functionality has increased, and especially the number of complaints involving harm is the largest among all products. As for health foods, several issues to be considered is beginning to appear, including newly-developed Foods with Function Claims, and businesses is beginning to respond these issues. In addition, food labeling significantly changed by the Food Labeling Act in some respects, and under the jurisdiction of the Consumer Affairs Agency, the Act will be fully implemented to ensure consumer safety and voluntary and rational choices. We are paying attention to the progress just before the full implementation.
Based on The Health Japan 21 (the second term), which is the National Health Promotion plan, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare have been promoting health promotion according to life stages, including prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, involving the community and workplace. In order to further extend the healthy life expectancy, we compiled "The Healthy Life Extension Plan” in May 2019. To improve nutrition and dietary habits, it is important to create an environment where people can access healthy diet. This requires collaborating that all stakeholders, including government, business and academia.
In this paper, based on the guidelines for prevention of atherosclerotic diseases and research reports on dietary habits inside and outside, the changes of dietary habits in lifestyle-related diseases in the Heisei era and future problems were described focusing on dyslipidemia. Targets for cholesterol intake and serum LDL cholesterol for the prevention of atherosclerotic diseases have not been established. In order to solve the problems raised during the Heisei period, the increase of evidence is necessary in the future.
Frozen foods have been in use for 60 years. In recent years, the quality for commercial frozen food has been rated high from consumers and has become indispensable to the dietary habits of many consumers. In addition, home freezing, in which food is frozen by individuals, has gradually penetrated, and has been seen as one of cooking methods as well as for storage purposes. The use of frozen foods and home freezing are equivalence in the principle of freezing. Therefore, if consumers understand the principle well and take advantage of the advantages of home freezing and frozen foods, it can be expected that reduction of food loss, time, and eating habits will become not only effective style but also satisfied.
Food distribution and quality control method have been changed drastically after the promulgation of so called "Cold Chain Council, CCC” in Japan. The Resource Research Committee, Shigen-chosakai in Japanese, under the Science and Technology Agency issued the CCC in 1965 as the guidance/recommendation of producing, harvesting, handling, grading, packaging, transporting, and storing of food to supply high quality food aiming at the promotion of human health in Japan. To realize the concepts of CCC, various researches and developments for establishing modern methods of food distribution and quality control measures have been tried. In this manuscript, several key technologies including precooling, cold storage and transportation, packaging, and gas composition control for fresh fruits and vegetables to keep quality have been discussed to illustrate current status. In the last 30 years, several technologies have also been created to meet the social/consumer requirements such as high quality, convenience and long-life. In the recent years, good practices (e.g., good agricultural practices, GAP) for assuring the safety of agricultural produces have been receiving attention. As an example of new frame work for food quality assurance system namely "Time Environmental Tolerance” system is introduced for the future perspective of food supply chain.
Many of the improvements in cooking appliance performance were achieved in Showa era. The changes and improvements history of typical cooking appliances in the Heisei era were as follows.
Refrigerator-freezer: Revolutionary energy-saving effect was achieved by covering the outer wall with a vacuum insulating material that has a high heat-insulating effect. Gas stove (cooktop) : Standard equipped with Si (Safety and Intelligent) sensor that promises safety. IH cooking heater: Released all-metal cooking heater that can use aluminum and copper pots. Microwave oven: Released flat type without turntable, and water oven that bake foods with heated steam. Bread maker: Released bread maker that makes bread from rice grains. Dishwasher: Released compact, low-priced tabletop type. Hot water supply: Released high-efficiency water heater that produces hot water with a small amount of electricity or gas.
As of 2015, cooking appliances with penetration rate of 90% or more were refrigerators, microwave ovens, steam rice cookers, 60% or more were toaster ovens, electric griddles, electric kettles, and 30% or more were juicers, coffee makers, dishwashers.
Plant breeding thought to have been conducted from very old days and it has big influence for the eating habits of human beings. Seed industry, which make new varieties and provide these seeds to farmers and consequently provide vegetable and flowers to customer are introduced. And it is also introduced how the plants breeding are conducted at private seed company referring Sakata Seed Corporation as an example.
And it is also shown that some variety had a big impact on the Japanese eating habits.